14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

§ 23.1331 Instruments using a power source.

For each instrument that uses a power source, the following apply:

(a) Each instrument must have an integral visual power annunciator or separate power indicator to indicate when power is not adequate to sustain proper instrument performance. If a separate indicator is used, it must be located so that the pilot using the instruments can monitor the indicator with minimum head and eye movement. The power must be sensed at or near the point where it enters the instrument. For electric and vacuum/pressure instruments, the power is considered to be adequate when the voltage or the vacuum/pressure, respectively, is within approved limits.

(b) The installation and power supply systems must be designed so that -

(1) The failure of one instrument will not interfere with the proper supply of energy to the remaining instrument; and

(2) The failure of the energy supply from one source will not interfere with the proper supply of energy from any other source.

(c) For certification for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations and for the heading, altitude, airspeed, and attitude, there must be at least:

(1) Two independent sources of power (not driven by the same engine on multiengine airplanes), and a manual or an automatic means to select each power source; or

(2) A separate display of parameters for heading, altitude, airspeed, and attitude that has a power source independent from the airplane's primary electrical power system.

[Doc. No. 26344, 58 FR 18976, Apr. 9, 1993, as amended by Amdt. 23-62, 76 FR 75761, Dec. 2, 2011]

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