12 CFR 723.2 - Definitions.

§ 723.2 Definitions.

For purposes of this part, the following definitions apply:

Associated borrower means any other person or entity with a shared ownership, investment, or other pecuniary interest in a business or commercial endeavor with the borrower. This means any person or entity named as a borrower or debtor in a loan or extension of credit, or any other person or entity, such as a drawer, endorser, or guarantor, engaged in a common enterprise with the borrower, or deriving a direct benefit from the loan to the borrower. Exceptions to this definition for partnerships, joint ventures and associations are as follows:

(1) If the borrower is a partnership, joint venture or association, and the other person with a shared ownership, investment, or other pecuniary interest in a business or commercial endeavor with the borrower is a member or partner of the borrower, and neither a direct benefit nor a common enterprise exists, such other person is not an associated borrower.

(2) If the borrower is a member or partner of a partnership, joint venture, or association, and the other entity with a shared ownership, investment, or other pecuniary interest in a business or commercial endeavor with the borrower is the partnership, joint venture, or association and the borrower is a limited partner of that other entity, and by the terms of a partnership or membership agreement valid under applicable law, the borrower is not held generally liable for the debts or actions of that other entity, such other entity is not an associated borrower.

(3) If the borrower is a member or partner of a partnership, joint venture, or association, and the other person with a shared ownership, investment, or other pecuniary interest in a business or commercial endeavor with the borrower is another member or partner of the partnership, joint venture, or association, and neither a direct benefit nor a common enterprise exists, such other person is not an associated borrower.

Commercial loan means any loan, line of credit, or letter of credit (including any unfunded commitments), and any interest a credit union obtains in such loans made by another lender, to individuals, sole proprietorships, partnerships, corporations, or other business enterprises for commercial, industrial, agricultural, or professional purposes, but not for personal expenditure purposes. Excluded from this definition are loans made by a corporate credit union; loans made by a federally insured credit union to another federally insured credit union; loans made by a federally insured credit union to a credit union service organization; loans secured by a 1- to 4-family residential property (whether or not it is the borrower's primary residence); loans fully secured by shares in the credit union making the extension of credit or deposits in other financial institutions; loans secured by a vehicle manufactured for household use; and loans that would otherwise meet the definition of commercial loan and which, when the aggregate outstanding balances plus unfunded commitments less any portion secured by shares in the credit union to a borrower or an associated borrower, are equal to less than $50,000.

Common enterprise means:

(1) The expected source of repayment for each loan or extension of credit is the same for each borrower and no individual borrower has another source of income from which the loan (together with the borrower's other obligations) may be fully repaid. An employer will not be treated as a source of repayment because of wages and salaries paid to an employee, unless the standards described in paragraph (2) of this definition are met;

(2) Loans or extensions of credit are made:

(i) To borrowers who are related directly or indirectly through common control, including where one borrower is directly or indirectly controlled by another borrower; and

(ii) Substantial financial interdependence exists between or among the borrowers. Substantial financial interdependence means 50 percent or more of one borrower's gross receipts or gross expenditures (on an annual basis) are derived from transactions with another borrower. Gross receipts and expenditures include gross revenues or expenses, intercompany loans, dividends, capital contributions, and similar receipts or payments; or

(3) Separate borrowers obtain loans or extensions of credit to acquire a business enterprise of which those borrowers will own more than 50 percent of the voting securities or voting interests.

Control means a person or entity directly or indirectly, or acting through or together with one or more persons or entities:

(1) Owns, controls, or has the power to vote 25 percent or more of any class of voting securities of another person or entity;

(2) Controls, in any manner, the election of a majority of the directors, trustees, or other persons exercising similar functions of another person or entity; or

(3) Has the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management or policies of another person or entity.

Credit risk rating system means a formal process that identifies and assigns a relative credit risk score to each commercial loan in a federally insured credit union's portfolio, using ordinal ratings to represent the degree of risk. The credit risk score is determined through an evaluation of quantitative factors based on financial performance and qualitative factors based on management, operational, market, and business environmental factors.

Direct benefit means the proceeds of a loan or extension of credit to a borrower, or assets purchased with those proceeds, that are transferred to another person or entity, other than in a bona fide arm's-length transaction where the proceeds are used to acquire property, goods, or services.

Immediate family member means a spouse or other family member living in the same household.

Loan secured by a 1- to 4-family residential property means a loan that, at origination, is secured wholly or substantially by a lien on a 1- to 4-family residential property for which the lien is central to the extension of the credit; that is, the borrower would not have been extended credit in the same amount or on terms as favorable without the lien. A loan is wholly or substantially secured by a lien on a 1- to 4-family residential property if the estimated value of the real estate collateral at origination (after deducting any senior liens held by others) is greater than 50 percent of the principal amount of the loan.

Loan secured by a vehicle manufactured for household use means a loan that, at origination, is secured wholly or substantially by a lien on a new and used passenger car and other vehicle such as a minivan, sport-utility vehicle, pickup truck, and similar light truck or heavy-duty truck generally manufactured for personal, family, or household use and not used as a fleet vehicle or to carry fare-paying passengers, for which the lien is central to the extension of credit. A lien is central to the extension of credit if the borrower would not have been extended credit in the same amount or on terms as favorable without the lien. A loan is wholly or substantially secured by a lien on a vehicle manufactured for household use if the estimated value of the collateral at origination (after deducting any senior liens held by others) is greater than 50 percent of the principal amount of the loan.

Loan-to-value ratio means, with respect to any item of collateral, the aggregate amount of all sums borrowed and secured by that collateral, including outstanding balances plus any unfunded commitment or line of credit from another lender that is senior to the federally insured credit union's lien position, divided by the current collateral value. The current collateral value must be established by prudent and accepted commercial lending practices and comply with all regulatory requirements. For a construction and development loan, the collateral value is the lesser of cost to complete or prospective market value, as determined in accordance with § 723.6 of this part.

Net worth means a federally insured credit union's net worth, as defined in part 702 of this chapter.

Readily marketable collateral means a financial instrument or bullion that is salable under ordinary market conditions with reasonable promptness at a fair market value determined by quotations based upon actual transactions on an auction or similarly available daily bid and ask price market.

Residential property means a house, condominium unit, cooperative unit, manufactured home (whether completed or under construction), or unimproved land zoned for 1- to 4-family residential use. A boat or motor home, even if used as a primary residence, or timeshare property is not residential property.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code

Title 12 published on 17-Jun-2017 04:33

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 12 CFR Part 723 after this date.

  • 2016-03-14; vol. 81 # 49 - Monday, March 14, 2016
    1. 81 FR 13530 - Member Business Loans; Commercial Lending
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective January 1, 2017, except for amendatory instruction number 4 adding § 723.7(f), which is effective May 13, 2016.
      12 CFR Parts 701, 723, and 741
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