12 CFR 226.1 - Authority, purpose, coverage, organization, enforcement, and liability.
(a) Authority. This regulation, known as Regulation Z, is issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to implement the federal Truth in Lending Act, which is contained in title I of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.). This regulation also implements title XII, section 1204 of the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987 (Pub. L. 100-86, 101 Stat. 552). Information-collection requirements contained in this regulation have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under the provisions of 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and have been assigned OMB No. 7100-0199.
(b) Purpose. The purpose of this regulation is to promote the informed use of consumer credit by requiring disclosures about its terms and cost. The regulation also includes substantive protections. It gives consumers the right to cancel certain credit transactions that involve a lien on a consumer's principal dwelling, regulates certain credit card practices, and provides a means for fair and timely resolution of credit billing disputes. The regulation does not generally govern charges for consumer credit, except that several provisions in Subpart G set forth special rules addressing certain charges applicable to credit card accounts under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan. The regulation requires a maximum interest rate to be stated in variable-rate contracts secured by the consumer's dwelling. It also imposes limitations on home-equity plans that are subject to the requirements of § 226.5b and mortgages that are subject to the requirements of § 226.32. The regulation prohibits certain acts or practices in connection with credit secured by a dwelling in § 226.36, and credit secured by a consumer's principal dwelling in § 226.35. The regulation also regulates certain practices of creditors who extend private education loans as defined in § 226.46(b)(5).
(c) Coverage. (1) In general, this regulation applies to each individual or business that offers or extends credit when four conditions are met:
(i) The credit is offered or extended to consumers;
(ii) The offering or extension of credit is done regularly; 1
(iii) The credit is subject to a finance charge or is payable by a written agreement in more than four installments; and
(iv) The credit is primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.
(2) If a credit card is involved, however, certain provisions apply even if the credit is not subject to a finance charge, or is not payable by a written agreement in more than four installments, or if the credit card is to be used for business purposes.
(3) In addition, certain requirements of § 226.5b apply to persons who are not creditors but who provide applications for home-equity plans to consumers.
(4) Furthermore, certain requirements of § 226.57 apply to institutions of higher education.
(d) Organization. The regulation is divided into subparts and appendices as follows:
(1) Subpart A contains general information. It sets forth:
(i) The authority, purpose, coverage, and organization of the regulation;
(ii) The definitions of basic terms;
(iii) The transactions that are exempt from coverage; and
(iv) The method of determining the finance charge.
(2) Subpart B contains the rules for open-end credit. It requires that account-opening disclosures and periodic statements be provided, as well as additional disclosures for credit and charge card applications and solicitations and for home-equity plans subject to the requirements of § 226.5a and § 226.5b, respectively. It also describes special rules that apply to credit card transactions, treatment of payments and credit balances, procedures for resolving credit billing errors, annual percentage rate calculations, rescission requirements, and advertising.
(3) Subpart C relates to closed-end credit. It contains rules on disclosures, treatment of credit balances, annual percentages rate calculations, rescission requirements, and advertising.
(4) Subpart D contains rules on oral disclosures, disclosures in languages other than English, record retention, effect on state laws, state exemptions, and rate limitations.
(5) Subpart E contains special rules for mortgage transactions. Section 226.32 requires certain disclosures and provides limitations for closed-end loans that have rates or fees above specified amounts. Section 226.33 requires special disclosures, including the total annual loan cost rate, for reverse mortgage transactions. Section 226.34 prohibits specific acts and practices in connection with closed-end mortgage transactions that are subject to § 226.32. Section 226.35 prohibits specific acts and practices in connection with closed-end higher-priced mortgage loans, as defined in § 226.35(a). Section 226.36 prohibits specific acts and practices in connection with an extension of credit secured by a dwelling.
(6) Subpart F relates to private education loans. It contains rules on disclosures, limitations on changes in terms after approval, the right to cancel the loan, and limitations on co-branding in the marketing of private education loans.
(7) Subpart G relates to credit card accounts under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan (except for § 226.57(c), which applies to all open-end credit plans). Section 226.51 contains rules on evaluation of a consumer's ability to make the required payments under the terms of an account. Section 226.52 limits the fees that a consumer can be required to pay with respect to an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan during the first year after account opening. Section 226.53 contains rules on allocation of payments in excess of the minimum payment. Section 226.54 sets forth certain limitations on the imposition of finance charges as the result of a loss of a grace period. Section 226.55 contains limitations on increases in annual percentage rates, fees, and charges for credit card accounts. Section 226.56 prohibits the assessment of fees or charges for over-the-limit transactions unless the consumer affirmatively consents to the creditor's payment of over-the-limit transactions. Section 226.57 sets forth rules for reporting and marketing of college student open-end credit. Section 226.58 sets forth requirements for the Internet posting of credit card accounts under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan.
(8) Several appendices contain information such as the procedures for determinations about state laws, state exemptions and issuance of staff interpretations, special rules for certain kinds of credit plans, a list of enforcement agencies, and the rules for computing annual percentage rates in closed-end credit transactions and total-annual-loan-cost rates for reverse mortgage transactions.
(e) Enforcement and liability. Section 108 of the act contains the administrative enforcement provisions. Sections 112, 113, 130, 131, and 134 contain provisions relating to liability for failure to comply with the requirements of the act and the regulation. Section 1204 (c) of title XII of the Competitive Equality Banking Act of 1987, Public Law 100-86, 101 Stat. 552, incorporates by reference administrative enforcement and civil liability provisions of sections 108 and 130 of the act.