12 CFR § 704.2 - Definitions.

§ 704.2 Definitions.

As used in this part:

Adjusted trading means any method or transaction whereby a corporate credit union sells a security to a vendor at a price above its current market price and simultaneously purchases or commits to purchase from the vendor another security at a price above its current market price.

Applicable state regulator means the prudential state regulator of a state chartered corporate credit union.

Asset-backed security (ABS) means a security that is primarily serviced by the cashflows of a discrete pool of receivables or other financial assets, either fixed or revolving, that by their terms convert into cash within a finite time period plus any rights or other assets designed to assure the servicing or timely distribution of proceeds to the security holders. Mortgage-backed securities are a type of asset-backed security.

Available to cover losses that exceed retained earnings means that the funds are available to cover operating losses realized, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), by the corporate credit union that exceed retained earnings and equity acquired in a combination. Likewise, available to cover losses that exceed retained earnings and perpetual contributed capital (PCC) means that the funds are available to cover operating losses realized, in accordance with GAAP, by the corporate credit union that exceed retained earnings and equity acquired in a combination and PCC. Any such losses must be distributed pro rata at the time the loss is realized first among the holders of PCC, and when all PCC is exhausted, then pro rata among all nonperpetual capital accounts (NCAs) and unconverted membership capital accounts, all subject to the optional prioritization described in appendix A of this part. To the extent that any contributed capital funds are used to cover losses, the corporate credit union must not restore or replenish the affected capital accounts under any circumstances. In addition, contributed capital that is used to cover losses in a calendar year previous to the year of liquidation has no claim against the liquidation estate.

CLF-related bridge loan means interim financing, extending up to ten business days, that a corporate credit union provides for a natural person credit union from the time the CLF approves a loan to the natural person credit union until the CLF funds the loan. To repay a CLF-related bridge loan, the borrowing natural person credit union assigns the proceeds of the CLF advance to the corporate credit union making the CLF-related bridge loan for the duration of the bridge loan.

Collateralized debt obligation (CDO) means a debt security collateralized by mortgage-backed securities, asset-backed securities, or corporate obligations in the form of loans or debt. Senior tranches of Re-REMIC's consisting of senior mortgage- and asset-backed securities are excluded from this definition.

Collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) means a multi-class mortgage-backed security.

Commercial mortgage-backed security (CMBS) means a mortgage-backed security collateralized primarily by multi-family and commercial property loans.

Compensation means all salaries, fees, wages, bonuses, severance payments, current year contributions to employee benefit plans (for example, medical, dental, life insurance, and disability), current year contributions to deferred compensation plans and future severance payments, including payments in connection with a merger or similar combination (whether or not funded; whether or not vested; and whether or not the deferred compensation plan is a qualified plan under Section 401(a) of the IRS Code). Compensation also includes expense accounts and other allowances (for example, the value of the personal use of housing, automobiles or other assets owned by the corporate credit union; expense allowances or reimbursements that recipients must report as income on their separate income tax return; payments made under indemnification arrangements; and payments made for the benefit of friends or relatives). In calculating required compensation disclosures, reasonable estimates may be used if precise cost figures are not readily available.

Consolidated Credit Union Service Organization (Consolidated CUSO) means any corporation, partnership, business trust, joint venture, association or similar organization in which a corporate credit union directly or indirectly holds an ownership interest (as permitted by § 704.11 of this part) and the assets of which are consolidated with those of the corporate credit union for purposes of reporting under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Generally, consolidated CUSOs are majority-owned CUSOs.

Contributed capital means either perpetual or nonperpetual capital.

Corporate credit union means an organization that:

(1) Is chartered under Federal or state law as a credit union;

(2) Receives shares from and provides loan services to credit unions;

(3) Is operated primarily for the purpose of serving other credit unions;

(4) Is designated by NCUA as a corporate credit union;

(5) Limits natural person members to the minimum required by state or federal law to charter and operate the credit union; and

(6) Does not condition the eligibility of any credit union to become a member on that credit union's membership in any other organization.

Critical accounting policies means those policies that are most important to the portrayal of a corporate credit union's financial condition and results and that require management's most difficult, subjective, or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain.

Daily average net assets means the average of net assets calculated for each day during the period.

Derivatives means a financial contract which derives its value from the value and performance of some other underlying financial instrument or variable, such as an index or interest rate.

Dollar roll means the purchase or sale of a mortgage-backed security to a counterparty with an agreement to resell or repurchase a substantially identical security at a future date and at a specified price.

Embedded option means a characteristic of certain assets and liabilities which gives the issuer of the instrument the ability to change the features such as final maturity, rate, principal amount and average life. Options include, but are not limited to, calls, caps, and prepayment options.

Enterprise risk management means the process of addressing risk on an entity-wide basis. The purpose of this process is not to eliminate risk but, rather, to provide the knowledge the board of directors and management need to effectively measure, monitor, and control risk and to then plan appropriate strategies to achieve the entity's business objectives with a reasonable amount of risk taking.

Equity investment means an investment in an equity security and other ownership interest, including, for example, an investment in a partnership or limited liability company.

Equity security means any security representing an ownership interest in an enterprise (for example, common, preferred, or other capital stock) or the right to acquire (for example, warrants and call options) or dispose of (for example, put options) an ownership interest in an enterprise at fixed or determinable prices. However, the term does not include Federal Home Loan Bank stock, convertible debt, or preferred stock that by its terms either must be redeemed by the issuing enterprise or is redeemable at the option of the investor.

Examination of internal control means an engagement of an independent public accountant to report directly on internal control or on management's assertions about internal control. An examination of internal control over financial reporting includes controls over the preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) and NCUA regulatory reporting requirements.

Exchangeable collateralized mortgage obligation means a class of a collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) that, at the time of purchase, represents beneficial ownership interests in a combination of two or more underlying classes of the same CMO structure. The holder of an exchangeable CMO may pay a fee and take delivery of the underlying classes of the CMO.

Fair value means the price that would be received to sell an asset, or paid to transfer a liability, in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, as defined by GAAP.

Federal funds transaction means a short-term or open-ended unsecured transfer of immediately available funds by one depository institution to another depository institution or entity.

Financial statements means the presentation of a corporate credit union's financial data, including accompanying notes, derived from accounting records of the credit union, and intended to disclose the credit union's economic resources or obligations at a point in time, or the changes therein for a period of time, in conformity with GAAP. Each of the following is considered to be a financial statement: a balance sheet or statement of financial condition; statement of income or statement of operations; statement of undivided earnings; statement of cash flows; statement of changes in members' equity; statement of revenue and expenses; and statement of cash receipts and disbursements.

Financial statement audit means an audit of the financial statements of a corporate credit union performed in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards by an independent person who is licensed by the appropriate State or jurisdiction. The objective of a financial statement audit is to express an opinion as to whether those financial statements of the credit union present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position and the results of its operations and its cash flows in conformity with GAAP.

Foreign bank means an institution which is organized under the laws of a country other than the United States, is engaged in the business of banking, and is recognized as a bank by the banking supervisory authority of the country in which it is organized.

Generally accepted auditing standards (GAAS) means the standards approved and adopted by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants which apply when an independent, licensed certified public accountant audits private company financial statements in the United States of America. Auditing standards differ from auditing procedures in that procedures address acts to be performed, whereas standards measure the quality of the performance of those acts and the objectives to be achieved by use of the procedures undertaken. In addition, auditing standards address the auditor's professional qualifications as well as the judgment exercised in performing the audit and in preparing the report of the audit.

Immediate family member means a spouse or other family member living in the same household.

Independent public accountant (IPA) means a person who is licensed by, or otherwise authorized by, the appropriate State or jurisdiction to practice public accounting. An IPA must be able to exercise fairness toward credit union officials, members, creditors and others who may rely upon the report of a supervisory committee audit and to demonstrate the impartiality necessary to produce dependable findings. As used in this part, IPA is synonymous with the terms “auditor” and “accountant.” The term IPA does not include a licensed person working in his or her capacity as an employee of an unlicensed entity and issuing an audit opinion in the unlicensed entity's name, e.g., a licensed league auditor or licensed retired examiner working for a non-licensed entity.

Intangible assets means assets considered to be intangible assets under GAAP. These assets include, but are not limited to, core deposit premiums, purchased credit card relationships, favorable leaseholds, and servicing assets (mortgage and non-mortgage). Interest-only strips receivable are not intangible assets under this definition.

Internal control means the process, established by the corporate credit union's board of directors, officers and employees, designed to provide reasonable assurance of reliable financial reporting and safeguarding of assets against unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition. A credit union's internal control structure generally consists of five components: Control environment; risk assessment; control activities; information and communication; and monitoring. Reliable financial reporting refers to preparation of Call Reports as well as financial data published and presented to members that meet management's financial reporting objectives. Internal control over safeguarding of assets against unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition refers to prevention or timely detection of transactions involving such unauthorized access, use, or disposition of assets which could result in a loss that is material to the financial statements.

Internal control framework means criteria such as that established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework, issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), or comparable, reasonable, and U.S.-recognized criteria.

Internal control over financial reporting means a process effected by those charged with governance, management, and other personnel, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the preparation of reliable financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. A corporate credit union's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that:

(1) Pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the entity;

(2) Provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and that receipts and expenditures of the entity are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and those charged with governance; and

(3) Provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention, or timely detection and correction, of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the entity's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Investment grade means the issuer of the security has an adequate capacity to meet the financial commitments under the security for the projected life of the asset or exposure, even under adverse economic conditions. An issuer has an adequate capacity to meet financial commitments if the risk of default by the obligor is low and the full and timely repayment of principal and interest on the security is expected. A corporate credit union may consider any or all of the following factors, to the extent appropriate, with respect to the credit risk of a security: Credit spreads; securities-related research; internal or external credit risk assessments; default statistics; inclusion on an index; priorities and enhancements; price, yield, and/or volume; and asset class-specific factors. This list of factors is not meant to be exhaustive or mutually exclusive.

Leverage ratio means the ratio of Tier 1 capital to moving daily average net assets.

Limited liquidity investment means a private placement or funding agreement.

Member reverse repurchase transaction means an integrated transaction in which a corporate credit union purchases a security from one of its member credit unions under agreement by that member credit union to repurchase the same security at a specified time in the future. The corporate credit union then sells that same security, on the same day, to a third party, under agreement to repurchase it on the same date on which the corporate credit union is obligated to return the security to its member credit union.

Minimal amount of credit risk means the amount of credit risk when the issuer of a security has a very strong capacity to meet all financial commitments under the security for the projected life of the asset or exposure, even under adverse economic conditions. An issuer has a very strong capacity to meet all financial commitments if the risk of default by the obligor is very low, and the full and timely repayment of principal and interest on the security is expected. A corporate credit union may consider any or all of the following factors, to the extent appropriate, with respect to the credit risk of a security: Credit spreads; securities-related research; internal or external credit risk assessments; default statistics; inclusion on an index; priorities and enhancements; price, yield, and/or volume; asset class-specific factors. This list of factors is not meant to be exhaustive or mutually exclusive.

Mortgage-backed security (MBS) means a security backed by first or second mortgages secured by real estate upon which is located a dwelling, mixed residential and commercial structure, residential manufactured home, or commercial structure.

Moving daily average net assets means the average of daily average net assets for the month being measured and the previous eleven (11) months.

Moving monthly average net risk-weighted assets means the average of the net risk-weighted assets for the month being measured and the previous eleven (11) months. Measurements must be taken on the last day of each month.

Mutual combination means a transaction or event in which a corporate credit union acquires another credit union, or acquires an integrated set of activities and assets that is capable of being conducted and managed as a credit union.

NCUA means NCUA Board (Board), unless the particular action has been delegated by the Board.

Net assets means total assets less Central Liquidity Facility (CLF) stock subscriptions, CLF-related bridge loans, loans guaranteed by the National Credit UnionShare Insurance Fund (NCUSIF), and member reverse repurchase transactions. For its own account, a corporate credit union's payables under reverse repurchase agreements and receivables under repurchase agreements may be netted out if the GAAP conditions for offsetting are met. Also, any amounts deducted in calculating Tier 1 capital are also deducted from net assets.

Net economic value (NEV) means the fair value of assets minus the fair value of liabilities. All fair value calculations must include the value of forward settlements and embedded options. Perpetual contributed capital, and the unamortized portion of nonperpetual capital that is, the portion that qualifies as capital for purposes of any of the minimum capital ratios, is excluded from liabilities for purposes of this calculation. The NEV ratio is calculated by dividing NEV by the fair value of assets.

Net interest margin security means a security collateralized by residual interests in collateralized mortgage obligations, residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits, or residual interests in other asset-backed securities.

Net risk-weighted assets means risk-weighted assets less CLF stock subscriptions, CLF-related bridge loans, loans guaranteed by the NCUSIF, and member reverse repurchase transactions. For its own account, a corporate credit union's payables under reverse repurchase agreements and receivables under repurchase agreements may be netted out if the GAAP conditions for offsetting are met. Also, any amounts deducted in calculating Tier 1 capital are also deducted from net risk-weighted assets.

Nonperpetual capital means funds contributed by members or nonmembers that: are term certificates with an original minimum term of five years or that have an indefinite term (i.e., no maturity) with a minimum withdrawal notice of five years; are available to cover losses that exceed retained earnings and perpetual contributed capital; are not insured by the NCUSIF or other share or deposit insurers; and cannot be pledged against borrowings. In the event the corporate is liquidated, the holders of nonperpetual capital accounts (NCAs) will claim equally. These claims will be subordinate to all other claims (including NCUSIF claims), except that any claims by the holders of perpetual contributed capital (PCC) will be subordinate to the claims of holders of NCAs.

Obligor means the primary party obligated to repay an investment, e.g., the issuer of a security, such as a Qualified Special Purpose Entity (QSPE) trust; the taker of a deposit; or the borrower of funds in a federal funds transaction. Obligor does not include an originator of receivables underlying an asset-backed security, the servicer of such receivables, or an insurer of an investment.

Official means any director or committee member.

Pair-off transaction means a security purchase transaction that is closed out or sold at, or prior to, the settlement or expiration date.

Perpetual contributed capital (PCC) means accounts or other interests of a corporate credit union that: are perpetual, non-cumulative dividend accounts; are available to cover losses that exceed retained earnings; are not insured by the NCUSIF or other share or deposit insurers; and cannot be pledged against borrowings. In the event the corporate is liquidated, any claims made by the holders of perpetual contributed capital will be subordinate to all other claims (including NCUSIF claims).

Private label security means a security that is not issued or guaranteed by the U.S. government, its agencies, or its government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs).

Quoted market price means a recent sales price or a price based on current bid and asked quotations.

Repurchase transaction means a transaction in which a corporate credit union agrees to purchase a security from a counterparty and to resell the same or any identical security to that counterparty at a specified future date and at a specified price.

Residential mortgage-backed security (RMBS) means a mortgage-backed security collateralized primarily by mortgage loans on residential properties.

Residential properties means houses, condominiums, cooperative units, and manufactured homes. This definition does not include boats or motor homes, even if used as a primary residence, or timeshare properties.

Residual interest means the ownership interest in remainder cash flows from a CMO or ABS transaction after payments due bondholders and trust administrative expenses have been satisfied.

Retained earnings means undivided earnings, regular reserve, reserve for contingencies, supplemental reserves, reserve for losses, GAAP equity acquired in a merger, and other appropriations from undivided earnings as designated by management or the NCUA.

Retained earnings ratio means the corporate credit union's retained earnings divided by its moving daily average net assets.

Risk-weighted assets means a corporate credit union's risk-weighted assets as calculated in accordance with appendix C of this part.

Section 107(8) institution means an institution described in Section 107(8) of the Federal Credit Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1757(8)).

Securities lending means lending a security to a counterparty, either directly or through an agent, and accepting collateral in return.

Securitization means the pooling and repackaging by a special purpose entity of assets or other credit exposures that can be sold to investors. Securitization includes transactions that create stratified credit risk positions whose performance is dependent upon an underlying pool of credit exposures, including loans and commitments.

Senior executive officer means a chief executive officer, any assistant chief executive officer (e.g., any assistant president, any vice president or any assistant treasurer/manager), and the chief financial officer (controller). This term also includes employees of any entity hired to perform the functions described above.

Settlement date means the date originally agreed to by a corporate credit union and a counterparty for settlement of the purchase or sale of a security.

Short sale means the sale of a security not owned by the seller.

Small business related security means a security that represents an interest in one or more promissory notes or leases of personal property evidencing the obligation of a small business concern and originated by an insured depository institution, insured credit union, insurance company, or similar institution which is supervised and examined by a Federal or State authority, or a finance company or leasing company. This definition does not include Small Business Administration securities permissible under section 107(7) of the Act.

Stripped mortgage-backed security means a security that represents either the principal-only or interest-only portion of the cash flows of an underlying pool of mortgages.

Subordinated security means a security that, at the time of purchase, has a junior claim on the underlying collateral or assets to other securities in the same issuance. If a security is junior only to money market fund eligible securities in the same issuance, the former security is not subordinated for purposes of this definition.

Supervisory committee means, for federally chartered corporate credit unions, the supervisory committee as defined in Section 111(b) of the Federal Credit Union Act, 12 U.S.C. 1761(b). For state chartered corporate credit unions, the term supervisory committee refers to the audit committee, or similar committee, designated by state statute or regulation.

Tier 1 capital means the sum of items in paragraphs (1) and (2) of this definition from which items in paragraphs (3) through (6) are deducted:

(1)Retained earnings;

(2)Perpetual contributed capital;

(3) Deduct the amount of the corporate credit union's intangible assets that exceed one half percent of its moving daily average net assets (however, the NCUA may direct the corporate credit union to add back some of these assets on the NCUA's own initiative, or the NCUA's approval of petition from the applicable state regulator or application from the corporate credit union);

(4) Deduct investments, both equity and debt, in unconsolidated CUSOs;

(5) Deduct an amount equal to any PCC or NCA that the corporate credit union maintains at another corporate credit union;

(6) Deduct any amount of PCC received from federally insured credit unions that causes PCC minus retained earnings, all divided by moving daily average net assets, to exceed two percent when a corporate credit union's retained earnings ratio is less than two and a half percent.

Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio means the ratio of Tier 1 capital to the moving monthly average net risk-weighted assets.

Tier 2 capital means the sum of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition:

(1)Nonperpetual capital accounts, as amortized under § 704.3(b)(3);

(2) Allowance for loan and lease losses calculated under GAAP to a maximum of 1.25 percent of risk-weighted assets;

(3) Any PCC deducted from Tier 1 capital; and

(4) Forty-five percent of unrealized gains on available-for-sale equity securities with readily determinable fair values. Unrealized gains are unrealized holding gains, net of unrealized holding losses, calculated as the amount, if any, by which fair value exceeds historical cost. NCUA may disallow such inclusion in the calculation of Tier 2 capital if NCUA determines that the securities are not prudently valued.

Total assets means the sum of all a corporate credit union's assets as calculated under GAAP.

Total capital means the sum of Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital, less the corporate credit union's equity investments not otherwise deducted when calculating Tier 1 capital.

Total risk-based capital ratio means the ratio of total capital to moving monthly average net risk-weighted assets.

Trade date means the date a corporate credit union originally agrees, whether orally or in writing, to enter into the purchase or sale of a security.

Trigger means an event in a securitization that will redirect cash-flows if predefined thresholds are breached. Examples of triggers are delinquency and cumulative loss triggers.

Weighted average life means the weighted-average time to the return of a dollar of principal, calculated by multiplying each portion of principal received by the time at which it is expected to be received (based on a reasonable and supportable estimate of that time) and then summing and dividing by the total amount of principal. The calculation of weighted average life for interest only securities means the weighted-average time to the return of a dollar of interest, calculated by multiplying each portion of interest received by the time at which it is expected to be received (based on a reasonable and supportable estimate of that time) and then summing and dividing by the total amount of interest to be received.

When-issued trading means the buying and selling of securities in the period between the announcement of an offering and the issuance and payment date of the securities.

[75 FR 64829, Oct. 20, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 23867, Apr. 29, 2011; 76 FR 79533, Dec. 22, 2011; 77 FR 74110, Dec. 13, 2012; 78 FR 32544, May 31, 2013; 80 FR 25936, May 6, 2015; 80 FR 57284, Sept. 23, 2015; 82 FR 55499, Nov. 22, 2017]