12 CFR § 248.10 - Prohibition on acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in and having certain relationships with a covered fund.

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§ 248.10 Prohibition on acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in and having certain relationships with a covered fund.

(a) Prohibition.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, a banking entity may not, as principal, directly or indirectly, acquire or retain any ownership interest in or sponsor a covered fund.

(2) Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not include acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in a covered fund by a banking entity:

(i) Acting solely as agent, broker, or custodian, so long as;

(A) The activity is conducted for the account of, or on behalf of, a customer; and

(B) The banking entity and its affiliates do not have or retain beneficial ownership of such ownership interest;

(ii) Through a deferred compensation, stock-bonus, profit-sharing, or pension plan of the banking entity (or an affiliate thereof) that is established and administered in accordance with the law of the United States or a foreign sovereign, if the ownership interest is held or controlled directly or indirectly by the banking entity as trustee for the benefit of persons who are or were employees of the banking entity (or an affiliate thereof);

(iii) In the ordinary course of collecting a debt previously contracted in good faith, provided that the banking entity divests the ownership interest as soon as practicable, and in no event may the banking entity retain such ownership interest for longer than such period permitted by the Board; or

(iv) On behalf of customers as trustee or in a similar fiduciary capacity for a customer that is not a covered fund, so long as:

(A) The activity is conducted for the account of, or on behalf of, the customer; and

(B) The banking entity and its affiliates do not have or retain beneficial ownership of such ownership interest.

(b) Definition of covered fund.

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, covered fund means:

(i) An issuer that would be an investment company, as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq.), but for section 3(c)(1) or 3(c)(7) of that Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(c)(1) or (7));

(ii) Any commodity pool under section 1a(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act (7 U.S.C. 1a(10)) for which:

(A) The commodity pool operator has claimed an exemption under 17 CFR 4.7; or

(B)(1) A commodity pool operator is registered with the CFTC as a commodity pool operator in connection with the operation of the commodity pool;

(2) Substantially all participation units of the commodity pool are owned by qualified eligible persons under 17 CFR 4.7(a)(2) and (3); and

(3) Participation units of the commodity pool have not been publicly offered to persons who are not qualified eligible persons under 17 CFR 4.7(a)(2) and (3); or

(iii) For any banking entity that is, or is controlled directly or indirectly by a banking entity that is, located in or organized under the laws of the United States or of any State, an entity that:

(A) Is organized or established outside the United States and the ownership interests of which are offered and sold solely outside the United States;

(B) Is, or holds itself out as being, an entity or arrangement that raises money from investors primarily for the purpose of investing in securities for resale or other disposition or otherwise trading in securities; and

(C)(1) Has as its sponsor that banking entity (or an affiliate thereof); or

(2) Has issued an ownership interest that is owned directly or indirectly by that banking entity (or an affiliate thereof).

(2) An issuer shall not be deemed to be a covered fund under paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section if, were the issuer subject to U.S. securities laws, the issuer could rely on an exclusion or exemption from the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq.) other than the exclusions contained in section 3(c)(1) and 3(c)(7) of that Act.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, a U.S. branch, agency, or subsidiary of a foreign banking entity is located in the United States; however, the foreign bank that operates or controls that branch, agency, or subsidiary is not considered to be located in the United States solely by virtue of operating or controlling the U.S. branch, agency, or subsidiary.

(c) Notwithstanding paragraph (b) of this section, unless the appropriate Federal banking agencies, the SEC, and the CFTC jointly determine otherwise, a covered fund does not include:

(1) Foreign public funds.

(i) Subject to paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) and (iii) of this section, an issuer that:

(A) Is organized or established outside of the United States; and

(B) Is authorized to offer and sell ownership interests, and such interests are offered and sold, through one or more public offerings.

(ii) With respect to a banking entity that is, or is controlled directly or indirectly by a banking entity that is, located in or organized under the laws of the United States or of any State and any issuer for which such banking entity acts as sponsor, the sponsoring banking entity may not rely on the exemption in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section for such issuer unless more than 75 percent of the ownership interests in the issuer are sold to persons other than:

(A) Such sponsoring banking entity;

(B) Such issuer;

(C) Affiliates of such sponsoring banking entity or such issuer; and

(D) Directors and senior executive officers as defined in § 225.71(c) of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.71(c)) of such entities.

(iii) For purposes of paragraph (c)(1)(i)(B) of this section, the term “public offering” means a distribution (as defined in § 248.4(a)(3)) of securities in any jurisdiction outside the United States to investors, including retail investors, provided that:

(A) The distribution is subject to substantive disclosure and retail investor protection laws or regulations;

(B) With respect to an issuer for which the banking entity serves as the investment manager, investment adviser, commodity trading advisor, commodity pool operator, or sponsor, the distribution complies with all applicable requirements in the jurisdiction in which such distribution is being made;

(C) The distribution does not restrict availability to investors having a minimum level of net worth or net investment assets; and

(D) The issuer has filed or submitted, with the appropriate regulatory authority in such jurisdiction, offering disclosure documents that are publicly available.

(2) Wholly-owned subsidiaries. An entity, all of the outstanding ownership interests of which are owned directly or indirectly by the banking entity (or an affiliate thereof), except that:

(i) Up to five percent of the entity's outstanding ownership interests, less any amounts outstanding under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, may be held by employees or directors of the banking entity or such affiliate (including former employees or directors if their ownership interest was acquired while employed by or in the service of the banking entity); and

(ii) Up to 0.5 percent of the entity's outstanding ownership interests may be held by a third party if the ownership interest is acquired or retained by the third party for the purpose of establishing corporate separateness or addressing bankruptcy, insolvency, or similar concerns.

(3) Joint ventures. A joint venture between a banking entity or any of its affiliates and one or more unaffiliated persons, provided that the joint venture:

(i) Is composed of no more than 10 unaffiliated co-venturers;

(ii) Is in the business of engaging in activities that are permissible for the banking entity or affiliate, other than investing in securities for resale or other disposition; and

(iii) Is not, and does not hold itself out as being, an entity or arrangement that raises money from investors primarily for the purpose of investing in securities for resale or other disposition or otherwise trading in securities.

(4) Acquisition vehicles. An issuer:

(i) Formed solely for the purpose of engaging in a bona fide merger or acquisition transaction; and

(ii) That exists only for such period as necessary to effectuate the transaction.

(5) Foreign pension or retirement funds. A plan, fund, or program providing pension, retirement, or similar benefits that is:

(i) Organized and administered outside the United States;

(ii) A broad-based plan for employees or citizens that is subject to regulation as a pension, retirement, or similar plan under the laws of the jurisdiction in which the plan, fund, or program is organized and administered; and

(iii) Established for the benefit of citizens or residents of one or more foreign sovereigns or any political subdivision thereof.

(6) Insurance company separate accounts. A separate account, provided that no banking entity other than the insurance company participates in the account's profits and losses.

(7) Bank owned life insurance. A separate account that is used solely for the purpose of allowing one or more banking entities to purchase a life insurance policy for which the banking entity or entities is beneficiary, provided that no banking entity that purchases the policy:

(i) Controls the investment decisions regarding the underlying assets or holdings of the separate account; or

(ii) Participates in the profits and losses of the separate account other than in compliance with applicable requirements regarding bank owned life insurance.

(8) Loan securitizations -

(i) Scope. An issuing entity for asset-backed securities that satisfies all the conditions of this paragraph (c)(8) and the assets or holdings of which are composed solely of:

(A) Loans as defined in § 248.2(t);

(B) Rights or other assets designed to assure the servicing or timely distribution of proceeds to holders of such securities and rights or other assets that are related or incidental to purchasing or otherwise acquiring and holding the loans, provided that each asset that is a security (other than special units of beneficial interest and collateral certificates meeting the requirements of paragraph (c)(8)(v) of this section) meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(8)(iii) of this section;

(C) Interest rate or foreign exchange derivatives that meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(8)(iv) of this section;

(D) Special units of beneficial interest and collateral certificates that meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(8)(v) of this section; and

(E) Debt securities, other than asset-backed securities and convertible securities, provided that:

(1) The aggregate value of such debt securities does not exceed five percent of the aggregate value of loans held under paragraph (c)(8)(i)(A) of this section, cash and cash equivalents held under paragraph (c)(8)(iii)(A) of this section, and debt securities held under this paragraph (c)(8)(i)(E); and

(2) The aggregate value of the loans, cash and cash equivalents, and debt securities for purposes of this paragraph is calculated at par value at the most recent time any such debt security is acquired, except that the issuing entity may instead determine the value of any such loan, cash equivalent, or debt security based on its fair market value if:

(i) The issuing entity is required to use the fair market value of such assets for purposes of calculating compliance with concentration limitations or other similar calculations under its transaction agreements, and

(ii) The issuing entity's valuation methodology values similarly situated assets consistently.

(ii) Impermissible assets. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(8), except as permitted under paragraph (c)(8)(i)(E) of this section, the assets or holdings of the issuing entity shall not include any of the following:

(A) A security, including an asset-backed security, or an interest in an equity or debt security other than as permitted in paragraphs (c)(8)(iii), (iv), or (v) of this section;

(B) A derivative, other than a derivative that meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(8)(iv) of this section; or

(C) A commodity forward contract.

(iii) Permitted securities. Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(8)(ii)(A) of this section, the issuing entity may hold securities, other than debt securities permitted under paragraph (c)(8)(i)(E) of this section, if those securities are:

(A) Cash equivalents - which, for the purposes of this paragraph, means high quality, highly liquid investments whose maturity corresponds to the securitization's expected or potential need for funds and whose currency corresponds to either the underlying loans or the asset-backed securities - for purposes of the rights and assets in paragraph (c)(8)(i)(B) of this section; or

(B) Securities received in lieu of debts previously contracted with respect to the loans supporting the asset-backed securities.

(iv) Derivatives. The holdings of derivatives by the issuing entity shall be limited to interest rate or foreign exchange derivatives that satisfy all of the following conditions:

(A) The written terms of the derivatives directly relate to the loans, the asset-backed securities, the contractual rights or other assets described in paragraph (c)(8)(i)(B) of this section, or the debt securities described in paragraph (c)(8)(i)(E) of this section; and

(B) The derivatives reduce the interest rate and/or foreign exchange risks related to the loans, the asset-backed securities, the contractual rights or other assets described in paragraph (c)(8)(i)(B) of this section, or the debt securities described in paragraph (c)(8)(i)(E) of this section.

(v) Special units of beneficial interest and collateral certificates. The assets or holdings of the issuing entity may include collateral certificates and special units of beneficial interest issued by a special purpose vehicle, provided that:

(A) The special purpose vehicle that issues the special unit of beneficial interest or collateral certificate meets the requirements in this paragraph (c)(8);

(B) The special unit of beneficial interest or collateral certificate is used for the sole purpose of transferring to the issuing entity for the loan securitization the economic risks and benefits of the assets that are permissible for loan securitizations under this paragraph (c)(8) and does not directly or indirectly transfer any interest in any other economic or financial exposure;

(C) The special unit of beneficial interest or collateral certificate is created solely to satisfy legal requirements or otherwise facilitate the structuring of the loan securitization; and

(D) The special purpose vehicle that issues the special unit of beneficial interest or collateral certificate and the issuing entity are established under the direction of the same entity that initiated the loan securitization.

(9) Qualifying asset-backed commercial paper conduits.

(i) An issuing entity for asset-backed commercial paper that satisfies all of the following requirements:

(A) The asset-backed commercial paper conduit holds only:

(1) Loans and other assets permissible for a loan securitization under paragraph (c)(8)(i) of this section; and

(2) Asset-backed securities supported solely by assets that are permissible for loan securitizations under paragraph (c)(8)(i) of this section and acquired by the asset-backed commercial paper conduit as part of an initial issuance either directly from the issuing entity of the asset-backed securities or directly from an underwriter in the distribution of the asset-backed securities;

(B) The asset-backed commercial paper conduit issues only asset-backed securities, comprised of a residual interest and securities with a legal maturity of 397 days or less; and

(C) A regulated liquidity provider has entered into a legally binding commitment to provide full and unconditional liquidity coverage with respect to all of the outstanding asset-backed securities issued by the asset-backed commercial paper conduit (other than any residual interest) in the event that funds are required to redeem maturing asset-backed securities.

(ii) For purposes of this paragraph (c)(9), a regulated liquidity provider means:

(A) A depository institution, as defined in section 3(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(c));

(B) A bank holding company, as defined in section 2(a) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841(a)), or a subsidiary thereof;

(C) A savings and loan holding company, as defined in section 10a of the Home Owners' Loan Act (12 U.S.C. 1467a), provided all or substantially all of the holding company's activities are permissible for a financial holding company under section 4(k) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1843(k)), or a subsidiary thereof;

(D) A foreign bank whose home country supervisor, as defined in § 211.21(q) of the Board's Regulation K (12 CFR 211.21(q)), has adopted capital standards consistent with the Capital Accord for the Basel Committee on banking Supervision, as amended, and that is subject to such standards, or a subsidiary thereof; or

(E) The United States or a foreign sovereign.

(10) Qualifying covered bonds -

(i) Scope. An entity owning or holding a dynamic or fixed pool of loans or other assets as provided in paragraph (c)(8) of this section for the benefit of the holders of covered bonds, provided that the assets in the pool are composed solely of assets that meet the conditions in paragraph (c)(8)(i) of this section.

(ii) Covered bond. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(10), a covered bond means:

(A) A debt obligation issued by an entity that meets the definition of foreign banking organization, the payment obligations of which are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by an entity that meets the conditions set forth in paragraph (c)(10)(i) of this section; or

(B) A debt obligation of an entity that meets the conditions set forth in paragraph (c)(10)(i) of this section, provided that the payment obligations are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by an entity that meets the definition of foreign banking organization and the entity is a wholly-owned subsidiary, as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, of such foreign banking organization.

(11) SBICs and public welfare investment funds. An issuer:

(i) That is a small business investment company, as defined in section 103(3) of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 (15 U.S.C. 662), or that has received from the Small Business Administration notice to proceed to qualify for a license as a small business investment company, which notice or license has not been revoked, or that has voluntarily surrendered its license to operate as a small business investment company in accordance with 13 CFR 107.1900 and does not make any new investments (other than investments in cash equivalents, which, for the purposes of this paragraph, means high quality, highly liquid investments whose maturity corresponds to the issuer's expected or potential need for funds and whose currency corresponds to the issuer's assets) after such voluntary surrender;

(ii) The business of which is to make investments that are:

(A) Designed primarily to promote the public welfare, of the type permitted under paragraph (11) of section 5136 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (12 U.S.C. 24), including the welfare of low- and moderate-income communities or families (such as providing housing, services, or jobs) and including investments that qualify for consideration under the regulations implementing the Community Reinvestment Act (12 U.S.C. 2901 et seq.); or

(B) Qualified rehabilitation expenditures with respect to a qualified rehabilitated building or certified historic structure, as such terms are defined in section 47 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 or a similar State historic tax credit program;

(iii) That has elected to be regulated or is regulated as a rural business investment company, as described in 15 U.S.C. 80b-3(b)(8)(A) or (B), or that has terminated its participation as a rural business investment company in accordance with 7 CFR 4290.1900 and does not make any new investments (other than investments in cash equivalents, which, for the purposes of this paragraph, means high quality, highly liquid investments whose maturity corresponds to the issuer's expected or potential need for funds and whose currency corresponds to the issuer's assets) after such termination; or

(iv) That is a qualified opportunity fund, as defined in 26 U.S.C. 1400Z-2(d)

(12) Registered investment companies and excluded entities. An issuer:

(i) That is registered as an investment company under section 8 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-8), or that is formed and operated pursuant to a written plan to become a registered investment company as described in § 248.20(e)(3) of subpart D and that complies with the requirements of section 18 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-18);

(ii) That may rely on an exclusion or exemption from the definition of “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq.) other than the exclusions contained in section 3(c)(1) and 3(c)(7) of that Act; or

(iii) That has elected to be regulated as a business development company pursuant to section 54(a) of that Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-53) and has not withdrawn its election, or that is formed and operated pursuant to a written plan to become a business development company as described in § 248.20(e)(3) of subpart D and that complies with the requirements of section 61 of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-60).

(13) Issuers in conjunction with the FDIC's receivership or conservatorship operations. An issuer that is an entity formed by or on behalf of the FDIC for the purpose of facilitating the disposal of assets acquired in the FDIC's capacity as conservator or receiver under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act or Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

(14) Other excluded issuers.

(i) Any issuer that the appropriate Federal banking agencies, the SEC, and the CFTC jointly determine the exclusion of which is consistent with the purposes of section 13 of the BHC Act.

(ii) A determination made under paragraph (c)(14)(i) of this section will be promptly made public.

(15) Credit funds. Subject to paragraphs (c)(15)(iii), (iv), and (v) of this section, an issuer that satisfies the asset and activity requirements of paragraphs (c)(15)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Asset requirements. The issuer's assets must be composed solely of:

(A) Loans as defined in § 248.2(t);

(B) Debt instruments, subject to paragraph (c)(15)(iv) of this section;

(C) Rights and other assets that are related or incidental to acquiring, holding, servicing, or selling such loans or debt instruments, provided that:

(1) Each right or asset held under this paragraph (c)(15)(i)(C) that is a security is either:

(i) A cash equivalent (which, for the purposes of this paragraph, means high quality, highly liquid investments whose maturity corresponds to the issuer's expected or potential need for funds and whose currency corresponds to either the underlying loans or the debt instruments);

(ii) A security received in lieu of debts previously contracted with respect to such loans or debt instruments; or

(iii) An equity security (or right to acquire an equity security) received on customary terms in connection with such loans or debt instruments; and

(2) Rights or other assets held under this paragraph (c)(15)(i)(C) of this section may not include commodity forward contracts or any derivative; and

(D) Interest rate or foreign exchange derivatives, if:

(1) The written terms of the derivative directly relate to the loans, debt instruments, or other rights or assets described in paragraph (c)(15)(i)(C) of this section; and

(2) The derivative reduces the interest rate and/or foreign exchange risks related to the loans, debt instruments, or other rights or assets described in paragraph (c)(15)(i)(C) of this section.

(ii) Activity requirements. To be eligible for the exclusion of paragraph (c)(15) of this section, an issuer must:

(A) Not engage in any activity that would constitute proprietary trading under § 248.3(b)(l)(i), as if the issuer were a banking entity; and

(B) Not issue asset-backed securities.

(iii) Requirements for a sponsor, investment adviser, or commodity trading advisor. A banking entity that acts as a sponsor, investment adviser, or commodity trading advisor to an issuer that meets the conditions in paragraphs (c)(15)(i) and (ii) of this section may not rely on this exclusion unless the banking entity:

(A) Provides in writing to any prospective and actual investor in the issuer the disclosures required under § 248.11(a)(8) of this subpart, as if the issuer were a covered fund;

(B) Ensures that the activities of the issuer are consistent with safety and soundness standards that are substantially similar to those that would apply if the banking entity engaged in the activities directly; and

(C) Complies with the limitations imposed in § 248.14, as if the issuer were a covered fund, except the banking entity may acquire and retain any ownership interest in the issuer.

(iv) Additional Banking Entity Requirements. A banking entity may not rely on this exclusion with respect to an issuer that meets the conditions in paragraphs (c)(15)(i) and (ii) of this section unless:

(A) The banking entity does not, directly or indirectly, guarantee, assume, or otherwise insure the obligations or performance of the issuer or of any entity to which such issuer extends credit or in which such issuer invests; and

(B) Any assets the issuer holds pursuant to paragraphs (c)(15)(i)(B) or (i)(C)(1)(iii) of this section would be permissible for the banking entity to acquire and hold directly under applicable federal banking laws and regulations.

(v) Investment and Relationship Limits. A banking entity's investment in, and relationship with, the issuer must:

(A) Comply with the limitations imposed in § 248.15, as if the issuer were a covered fund; and

(B) Be conducted in compliance with, and subject to, applicable banking laws and regulations, including applicable safety and soundness standards.

(16) Qualifying venture capital funds.

(i) Subject to paragraphs (c)(16)(ii) through (iv) of this section, an issuer that:

(A) Is a venture capital fund as defined in 17 CFR 275.203(l)-1; and

(B) Does not engage in any activity that would constitute proprietary trading under § 248.3(b)(1)(i), as if the issuer were a banking entity.

(ii) A banking entity that acts as a sponsor, investment adviser, or commodity trading advisor to an issuer that meets the conditions in paragraph (c)(16)(i) of this section may not rely on this exclusion unless the banking entity:

(A) Provides in writing to any prospective and actual investor in the issuer the disclosures required under § 248.11(a)(8), as if the issuer were a covered fund;

(B) Ensures that the activities of the issuer are consistent with safety and soundness standards that are substantially similar to those that would apply if the banking entity engaged in the activities directly; and

(C) Complies with the restrictions in § 248.14 as if the issuer were a covered fund (except the banking entity may acquire and retain any ownership interest in the issuer).

(iii) The banking entity must not, directly or indirectly, guarantee, assume, or otherwise insure the obligations or performance of the issuer.

(iv) A banking entity's ownership interest in or relationship with the issuer must:

(A) Comply with the limitations imposed in § 248.15, as if the issuer were a covered fund; and

(B) Be conducted in compliance with, and subject to, applicable banking laws and regulations, including applicable safety and soundness standards.

(17) Family wealth management vehicles.

(i) Subject to paragraph (c)(17)(ii) of this section, any entity that is not, and does not hold itself out as being, an entity or arrangement that raises money from investors primarily for the purpose of investing in securities for resale or other disposition or otherwise trading in securities, and:

(A) If the entity is a trust, the grantor(s) of the entity are all family customers; and

(B) If the entity is not a trust:

(1) A majority of the voting interests in the entity are owned (directly or indirectly) by family customers;

(2) A majority of the interests in the entity are owned (directly or indirectly) by family customers;

(3) The entity is owned only by family customers and up to 5 closely related persons of the family customers; and

(C) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(17)(i)(A) and (B) of this section, up to an aggregate 0.5 percent of the entity's outstanding ownership interests may be acquired or retained by one or more entities that are not family customers or closely related persons if the ownership interest is acquired or retained by such parties for the purpose of and to the extent necessary for establishing corporate separateness or addressing bankruptcy, insolvency, or similar concerns.

(ii) A banking entity may rely on the exclusion in paragraph (c)(17)(i) of this section with respect to an entity provided that the banking entity (or an affiliate):

(A) Provides bona fide trust, fiduciary, investment advisory, or commodity trading advisory services to the entity;

(B) Does not, directly or indirectly, guarantee, assume, or otherwise insure the obligations or performance of such entity;

(C) Complies with the disclosure obligations under § 248.11(a)(8), as if such entity were a covered fund, provided that the content may be modified to prevent the disclosure from being misleading and the manner of disclosure may be modified to accommodate the specific circumstances of the entity;

(D) Does not acquire or retain, as principal, an ownership interest in the entity, other than as described in paragraph (c)(17)(i)(C) of this section;

(E) Complies with the requirements of §§ 248.14(b) and 248.15, as if such entity were a covered fund; and

(F) Except for riskless principal transactions as defined in paragraph (d)(11) of this section, complies with the requirements of 12 CFR 223.15(a), as if such banking entity and its affiliates were a member bank and the entity were an affiliate thereof.

(iii) For purposes of paragraph (c)(17) of this section, the following definitions apply:

(A) Closely related person means a natural person (including the estate and estate planning vehicles of such person) who has longstanding business or personal relationships with any family customer.

(B) Family customer means:

(1) A family client, as defined in Rule 202(a)(11)(G)-1(d)(4) of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (17 CFR 275.202(a)(11)(G)-1(d)(4)); or

(2) Any natural person who is a father-in-law, mother-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, son-in-law or daughter-in-law of a family client, or a spouse or a spousal equivalent of any of the foregoing.

(18) Customer facilitation vehicles.

(i) Subject to paragraph (c)(18)(ii) of this section, an issuer that is formed by or at the request of a customer of the banking entity for the purpose of providing such customer (which may include one or more affiliates of such customer) with exposure to a transaction, investment strategy, or other service provided by the banking entity.

(ii) A banking entity may rely on the exclusion in paragraph (c)(18)(i) of this section with respect to an issuer provided that:

(A) All of the ownership interests of the issuer are owned by the customer (which may include one or more of its affiliates) for whom the issuer was created;

(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(18)(ii)(A) of this section, up to an aggregate 0.5 percent of the issuer's outstanding ownership interests may be acquired or retained by one or more entities that are not customers if the ownership interest is acquired or retained by such parties for the purpose of and to the extent necessary for establishing corporate separateness or addressing bankruptcy, insolvency, or similar concerns; and

(C) The banking entity and its affiliates:

(1) Maintain documentation outlining how the banking entity intends to facilitate the customer's exposure to such transaction, investment strategy, or service;

(2) Do not, directly or indirectly, guarantee, assume, or otherwise insure the obligations or performance of such issuer;

(3) Comply with the disclosure obligations under § 248.11(a)(8), as if such issuer were a covered fund, provided that the content may be modified to prevent the disclosure from being misleading and the manner of disclosure may be modified to accommodate the specific circumstances of the issuer;

(4) Do not acquire or retain, as principal, an ownership interest in the issuer, other than as described in paragraph (c)(18)(ii)(B) of this section;

(5) Comply with the requirements of §§ 248.14(b) and 248.15, as if such issuer were a covered fund; and

(6) Except for riskless principal transactions as defined in paragraph (d)(11) of this section, comply with the requirements of 12 CFR 223.15(a), as if such banking entity and its affiliates were a member bank and the issuer were an affiliate thereof.

(d) Definition of other terms related to covered funds. For purposes of this subpart:

(1) Applicable accounting standards means U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or such other accounting standards applicable to a banking entity that the Board determines are appropriate and that the banking entity uses in the ordinary course of its business in preparing its consolidated financial statements.

(2) Asset-backed security has the meaning specified in Section 3(a)(79) of the Exchange Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(79).

(3) Director has the same meaning as provided in section 215.2(d)(1) of the Board's Regulation O (12 CFR 215.2(d)(1)).

(4) Issuer has the same meaning as in section 2(a)(22) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-2(a)(22)).

(5) Issuing entity means with respect to asset-backed securities the special purpose vehicle that owns or holds the pool assets underlying asset-backed securities and in whose name the asset-backed securities supported or serviced by the pool assets are issued.

(6) Ownership interest -

(i) Ownership interest means any equity, partnership, or other similar interest. An “other similar interest” means an interest that:

(A) Has the right to participate in the selection or removal of a general partner, managing member, member of the board of directors or trustees, investment manager, investment adviser, or commodity trading advisor of the covered fund, excluding:

(1) The rights of a creditor to exercise remedies upon the occurrence of an event of default or an acceleration event; and

(2) The right to participate in the removal of an investment manager for “cause” or participate in the selection of a replacement manager upon an investment manager's resignation or removal. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(6)(i)(A)(2), “cause” for removal of an investment manager means one or more of the following events:

(i) The bankruptcy, insolvency, conservatorship or receivership of the investment manager;

(ii) The breach by the investment manager of any material provision of the covered fund's transaction agreements applicable to the investment manager;

(iii) The breach by the investment manager of material representations or warranties;

(iv) The occurrence of an act that constitutes fraud or criminal activity in the performance of the investment manager's obligations under the covered fund's transaction agreements;

(v) The indictment of the investment manager for a criminal offense, or the indictment of any officer, member, partner or other principal of the investment manager for a criminal offense materially related to his or her investment management activities;

(vi) A change in control with respect to the investment manager;

(vii) The loss, separation or incapacitation of an individual critical to the operation of the investment manager or primarily responsible for the management of the covered fund's assets; or

(viii) Other similar events that constitute “cause” for removal of an investment manager, provided that such events are not solely related to the performance of the covered fund or the investment manager's exercise of investment discretion under the covered fund's transaction agreements;

(B) Has the right under the terms of the interest to receive a share of the income, gains or profits of the covered fund;

(C) Has the right to receive the underlying assets of the covered fund after all other interests have been redeemed and/or paid in full (excluding the rights of a creditor to exercise remedies upon the occurrence of an event of default or an acceleration event);

(D) Has the right to receive all or a portion of excess spread (the positive difference, if any, between the aggregate interest payments received from the underlying assets of the covered fund and the aggregate interest paid to the holders of other outstanding interests);

(E) Provides under the terms of the interest that the amounts payable by the covered fund with respect to the interest could be reduced based on losses arising from the underlying assets of the covered fund, such as allocation of losses, write-downs or charge-offs of the outstanding principal balance, or reductions in the amount of interest due and payable on the interest;

(F) Receives income on a pass-through basis from the covered fund, or has a rate of return that is determined by reference to the performance of the underlying assets of the covered fund; or

(G) Any synthetic right to have, receive, or be allocated any of the rights in paragraphs (d)(6)(i)(A) through (F) of this section.

(ii) Ownership interest does not include:

(A) Restricted profit interest, which is an interest held by an entity (or an employee or former employee thereof) in a covered fund for which the entity (or employee thereof) serves as investment manager, investment adviser, commodity trading advisor, or other service provider, so long as:

(1) The sole purpose and effect of the interest is to allow the entity (or employee or former employee thereof) to share in the profits of the covered fund as performance compensation for the investment management, investment advisory, commodity trading advisory, or other services provided to the covered fund by the entity (or employee or former employee thereof), provided that the entity (or employee or former employee thereof) may be obligated under the terms of such interest to return profits previously received;

(2) All such profit, once allocated, is distributed to the entity (or employee or former employee thereof) promptly after being earned or, if not so distributed, is retained by the covered fund for the sole purpose of establishing a reserve amount to satisfy contractual obligations with respect to subsequent losses of the covered fund and such undistributed profit of the entity (or employee or former employee thereof) does not share in the subsequent investment gains of the covered fund;

(3) Any amounts invested in the covered fund, including any amounts paid by the entity in connection with obtaining the restricted profit interest, are within the limits of § 248.12 of this subpart; and

(4) The interest is not transferable by the entity (or employee or former employee thereof) except to an affiliate thereof (or an employee of the banking entity or affiliate), to immediate family members, or through the intestacy, of the employee or former employee, or in connection with a sale of the business that gave rise to the restricted profit interest by the entity (or employee or former employee thereof) to an unaffiliated party that provides investment management, investment advisory, commodity trading advisory, or other services to the fund.

(B) Any senior loan or senior debt interest that has the following characteristics:

(1) Under the terms of the interest the holders of such interest do not have the right to receive a share of the income, gains, or profits of the covered fund, but are entitled to receive only:

(i) Interest at a stated interest rate, as well as commitment fees or other fees, which are not determined by reference to the performance of the underlying assets of the covered fund; and

(ii) Repayment of a fixed principal amount, on or before a maturity date, in a contractually-determined manner (which may include prepayment premiums intended solely to reflect, and compensate holders of the interest for, forgone income resulting from an early prepayment);

(2) The entitlement to payments under the terms of the interest are absolute and could not be reduced based on losses arising from the underlying assets of the covered fund, such as allocation of losses, write-downs or charge-offs of the outstanding principal balance, or reductions in the amount of interest due and payable on the interest; and

(3) The holders of the interest are not entitled to receive the underlying assets of the covered fund after all other interests have been redeemed or paid in full (excluding the rights of a creditor to exercise remedies upon the occurrence of an event of default or an acceleration event).

(7) Prime brokerage transaction means any transaction that would be a covered transaction, as defined in section 23A(b)(7) of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 371c(b)(7)), that is provided in connection with custody, clearance and settlement, securities borrowing or lending services, trade execution, financing, or data, operational, and administrative support.

(8) Resident of the United States means a person that is a “U.S. person” as defined in rule 902(k) of the SEC's Regulation S (17 CFR 230.902(k)).

(9) Sponsor means, with respect to a covered fund:

(i) To serve as a general partner, managing member, or trustee of a covered fund, or to serve as a commodity pool operator with respect to a covered fund as defined in (b)(1)(ii) of this section;

(ii) In any manner to select or to control (or to have employees, officers, or directors, or agents who constitute) a majority of the directors, trustees, or management of a covered fund; or

(iii) To share with a covered fund, for corporate, marketing, promotional, or other purposes, the same name or a variation of the same name, except as permitted under § 248.11(a)(6).

(10) Trustee.

(i) For purposes of paragraph (d)(9) of this section and § 248.11 of subpart C, a trustee does not include:

(A) A trustee that does not exercise investment discretion with respect to a covered fund, including a trustee that is subject to the direction of an unaffiliated named fiduciary who is not a trustee pursuant to section 403(a)(1) of the Employee's Retirement Income Security Act (29 U.S.C. 1103(a)(1)); or

(B) A trustee that is subject to fiduciary standards imposed under foreign law that are substantially equivalent to those described in paragraph (d)(10)(i)(A) of this section;

(ii) Any entity that directs a person described in paragraph (d)(10)(i) of this section, or that possesses authority and discretion to manage and control the investment decisions of a covered fund for which such person serves as trustee, shall be considered to be a trustee of such covered fund.

(11) Riskless principal transaction. Riskless principal transaction means a transaction in which a banking entity, after receiving an order from a customer to buy (or sell) a security, purchases (or sells) the security in the secondary market for its own account to offset a contemporaneous sale to (or purchase from) the customer.

[79 FR 5779, 5804, Jan. 31, 2014, as amended at 84 FR 35020, July 22, 2019; 84 FR 62136, Nov. 14, 2019; 85 FR 46503, July 31, 2020]

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