12 CFR 234.2 - Definitions.
(a)Backtest means the ex post comparison of realized outcomes with margin model forecasts to analyze and monitor model performance and overall margin coverage.
(b)Central counterparty means an entity that interposes itself between counterparties to contracts traded in one or more financial markets, becoming the buyer to every seller and the seller to every buyer.
(c)Central securities depository means an entity that provides securities accounts and central safekeeping services.
(d)Designated financial market utility means a financial market utility that is currently designated by the Financial Stability Oversight Council under section 804 of the Dodd-Frank Act ( 12 U.S.C. 5463).
(e)Financial market utility has the same meaning as the term is defined in section 803(6) of the Dodd-Frank Act ( 12 U.S.C. 5462(6)).
(f)Link means, for purposes of § 234.3(a)(20), a set of contractual and operational arrangements between two or more central counterparties, central securities depositories, or securities settlement systems, or between one or more of these financial market utilities and one or more trade repositories, that connect them directly or indirectly, such as for the purposes of participating in settlement, cross margining, or expanding their services to additional instruments and participants.
(g)Orderly wind-down means the actions of a designated financial market utility to effect the permanent cessation, sale, or transfer of one or more of its critical operations or services in a manner that would not increase the risk of significant liquidity or credit problems spreading among financial institutions or markets and thereby threaten the stability of the U.S. financial system.
(h)Recovery means, for purposes of § 234.3(a)(3) and (15), the actions of a designated financial market utility, consistent with its rules, procedures, and other ex ante contractual arrangements, to address any uncovered loss, liquidity shortfall, or capital inadequacy, whether arising from participant default or other causes (such as business, operational, or other structural weaknesses), including actions to replenish any depleted prefunded financial resources and liquidity arrangements, as necessary to maintain the designated financial market utility's viability as a going concern and to continue its provision of critical services.
(i)Securities settlement system means an entity that enables securities to be transferred and settled by book entry and allows transfers of securities free of or against payment.
(j)Stress test means the estimation of credit or liquidity exposures that would result from the realization of potential stress scenarios, such as extreme price changes, multiple defaults, and changes in other valuation inputs and assumptions.
(k)Supervisory Agency has the same meaning as the term is defined in section 803(8) of the Dodd-Frank Act ( 12 U.S.C. 5462(8)).
(l)Trade repository means an entity that maintains a centralized electronic record of transaction data, such as a swap data repository or a security-based swap data repository.