14 CFR 23.255 - Out of trim characteristics.
For airplanes with an MD greater than M 0.6 and that incorporate a trimmable horizontal stabilizer, the following requirements for out-of-trim characteristics apply:
(a) From an initial condition with the airplane trimmed at cruise speeds up to VMO/MMO, the airplane must have satisfactory maneuvering stability and controllability with the degree of out-of-trim in both the airplane nose-up and nose-down directions, which results from the greater of the following:
(1) A three-second movement of the longitudinal trim system at its normal rate for the particular flight condition with no aerodynamic load (or an equivalent degree of trim for airplanes that do not have a power-operated trim system), except as limited by stops in the trim system, including those required by § 23.655(b) for adjustable stabilizers; or
(2) The maximum mistrim that can be sustained by the autopilot while maintaining level flight in the high speed cruising condition.
(b) In the out-of-trim condition specified in paragraph (a) of this section, when the normal acceleration is varied from l g to the positive and negative values specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the following apply:
(1) The stick force versus g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC/MFC; and
(2) At speeds between VFC/MFC and VDF/MDF, the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not reverse.
(c) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, compliance with the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section must be demonstrated in flight over the acceleration range as follows:
(1) −1 g to 2.5 g; or
(2) 0 g to 2.0 g, and extrapolating by an acceptable method to −1 g and 2.5 g.
(d) If the procedure set forth in paragraph (c)(2) of this section is used to demonstrate compliance and marginal conditions exist during flight test with regard to reversal of primary longitudinal control force, flight tests must be accomplished from the normal acceleration at which a marginal condition is found to exist to the applicable limit specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(e) During flight tests required by paragraph (a) of this section, the limit maneuvering load factors, prescribed in §§ 23.333(b) and 23.337, need not be exceeded. In addition, the entry speeds for flight test demonstrations at normal acceleration values less than 1 g must be limited to the extent necessary to accomplish a recovery without exceeding VDF/MDF.
(f) In the out-of-trim condition specified in paragraph (a) of this section, it must be possible from an overspeed condition at VDF/MDF to produce at least 1.5 g for recovery by applying not more than 125 pounds of longitudinal control force using either the primary longitudinal control alone or the primary longitudinal control and the longitudinal trim system. If the longitudinal trim is used to assist in producing the required load factor, it must be shown at VDF/MDF that the longitudinal trim can be actuated in the airplane nose-up direction with the primary surface loaded to correspond to the least of the following airplane nose-up control forces:
(1) The maximum control forces expected in service, as specified in §§ 23.301 and 23.397.
(2) The control force required to produce 1.5 g.
(3) The control force corresponding to buffeting or other phenomena of such intensity that it is a strong deterrent to further application of primary longitudinal control force.