(a) Each fuel tank must be supported so that tank loads are not concentrated. In addition—
(1) There must be pads, if necessary, to prevent chafing between each tank and its supports;
(2) Padding must be nonabsorbent or treated to prevent the absorption of fuel;
(3) If a flexible tank liner is used, it must be supported so that it is not required to withstand fluid loads;
(4) Interior surfaces adjacent to the liner must be smooth and free from projections that could cause wear, unless—
(i) Provisions are made for protection of the liner at those points; or
(ii) The construction of the liner itself provides such protection; and
(5) A positive pressure must be maintained within the vapor space of each bladder cell under any condition of operation, except for a particular condition for which it is shown that a zero or negative pressure will not cause the bladder cell to collapse; and
(6) Syphoning of fuel (other than minor spillage) or collapse of bladder fuel cells may not result from improper securing or loss of the fuel filler cap.
(b) Each tank compartment must be ventilated and drained to prevent the accumulation of flammable fluids or vapors. Each compartment adjacent to a tank that is an integral part of the airplane structure must also be ventilated and drained.
(c) No fuel tank may be on the engine side of the firewall. There must be at least one-half inch of clearance between the fuel tank and the firewall. No part of the engine nacelle skin that lies immediately behind a major air opening from the engine compartment may act as the wall of an integral tank.
(d) Each fuel tank must be isolated from personnel compartments by a fume-proof and fuel-proof enclosure that is vented and drained to the exterior of the airplane. The required enclosure must sustain any personnel compartment pressurization loads without permanent deformation or failure under the conditions of §§ 23.365 and 23.843 of this part. A bladder-type fuel cell, if used, must have a retaining shell at least equivalent to a metal fuel tank in structural integrity.
(e) Fuel tanks must be designed, located, and installed so as to retain fuel:
(1) When subjected to the inertia loads resulting from the ultimate static load factors prescribed in § 23.561(b)(2) of this part; and
(2) Under conditions likely to occur when the airplane lands on a paved runway at a normal landing speed under each of the following conditions:
(i) The airplane in a normal landing attitude and its landing gear retracted.
(ii) The most critical landing gear leg collapsed and the other landing gear legs extended.
In showing compliance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section, the tearing away of an engine mount must be considered unless all the engines are installed above the wing or on the tail or fuselage of the airplane.