12 CFR 621.6 - Performance categories and other property owned.
Each institution shall employ the following practices with respect to categorizing high-risk loans and loan-related assets. No loan shall be put into more than one performance category. At a minimum, loans meeting the criteria for both nonaccrual and another performance category shall be classified as nonaccrual.
(a) Nonaccrual loans. A loan shall be considered nonaccrual if it meets any of the following conditions:
(1) Collection of any amount of outstanding principal and all past and future interest accruals, considered over the full term of the asset, is not expected;
(2) Any portion of the loan has been charged off, except in cases where the prior chargeoff was taken as part of a formal restructuring of the loan; or
(3) The loan is 90 days past due and is not both adequately secured and in process of collection.
(i) A loan is considered adequately secured only if:
(A) It is secured by real or personal property having a net realizable value sufficient to discharge the debt in full; or
(B) It is guaranteed by a financially responsible party in an amount sufficient to discharge the debt in full.
(ii) A loan is considered in process of collection only if collection efforts are proceeding in due course and, based on a probable and specific event, are expected to result in the prompt repayment of the debt or its restoration to current status. There must be documented evidence that collection in full of amounts due and unpaid is expected to occur within a reasonable time period, not to exceed 180 days from the date that payment was due. The commencement of collection efforts through legal action, including bankruptcy or foreclosure, or through collection efforts not involving legal action, including ongoing workouts and reamortizations, do not, in and of themselves, provide sufficient cause to keep a loan out of nonaccrual status. If full collection of the debt or its restoration to current status is dependent upon completion of any action by the borrower, the institution must obtain the borrower's written agreement to complete all such actions by the specific dates set forth in agreement.
(b) Formally restructured loans. A loan is considered formally restructured if it meets the “troubled debt restructuring” definition set forth in Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Subtopic 310 - 40, Receivables - Troubled Debt Restructurings by Creditors.
(c) Loans 90 days past due still accruing interest. (1) Loans 90 days past due still accruing interest means loans that are 90 days or more contractually past due, and that are both adequately secured and in process of collection, as described in this section.
(2) A loan shall be considered contractually past due when any principal repayment or interest payment required by the loan instrument is not received on or before the due date. A loan shall remain contractually past due until it is formally restructured or until the entire amount past due, including principal, accrued interest, and penalty interest incurred as the result of past due status, is collected or otherwise discharged in full.
(d) Other property owned means any real or personal property, other than an interest-earning asset, that has been acquired as a result of full or partial liquidation of a loan, through foreclosure, deed in lieu of foreclosure, or other means.