13 CFR 120.2 - Descriptions of the business loan programs.
(1) 7(a) loans provide financing for general business purposes and may be:
(i) A direct loan by SBA;
(ii) An immediate participation loan by a Lender and SBA; or
(iii) A guaranteed loan (deferred participation) by which SBA guarantees a portion of a loan made by a Lender.
(2) A guaranteed loan is initiated by a Lender agreeing to make an SBA guaranteed loan to a small business and applying to SBA for SBA's guarantee under a blanket guarantee agreement (participation agreement) between SBA and the Lender. If SBA agrees to guarantee (authorizes) a portion of the loan, the Lender funds and services the loan. If the small business defaults on the loan, SBA's guarantee requires SBA to purchase its portion of the outstanding balance, upon demand by the Lender and subject to specific conditions. Regulations specific to 7(a) loans are found in subpart B of this part.
(b)Microloans. SBA makes loans and loan guarantees to non-profit Intermediaries that make short-term loans up to $50,000 to eligible small businesses for general business purposes, except payment of personal debts. SBA also makes grants to Intermediaries for use in providing management assistance and counseling to small businesses. Regulations specific to these loans are found in subpart G of this part.
(c)504 loans. Projects involving 504 loans require long-term fixed-asset financing for small businesses. A Certified Development Company (CDC) provides the final portion of this financing with a 504 loan made from the proceeds of a Debenture issued by the CDC, guaranteed 100 percent by SBA (with the full faith and credit of the United States), and sold to investors. The regulations specific to these loans are found in subpart H of this part.