16 CFR § 1500.49 - Technical requirements for determining a sharp metal or glass edge in toys and other articles intended for use by children under 8 years of age.
(a) Objective. The sharp edge test method prescribed by paragraph (d) of this section will be used by the Commission in making a preliminary determination that metal or glass edges on toys and other articles intended for use by children under 8 years of age, and such edges exposed in normal use or as a result of reasonably forseeable damage or abuse of such toys and articles, present a potential risk of injury by laceration or avulsion under section 2(s) of the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (15 U.S.C. 1261(s)). The Commission will further evaluate toys and other articles with edges that are identified as presenting a potential risk of laceration or avulsion injury to determine the need for individual product regulation.
(b) Scope -
(1) General. The sharp edge test of paragraph (d) of this section is applicable to toys or other articles containing metal or glass edges that are introduced into interstate commerce after March 26, 1979. Such articles manufactured outside the United States are introduced into interstate commerce when first brought within as U.S. port of entry. Such articles manufactured in the United States are introduced into interstate commerce (a) at the time of first interstate sale, or (b) at the time of first intrastate sale if one or more components and/or raw materials were received interstate, whichever occurs earlier.
(i) Toys and other children's articles that are the subject of any of the following regulations are exempt from this § 1500.49: The regulations for bicycles, non-full-size baby cribs, and full-size baby cribs (parts 1508, 1509, and 1512 of this chapter).
(ii) Toys that by reason of their functional purpose necessarily present the hazard of sharp metal or glass edges and that do not have any nonfunctional sharp metal or glass edges are exempt from this section: Provided, the toy is identified by a conspicuous, legible, and visible label at the time of any sale, as having functional sharp metal or glass edges. Examples of these are a pair of toy scissors and toy tool kits.
(iii) Articles, besides toys, intended for use by children that by reason of their functional purpose necessarily present the hazard of sharp metal or glass edges and that do not have any non-functional sharp metal or glass edges are exempt from this section. Examples of these are children's ice skates and children's cutlery.
(3) Definitions -
(i) Glass. For the purpose of this regulation the Commission defines glass as a hard, brittle, amorphous substance produced by fusion, usually consisting of mutually dissolved silica and silicates that also contain soda and lime.
(c) Accessibility -
(1) General. Any metal or glass edge that is accessible either before or after the test of §§ 1500.51, 1500.52, and 1500.53 (excluding the bite test - paragraph (c) of each section) are performed shall be subject to the sharp edge test of paragraph (d) of this section. Toys reasonably intended to be assembled by an adult and not intended to be taken apart by a child shall be tested only in the assembled state if the shelf package and the assembly instructions prominently indicate that the article is to be assembled only by an adult.
(2) Accessible edges.
(i) An accessible metal or glass edge for a toy or article intended for children 3 years of age or less is one that can be contacted by any portion forward of the collar of the accessibility probe designated as probe A in Figure 2 of this section.
(ii) An accessible edge for a toy or article intended for children over 3 years and up to 8 years of age is one that can be contacted by any portion forward of the collar of the accessibility probe designated as Probe B in Figure 2 of this section.
(iii) An accessible edge for a toy or article intended for children of ages spanning both age groups is one that can be contacted by any portion forward of the collar of either Probe A or Probe B, as shown in Figure 2 of this section.
(3) Insertion depth.
(i) For any hole, recess, or opening having a minor dimension (the minor dimension of an opening is the diameter of the largest sphere that will pass through the opening), smaller than the collar diameter of the appropriate probe, the total insertion depth for accessibility shall be up to the collar on the appropriate probe. Each probe joint may be rotated up to 90 degrees to simulate knuckle movement.
(ii) For any hole, recess, or opening having a minor dimension larger than the collar diameter of Probe A, but less than 7.36 inches (186.9 millimeters), when Probe A is used, or a minor dimension larger than the collar diameter of Probe B, but less than 9.00 inches (228.6 millimeters), when Probe B is used, the total insertion depth for accessibility shall be determined by inserting the appropriate probe with the extension, shown in Figure 2, in any direction up to 2 1/4 times the minor dimension of the hole, recess, or opening, measured from any point in the plane of the opening. Each probe joint may be rotated up to 90 degrees to simulate knuckle movement.
(iii) For any hole, recess, or opening having a minor dimension of 7.36 inches (186.9 millimeters) or larger when Probe A is used, or a minor dimension of 9.00 inches (228.6 millimeters) or larger when Probe B is used, the total insertion depth for accessibility is unrestricted unless other holes, recesses, or openings within the original hole, recess, or opening are encountered with dimensions specified in paragraph (c)(3) (i) or (ii) of this section. In such instances, the appropriate paragraphs (c)(3) (i) or (ii) of this section shall be followed. If both probes are to be used, a minor dimension that is 7.36 inches (186.9 millimeters or larger shall determine unrestricted access.
(4) Inaccessible edges. Metal or glass edges shall be considered inaccessible without testing with a probe if they lie adjacent to a surface of the test sample, and any gap between the edge and the adjacent surface does not exceed 0.020 inch (0.50 millimeter) both before and after the tests of §§ 1500.51, 1500.52, and 1500.53 (excluding the bite test - paragraph (c) of each section) are performed. For example, in a lap joint in which a metal edge is overlapped by a parallel surface, any burr or feather-edge on the side closest to the protecting parallel surface is considered inaccessible if the gap between the edge and the parallel surface is no greater than 0.020 inch (0.50 millimeter). As an additional example, when sheet metal has a hemmed edge a portion of the sheet adjacent to the edge is folded back upon itself, approximately 180 degrees, so that it is roughly parallel to the main sheet. Any burrs or feathering on the inside edge, the side closest to the protecting parallel surface of the main sheet, will be considered inaccessible if the gap between the inside edge and the parallel surface does not exceed 0.020 inch (0.50 millimeter).
(d) Sharp edge test method -
(1) Principle of operation. The test shall be performed with a sharp edge tester which contains a cylindrical mandrel capable of rotation at a constant velocity. (Engineering drawings for a suitable portable sharp edge test instrument are available from the Commission's Office of the Secretary.) The full circumference of the mandrel shall be wrapped with a single layer of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) tape as specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section. The mandrel shall be applied to the edge to be tested with a normal force of 1.35 pounds (6.00 Newtons) such that the edge contacts the approximate center of the width of the tape as shown in Figure 1 of this section. The mandrel shall be rotated through one complete revolution while maintaining the force against the edge constant. Linear motion of the mandrel along the line of the edge shall be prevented. The edge shall be identified as sharp if it completely cuts through the tape for a length of not less than 1/2 inch (13 millimeters) at any force up to 1.35 pounds (6.00 Newtons).
(i) The edge of the sample to be tested shall be held in such a manner that it does not move during the test. If the full mandrel force of 1.35 pounds (6.00 Newtons) causes the edge to bend, a reduced mandrel force may be used.
(ii) Part of the test sample may need to be removed to allow the sharp edge testing device to test an edge that is accessible by the criteria of paragraph (c) of this section. Such dismantling of the test sample could affect the rigidity of the edge in question. The sharp edge test shall be performed with the edge supported so that its stiffness approximates but is not greater than the edge stiffness in the assembled sample.
(iii) Conduct of a sharp edge test is as follows: Wrap one layer of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) tape, described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, around the full circumference of the mandrel in an unstretched state. The ends of the tape shall be either butted or overlapped not more than 0.10 inch (2.5 millimeters). Apply the mandrel, at the approximate center of the tape, to the edge of the test sample with a force of 1.35 pounds (6.00 Newtons) measured in a direction at right angles to the mandrel axis. The mandrel shall be placed so that its axis is at 90 degrees ±5 degrees to the line of a straight test edge or 90 degrees ±5 degrees to a tangent at the point of contact with a curved test edge. The point of contact between the test edge and the mandrel shall be in the approximate center of the width of the tape. The axis of the mandrel may be positioned anywhere in a plane which is at right angles to either the line of a straight test edge or to a tangent at the point of contact with a curved test edge. The operator should seek the orientation most likely to cause the edge to cut the tape. Maintain the force against the edge and rotate the mandrel through one complete revolution while preventing any linear motion of the mandrel along the edge. Release the mandrel from the edge and remove the tape without enlarging any cut or causing any score to become a cut. A cut in the tape with a length of not less than 1/2 inch (13 millimeters) identifies an edge as sharp. (The test instruments used by the Commission in its test for compliance with the regulation will be calibrated to insure that the force with which the mandrel is applied to a test edge does not exceed 1.35 pounds.)
(e) Specifications for sharp edge test equipment. The following specifications shall apply to the equipment to be used in the sharp edge test described in paragraph (d) of this section:
(1) The rotation of the mandrel shall produce a constant tangential velocity of 1.00±0.08 inch per second (25.4±2.0 millimeters per second) during the center 75 percent of its rotation and shall have a smooth start and stop.
(2) The mandrel shall be made of steel. The test surface of the mandrel shall be free of scratches, nicks, or burrs and shall have a surface roughness no greater than 16 microinches (0.40 micron). The test surface shall have a hardness no less than 40 as measured on the Rockwell “C” scale, as determined pursuant to ASTM E 18-74 entitled “Standard Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell Superficial Hardness of Metallic Materials,” published July 1974 and which is incorporated by reference in this regulation. (Copies are available from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.) The diameter of the mandrel shall be 0.375±0.005 inch (9.35±0.12 millimeters). The mandrel shall be of suitable length to carry out the test.
(3) The tape shall be pressure-sensitive polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) high temperature electrical insulation tape as described in Military Specification MIL-I-23594B (1971) which is incorporated by reference in this regulation. (Copies are available from Naval Publications and Forms Center, 5801 Tabor Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 19120.) The thickness of the polytetrafluoroethylene backing shall be between 0.0026 inch (0.066 millimeter) and 0.0035 inch (0.089 millimeter). 1 The adhesive shall be pressure-sensitive silicone polymer with a nominal thickness of 0.003 inch (.08 millimeter). The width of the tape shall not be less than 1/4 inch (6 millimeters). While conducting sharp edge tests the temperature of the tape shall be maintained between 70 °F (21.1 °C) and 80 °F (26.6 °C).
1 The tape that the Commission will use for the sharp edge test is CHR type “T” manufactured by The Connecticut Hard Rubber Co., New and East Streets, New Haven, Conn. 06509.
(f) For the purpose of conformance with the technical requirements prescribed by this § 1500.49, the English figures shall be used. The metric approximations are provided in parentheses for convenience and information only.