Pt. 25, App. M
Appendix M to Part 25
—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means
M25.1Fuel tank flammability exposure requirements.
(a) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of each fuel tank, as determined in accordance with Appendix N of this part, may not exceed 3 percent of the Flammability Exposure Evaluation Time (FEET), as defined in Appendix N of this part. As a portion of this 3 percent, if flammability reduction means (FRM) are used, each of the following time periods may not exceed 1.8 percent of the FEET:
(1) When any FRM is operational but the fuel tank is not inert and the tank is flammable; and
(2) When any FRM is inoperative and the tank is flammable.
(b) The Fleet Average Flammability Exposure, as defined in Appendix N of this part, of each fuel tank may not exceed 3 percent of the portion of the FEET occurring during either ground or takeoff/climb phases of flight during warm days. The analysis must consider the following conditions.
(1) The analysis must use the subset of those flights that begin with a sea level ground ambient temperature of 80 °F (standard day plus 21 °F atmosphere) or above, from the flammability exposure analysis done for overall performance.
(2) For the ground and takeoff/climb phases of flight, the average flammability exposure must be calculated by dividing the time during the specific flight phase the fuel tank is flammable by the total time of the specific flight phase.
(3) Compliance with this paragraph may be shown using only those flights for which the airplane is dispatched with the flammability reduction means operational.
(a) The applicant must provide data from analysis, ground testing, and flight testing, or any combination of these, that:
(1) Validate the parameters used in the analysis required by paragraph M25.1 of this appendix;
(2) Substantiate that the FRM is effective at limiting flammability exposure in all compartments of each tank for which the FRM is used to show compliance with paragraph M25.1 of this appendix; and
(3) Describe the circumstances under which the FRM would not be operated during each phase of flight.
(b) The applicant must validate that the FRM meets the requirements of paragraph M25.1 of this appendix with any airplane or engine configuration affecting the performance of the FRM for which approval is sought.
M25.3Reliability indications and maintenance access.
(a) Reliability indications must be provided to identify failures of the FRM that would otherwise be latent and whose identification is necessary to ensure the fuel tank with an FRM meets the fleet average flammability exposure requirements listed in paragraph M25.1 of this appendix, including when the FRM is inoperative.
(b) Sufficient accessibility to FRM reliability indications must be provided for maintenance personnel or the flightcrew.
(c) The access doors and panels to the fuel tanks with FRMs (including any tanks that communicate with a tank via a vent system), and to any other confined spaces or enclosed areas that could contain hazardous atmosphere under normal conditions or failure conditions, must be permanently stenciled, marked, or placarded to warn maintenance personnel of the possible presence of a potentially hazardous atmosphere.
M25.4Airworthiness limitations and procedures.
(a) If FRM is used to comply with paragraph M25.1 of this appendix, Airworthiness Limitations must be identified for all maintenance or inspection tasks required to identify failures of components within the FRM that are needed to meet paragraph M25.1 of this appendix.
(b) Maintenance procedures must be developed to identify any hazards to be considered during maintenance of the FRM. These procedures must be included in the instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA).
The effects of airplane component failures on FRM reliability must be assessed on an on-going basis. The applicant/holder must do the following:
(a) Demonstrate effective means to ensure collection of FRM reliability data. The means must provide data affecting FRM reliability, such as component failures.
(b) Unless alternative reporting procedures are approved by the FAA Oversight Office, as defined in part 26 of this subchapter, provide a report to the FAA every six months for the first five years after service introduction. After that period, continued reporting every six months may be replaced with other reliability tracking methods found acceptable to the FAA or eliminated if it is established that the reliability of the FRM meets, and will continue to meet, the exposure requirements of paragraph M25.1 of this appendix.
(c) Develop service instructions or revise the applicable airplane manual, according to a schedule approved by the FAA Oversight Office, as defined in part 26 of this subchapter, to correct any failures of the FRM that occur in service that could increase any fuel tank's Fleet Average Flammability Exposure to more than that required by paragraph M25.1 of this appendix.