14 CFR 23.415 - Ground gust conditions.
(a) The control system must be investigated as follows for control surface loads due to ground gusts and taxiing downwind:
(1) If an investigation of the control system for ground gust loads is not required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section, but the applicant elects to design a part of the control system of these loads, these loads need only be carried from control surface horns through the nearest stops or gust locks and their supporting structures.
(2) If pilot forces less than the minimums specified in § 23.397(b) are used for design, the effects of surface loads due to ground gusts and taxiing downwind must be investigated for the entire control system according to the formula:
(b) The limit hinge moment factor K for ground gusts must be derived as follows:
||Position of controls|
|(a) Aileron||0.75||Control column locked lashed in mid-position.|
|(b) Aileron||±0.50||Ailerons at full throw; moment on one aileron, − moment on the other.|
|(c) Elevator||±0.75||(c) Elevator full up (−).|
|(d) Elevator||(d) Elevator full down ( ).|
|(e) Rudder||±0.75||(e) Rudder in neutral.|
|(f) Rudder||(f) Rudder at full throw.|
(c) At all weights between the empty weight and the maximum weight declared for tie-down stated in the appropriate manual, any declared tie-down points and surrounding structure, control system, surfaces and associated gust locks, must be designed to withstand the limit load conditions that exist when the airplane is tied down and that result from wind speeds of up to 65 knots horizontally from any direction.