14 CFR § 121.439 - Pilot qualification: Recent experience.
(a) No certificate holder may use any person nor may any person serve as a required pilot flightcrew member, unless within the preceding 90 days, that person has made at least three takeo ffs and landings in the type airplane in which that person is to serve. The takeo ffs and landings required by this paragraph may be performed in a Level B or higher FFS approved under § 121.407 to include takeoff and landing maneuvers. In addition, any person who fails to make the three required takeoffs and landings within any consecutive 90-day period must re-establish recency of experience as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) In addition to meeting all applicable training and checking requirements of this part, a required pilot flightcrew member who has not met the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section must re-establish recency of experience as follows:
(2) The takeoffs and landings required in paragraph (b)(1) of this section must include -
(i) At least one takeoff with a simulated failure of the most critical powerplant;
(iii) At least one landing to a full stop.
(d) When using an FFS to accomplish any of the requirements of paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section, each required flightcrew member position must be occupied by an appropriately qualified person, and the FFS must be operated as if in a normal inflight environment without use of the repositioning features of the FFS.
(e) A check airman who observes the takeoffs and landings prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall certify that the person being observed is proficient and qualified to perform flight duty in operations under this part and may require any additional maneuvers that are determined necessary to make this certifying statement.
(1) The Administrator may authorize a deviation from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section based upon a designation of related aircraft in accordance with § 121.418(b) of this part and a determination that the certificate holder can demonstrate an equivalent level of safety.
(ii) The number of takeoffs, landings, maneuvers, and procedures necessary to maintain or re-establish recency based on review of the related aircraft, the operation, and the duty position.
(3) The administrator may, at any time, terminate a grant of deviation authority issued under this paragraph (f).
The following state regulations pages link to this page.