(a) Electronic display indicators, including those with features that make isolation and independence between powerplant instrument systems impractical, must:
(1) Meet the arrangement and visibility requirements of § 23.1321.
(2) Be easily legible under all lighting conditions encountered in the cockpit, including direct sunlight, considering the expected electronic display brightness level at the end of an electronic display indictor's useful life. Specific limitations on display system useful life must be contained in the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness required by § 23.1529.
(3) Not inhibit the primary display of attitude, airspeed, altitude, or powerplant parameters needed by any pilot to set power within established limitations, in any normal mode of operation.
(4) Not inhibit the primary display of engine parameters needed by any pilot to properly set or monitor powerplant limitations during the engine starting mode of operation.
(5) For certification for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations, have an independent magnetic direction indicator and either an independent secondary mechanical altimeter, airspeed indicator, and attitude instrument or an electronic display parameters for the altitude, airspeed, and attitude that are independent from the airplane's primary electrical power system. These secondary instruments may be installed in panel positions that are displaced from the primary positions specified by § 23.1321(d), but must be located where they meet the pilot's visibility requirements of § 23.1321(a).
(6) Incorporate sensory cues that provide a quick glance sense of rate and, where appropriate, trend information to the parameter being displayed to the pilot.
(7) Incorporate equivalent visual displays of the instrument markings required by §§ 23.1541 through 23.1553, or visual displays that alert the pilot to abnormal operational values or approaches to established limitation values, for each parameter required to be displayed by this part.
(b) The electronic display indicators, including their systems and installations, and considering other airplane systems, must be designed so that one display of information essential for continued safe flight and landing will be available within one second to the crew by a single pilot action or by automatic means for continued safe operation, after any single failure or probable combination of failures.
(c) As used in this section, “instrument” includes devices that are physically contained in one unit, and devices that are composed of two or more physically separate units or components connected together (such as a remote indicating gyroscopic direction indicator that includes a magnetic sensing element, a gyroscopic unit, an amplifier, and an indicator connected together). As used in this section, “primary” display refers to the display of a parameter that is located in the instrument panel such that the pilot looks at it first when wanting to view that parameter.