14 CFR 23.497 - Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

§ 23.497 Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.

In determining the ground loads on the tail wheel and affected supporting structures, the following apply:

(a) For the obstruction load, the limit ground reaction obtained in the tail down landing condition is assumed to act up and aft through the axle at 45 degrees. The shock absorber and tire may be assumed to be in their static positions.

(b) For the side load, a limit vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal magnitude, is assumed. In addition -

(1) If a swivel is used, the tail wheel is assumed to be swiveled 90 degrees to the airplane longitudinal axis with the resultant ground load passing through the axle;

(2) If a lock, steering device, or shimmy damper is used, the tail wheel is also assumed to be in the trailing position with the side load acting at the ground contact point; and

(3) The shock absorber and tire are assumed to be in their static positions.

(c) If a tail wheel, bumper, or an energy absorption device is provided to show compliance with § 23.925(b), the following apply:

(1) Suitable design loads must be established for the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device; and

(2) The supporting structure of the tail wheel, bumper, or energy absorption device must be designed to withstand the loads established in paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 23-48, 61 FR 5147, Feb. 9, 1996]

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United States Code

Title 14 published on 2015-11-17

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 14 CFR Part 23 after this date.

  • 2017-02-08; vol. 82 # 25 - Wednesday, February 8, 2017
    1. 82 FR 9677 - Revisions to Operational Requirements for the Use of Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) and to Pilot Compartment View Requirements for Vision Systems
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final rule; delay of effective date.
      The effective date of the rule amending 14 CFR parts 1, 23, 25, 27, 29, 61, 91, 121, 125, and 135 published at 81 FR 90126, December 13, 2016, is delayed until March 21, 2017, except for the amendments to §§ 61.66 (amendatory instruction no. 15), 91.175 (amendatory instruction no. 18), 91.1039 (amendatory instruction no. 23), 121.651 (amendatory instruction no. 27), 125.325 (amendatory instruction no. 33), 125.381 (amendatory instruction no. 35), and 135.225 (amendatory instruction no. 38), which are effective March 13, 2018.
      14 CFR Parts 1, 23, 25, 27, 29, 61, 91, 121, 125, and 135