12 CFR § 221.111 - Contribution to joint venture as extension of credit when the contribution is disproportionate to the contributor's share in the venture's profits or losses.
(a) The Board considered the question whether a joint venture, structured so that the amount of capital contribution to the venture would be disproportionate to the right of participation in profits or losses, constitutes an “extension of credit” for the purpose of this part.
(b) An individual and a corporation plan to establish a joint venture to engage in the business of buying and selling securities, including margin stock. The individual would contribute 20 percent of the capital and receive 80 percent of the profits or losses; the corporate share would be the reverse. In computing profits or losses, each participant would first receive interest at the rate of 8 percent on his respective capital contribution. Although purchases and sales would be mutually agreed upon, the corporation could liquidate the joint portfolio if the individual's share of the losses equaled or exceeded his 20 percent contribution to the venture. The corporation would hold the securities, and upon termination of the venture, the assets would first be applied to repayment of capital contributions.
(c) In general, the relationship of joint venture is created when two or more persons combine their money, property, or time in the conduct of some particular line of trade or some particular business and agree to share jointly, or in proportion to capital contributed, the profits and losses of the undertaking.
(d) The incidents of the joint venture described in paragraph (b) of this section, however, closely parallel those of an extension of margin credit, with the corporation as lender and the individual as borrower. The corporation supplies 80 percent of the purchase price of securities in exchange for a net return of 8 percent of the amount advanced plus 20 percent of any gain. Like a lender of securities credit, the corporation is insulated against loss by retaining the right to liquidate the collateral before the securities decline in price below the amount of its contribution. Conversely, the individual - like a customer who borrows to purchase securities - puts up only 20 percent of their cost, is entitled to the principal portion of any appreciation in their value, bears the principal risk of loss should that value decline, and does not stand to gain or lose except through a change in value of the securities purchased.
(e) The Board is of the opinion that where the right of an individual to share in profits and losses of such a joint venture is disproportionate to his contribution to the venture:
(1) The joint venture involves an extension of credit by the corporation to the individual;
(3) If the corporation is not a broker or dealer subject to Regulation T (12 CFR part 220), the credit is of the kind described by § 221.3(a).
The following state regulations pages link to this page.