16 CFR 801.1 - Definitions.
When used in the act and these rules -
(1) Person. Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the term person means an ultimate parent entity and all entities which it controls directly or indirectly.
2. Corporations A and B are each directly controlled by the same foreign state. They are not included within the same “person,” although the corporations are under common control, because the foreign state which controls them is not an “entity” (see § 801.1(a)(2)). Corporations A and B* are the ultimate parent entities within persons “A”, and “B” which include any entities each may control.
* Throughout the examples to the rules, persons are designated (“A”, “B,” etc.) with quotation marks, and entities are designated (A, B, etc.) without quotation marks.
4. See the example to § 801.2(a).
(2) Entity. The term entity means any natural person, corporation, company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, estate of a deceased natural person, foundation, fund, institution, society, union, or club, whether incorporated or not, wherever located and of whatever citizenship, or any receiver, trustee in bankruptcy or similar official or any liquidating agent for any of the foregoing, in his or her capacity as such; or any joint venture or other corporation which has not been formed but the acquisition of the voting securities or other interest in which, if already formed, would require notification under the act and these rules:
Provided, however, that the term entity shall not include any foreign state, foreign government, or agency thereof (other than a corporation or unincorporated entity engaged in commerce), nor the United States, any of the States thereof, or any political subdivision or agency of either (other than a corporation or unincorporated entity engaged in commerce).
(3) Ultimate parent entity. The term ultimate parent entity means an entity which is not controlled by any other entity.
2. If corporation A is controlled by natural person D, natural person D is the ultimate parent entity.
3. P and Q are the ultimate parent entities within persons “P” and “Q.” If P and Q each own 50 percent of the voting securities of R, then P and Q are both ultimate parents of R, and R is part of both persons “P” and “Q.”
(b) Control. The term control (as used in the terms control(s), controlling, controlled by and under common control with) means:
(i) Holding 50 percent or more of the outstanding voting securities of an issuer or
(ii) In the case of an unincorporated entity, having the right to 50 percent or more of the profits of the entity, or having the right in the event of dissolution to 50 percent or more of the assets of the entity; or
(2) Having the contractual power presently to designate 50 percent or more of the directors of a for-profit or not-for-profit corporation, or in the case of trusts that are irrevocable and/or in which the settlor does not retain a reversionary interest, the trustees of such a trust.
2. A statutory limited partnership agreement provides as follows: The general partner “A” is entitled to 50 percent of the partnership profits, “B” is entitled to 40 percent of the profits and “C” is entitled to 10 percent of the profits. Upon dissolution, “B” is entitled to 75 percent of the partnership assets and “C” is entitled to 25 percent of those assets. All limited and general partners are entitled to vote on the following matters: the dissolution of the partnership, the transfer of assets not in the ordinary course of business, any change in the nature of the business, and the removal of the general partner. The interest of each partner is evidenced by an ownership certificate that is transferable under the terms of the partnership agreement and is subject to the Securities Act of 1933. For purposes of these rules, control of this partnership is determined by paragraph (1)(ii) of this section. Although partnership interests may be securities and have some voting rights attached to them, they do not entitle the owner of that interest to vote for a corporate “director” as required by § 801.1(f)(1). Thus control of a partnership is not determined on the basis of either paragraph (1)(i) or (2) of this section. Consequently, “A” is deemed to control the partnership because of its right to 50 percent of the partnership's profits. “B” is also deemed to control the partnership because it is entitled to 75 percent of the partnership's assets upon dissolution.
3. “A” is a nonprofit charitable foundation that has formed a partnership joint venture with “B,” a nonprofit university, to establish C, a nonprofit hospital corporation that does not issue voting securities. Pursuant to its charter “A” and “B” are each entitled to appoint three of C's six directors. “A” and “B” would each be deemed to control C, pursuant to § 801.1(b)(2) because each is deemed to have the contractual power presently to designate 50 percent or more of the directors of a not-for-profit corporation.
4. “A” is entitled to 50 percent of the profits of partnership B and 50 percent of the profits of partnership C. B and C form a partnership E with “D” in which each entity has a right to one-third of the profits. When E acquires company X, “A” must report the transaction (assuming it is otherwise reportable). Pursuant to § 801.1(b)(1)(ii), E is deemed to be controlled by “A,” even though “A” ultimately will receive only one-third of the profits of E. Because B and C are considered as part of “A,” the rules attribute all profits to which B and C are entitled (two-thirds of the profits of E in this example) to “A.”
5. A is the settlor of an irrevocable trust in which it does not retain a reversionary interest in the corpus of the trust. A is entitled under the trust indenture to designate four of the eight trustees of the trust. A controls the trust pursuant to § 801.1(b)(2) and is deemed to hold the assets that constitute the corpus of the trust. Note that the right to designate 50 percent or more of the trustees of a business trust that has equity holders entitled to profits or assets upon dissolution of the business trust does not constitute control. Such business trusts are treated as unincorporated entities and control is determined pursuant to § 801.1(b)(1)(ii).
(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraphs (c) (2) through (8) of this section, the term hold (as used in the terms hold(s), holding, holder and held) means beneficial ownership, whether direct, or indirect through fiduciaries, agents, controlled entities or other means.
(2) The holdings of spouses and their minor children shall be holdings of each of them.
(3) Except for a common trust fund or collective investment fund within the meaning of 12 CFR 9.18(a) (both of which are hereafter referred to in this paragraph as “collective investment funds”), and any revocable trust or an irrevocable trust in which the settlor retains a reversionary interest in the corpus, a trust, including a pension trust, shall hold all assets and voting securities constituting the corpus of the trust.
(4) The assets and voting securities constituting the corpus of a revocable trust or the corpus of an irrevocable trust in which the settlor(s) retain(s) a reversionary interest in the corpus shall be holdings of the settlor(s) of such trust.
(5) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, beneficiaries of a trust, including a pension trust or a collective investment fund, shall not hold any assets or voting securities constituting the corpus of such trust.
(8) A person holds all assets and voting securities held by the entities included within it; in addition to its own holding, an entity holds all assets and voting securities held by the entities which it controls directly or indirectly.
(A) Has the right, directly or indirectly, to manage the operations or investment decisions of an acquiring entity (a “managing entity”); or
(B) Has its operations or investment decisions, directly or indirectly, managed by the acquiring person; or
(C) Directly or indirectly controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with a managing entity; or
(D) Directly or indirectly manages, is managed by, or is under common operational or investment decision management with a managing entity.
2. XYZ Corporation is its own ultimate parent and intends to make a reportable acquisition. Pursuant to a management contract, Fund MNO has the right to manage the investments of XYZ Corporation. For the HSR filing by XYZ Corporation, Fund MNO is an associate of XYZ, as is any other entity that either controls, or is controlled by, or manages or is managed by Fund MNO or is under common control or common investment management with Fund MNO.
3. EFG Investment Group has the contractual power to determine the investments of PRS Corporation, which is its own ultimate parent. Natural person Mr. X, who is not an employee of EFG Investment Group, has been contracted by EFG Investment Group as its investment manager. When PRS Corporation makes an acquisition, its associates include (i) EFG Investment Group, (ii) any entity over which EFG Investment Group has investment authority, (iii) any entity that controls, or is controlled by, EFG Investment Group, (iv) Natural person Mr. X, (v) any entity over which Natural person Mr. X has investment management authority, and (vi) any entity which is controlled by Natural person Mr. X, directly or indirectly.
4. CORP1 controls GP1 and GP2, the sole general partners of private equity funds LP1 and LP2 respectively. LP1 controls GP3, the sole general partner of MLP1, a newly formed master limited partnership which is its own ultimate parent entity. LP2 controls GP4, the sole general partner of MLP2, another master limited partnership that is its own ultimate parent entity and which owns and operates a natural gas pipeline. In addition, GP4 holds 25 percent of the voting securities of CORP2, which also owns and operates a natural gas pipeline.
MLP1 is acquiring 100 percent of the membership interests of LLC1, also the owner and operator of a natural gas pipeline. MLP2, CORP2 and LLC1 all derive revenues in the same NAICS code (Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas). All of the entities under common investment management of CORP1, including GP4 and MLP2, are associates of MLP1, the acquiring person.
In Item 7 of its HSR filing, MLP1 would identify MLP2 as an associate that has an overlap in pipeline transportation of natural gas with LLC1, the acquired person. Because GP4 does not control CORP2 it would not be listed in Item 7, however, GP4 would be listed in Item 6(c)(ii) as an associate that holds 25 percent of the voting securities of CORP2. In this example, even though there is no direct overlap between the acquiring person (MLP1) and the acquired person (LLC1), there is an overlap reported for an associate (MLP2) of the acquiring person in Item 7. 5. LLC is the investment manager for and ultimate parent entity of general partnerships GP1 and GP2. GP1 is the general partner of LP1, a limited partnership that holds 30 percent of the voting securities of CORP1. GP2 is the general partner of LP2, which holds 55 percent of the voting securities of CORP1. GP2 also directly holds 2 percent of the voting securities of CORP1. LP1 is acquiring 100 percent of the voting securities of CORP2. CORP1 and CORP2 both derive revenues in the same NAICS code (Industrial Gas Manufacturing).
All of the entities under common investment management of the managing entity LLC, including GP1, GP2, LP2 and CORP1 are associates of LP1. In Item 6(c)(i) of its HSR filing, LP1 would report its own holding of 30 percent of the voting securities of CORP1. It would not report the 55 percent holding of LP2 in Item 6(c)(ii) because it is greater than 50 percent. It also would not report GP2's 2 percent holding because it is less than 5 percent. In Item 7, LP1 would identify both LP2 and CORP1 as associates that derive revenues in the same NAICS code as CORP2.
6. LLC is the investment manager for GP1 and GP2 which are the general partners of limited partnerships LP1 and LP2, respectively. LLC holds no equity interests in either general partnership but manages their investments and the investments of the limited partnerships by contract. LP1 is newly formed and its own ultimate parent entity. It plans to acquire 100 percent of the voting securities of CORP1, which derives revenues in the NAICS code for Consumer Lending. LP2 controls CORP2, which derives revenues in the same NAICS code. All of the entities under the common management of LLC, including LP2 and CORP2, are associates of LP1. For purposes of Item 7, LP1 would report LP2 and CORP2 as associates that derive revenues in the NAICS code that overlaps with CORP1. Even though the investment manager (LLC) holds no equity interest in GP1 or GP2, the contractual arrangement with them makes them associates of LP1 through common management.
8. Limited partnership A is an investment partnership that is making an acquisition. LLC B has no equity interest in A, but has a contract to manage its investments for a fee. LLC B has an investment committee comprised of twelve of its employees that makes the actual investment decisions. LLC B is an associate of A but none of the twelve employees are associates of A, as LLC B is a managing entity and the twelve individuals are merely its employees. Contrast this with example 3 where a managing entity, EFG, is itself managed by another entity, Mr. X, who is thus an associate.
9. GP is the general partner of FUND. GP has contracted with LLC to act as an investment advisor with respect to FUND's investments. In this role, LLC acts as a consultant who makes recommendations to GP on what portfolio companies FUND should invest in. The recommendations are non-binding and GP is the only entity that has the authority to exercise investment discretion over FUND's acquisitions of interests in portfolio companies. In this example, GP is an associate of FUND, while LLC is not.
10. GP A is the general partner and investment manager of FUND A1. Mr. X is a principal in the A family of private equity funds and has the contractual right to veto certain proposed actions of GP A and FUND A1, for example, divestitures of stock that would result in a change of control in a portfolio company. His contractual right to veto certain proposed actions does not constitute managing operations. Mr. X does not have the authority under the contract to veto proposed investments of FUND A1 directed by GP A or to direct GP A to authorize investments by FUND A1. In this example, GP A is an associate of FUND A1, while Mr. X is not.
11. LLC is the general partner of LP and has entered into a management contract to exercise investment discretion over LP's investments in portfolio companies as well as to provide certain other administrative services for LP. Mr. Y is the managing member of LLC and as such is the person who actually makes the investment decisions on behalf of LLC. Mr. Y has no management contract with either LLC or LP. In this example, LLC is an associate of LP, while Mr. Y is not. Compare with Example 7 where officers and directors of a corporation are not associates of the corporation.
12. GP is the general partner of LP and has entered into a management contract to exercise investment discretion over LP's investments in portfolio companies. GP has entered into a contract with CORP, under which CORP will manage building maintenance and certain back office functions (e.g., maintenance of phones and computers, accounting, IT and human resources) for LP. GP is an associate of LP because it manages LP's investments. However, the management services provided by CORP do not constitute operational management, therefore, CORP is not an associate of LP.
(ii) United States issuer. The term United States issuer means an issuer which is incorporated in the United States, is organized under the laws of the United States or has its principal offices within the United States.
(ii) Foreign issuer. The term foreign issuer means an issuer which is not incorporated in the United States, is not organized under the laws of the United States and does not have its principal offices within the United States.
(i) Voting securities. The term voting securities means any securities which at present or upon conversion entitle the owner or holder thereof to vote for the election of directors of the issuer, or of an entity included within the same person as the issuer.
(ii) Non-corporate interest. The term “non-corporate interest” means an interest in any unincorporated entity which gives the holder the right to any profits of the entity or in the event of dissolution of that entity the right to any of its assets after payment of its debts. These unincorporated entities include, but are not limited to, general partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, cooperatives and business trusts; but these unincorporated entities do not include trusts that are irrevocable and/or in which the settlor does not retain a reversionary interest and any interest in such a trust is not a non-corporate interest as defined by this rule.
(2) Convertible voting security. The term convertible voting security means a voting security which presently does not entitle its owner or holder to vote for directors of any entity.
(3) Conversion. The term conversion means the exercise of a right inherent in the ownership or holding of particular voting securities to exchange such securities for securities which presently entitle the owner or holder to vote for directors of the issuer or of any entity included within the same person as the issuer.
2. Options and warrants are also “voting securities” for purposes of the act, because they can be exchanged for securities with present voting rights. Section 802.31 exempts the acquisition of options and warrants as well, since they do not themselves have present voting rights and hence are convertible voting securities. Notification may be required prior to exercising options and warrants, however.
3. Assume that X has issued preferred shares which presently entitle the holder to vote for directors of X, and that these shares are convertible into common shares of X. Because the preferred shares confer a present right to vote for directors of X, they are “voting securities.” (See § 801.1(f)(1).) They are not “convertible voting securities,” however, because the definition of that term excludes securities which confer a present right to vote for directors of any entity. (See § 801.1(f)(2).) Thus, an acquisition of these preferred shares issued by X would not be exempt as an acquisition of “convertible voting securities.” (See § 802.31.) If the criteria in section 7A(a) are met, an acquisition of X's preferred shares would be subject to the reporting and waiting period requirements of the Act. Moreover, the conversion of these preferred shares into common shares of X would also be potentially reportable, since the holder would be exercising a right to exchange particular voting securities for different voting securities having a present right to vote for directors of the issuer. Because this exchange would be a “conversion,” § 801.30 would apply. (See § 801.30(a)(6).)
(h) Notification threshold. The term “notification threshold” means:
(1) Solely for the purpose of investment. Voting securities are held or acquired “solely for the purpose of investment” if the person holding or acquiring such voting securities has no intention of participating in the formulation, determination, or direction of the basic business decisions of the issuer.
(2) Investment assets. The term investment assets means cash, deposits in financial institutions, other money market instruments, and instruments evidencing government obligations.
(j) Engaged in manufacturing. A person is engaged in manufacturing if it produces and derives annual sales or revenues in excess of $1 million from products within industries in Sectors 31-33 as coded by the North American Industry Classification System (2002 Edition) published by the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget.
(k) United States. The term United States shall include the several States, the territories, possessions, and commonwealths of the United States, and the District of Columbia.
(m) The act. References to “the act” refer to Section 7A of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 18a, as added by section 201 of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, Pub. L. 94-435, 90 Stat. 1390, and as amended by Pub. L. 106-553, 114 Stat. 2762. References to “Section 7A( )” refer to subsections of Section 7A of the Clayton Act. References to “this section” refer to the section of these rules in which the term appears.
(n) (as adjusted). The parenthetical “(as adjusted)” refers to the adjusted values published in the Federal Register notice titled “Revised Jurisdictional Threshold for Section 7A of the Clayton Act.” This Federal Register notice will be published in January of each year and the values contained therein will be effective as of the effective date published in the Federal Register notice and will remain effective until superseded in the next calendar year. The notice will also be available at http://www.ftc.gov. Such adjusted values will be calculated in accordance with Section 7A(a)(2)(A) and will be rounded up to the next highest $100,000.
(o) All commercially significant rights. For purposes of paragraph (g) of § 801.2, the term all commercially significant rights means the exclusive rights to a patent that allow only the recipient of the exclusive patent rights to use the patent in a particular therapeutic area (or specific indication within a therapeutic area).
(p) Limited manufacturing rights. For purposes of paragraph (o) of this section and paragraph (g) of § 801.2, the term limited manufacturing rights means the rights retained by a patent holder to manufacture the product(s) covered by a patent when all other exclusive rights to the patent within a therapeutic area (or specific indication within a therapeutic area) have been transferred to the recipient of the patent rights. The retained right to manufacture is limited in that it is retained by the patent holder solely to provide the recipient of the patent rights with product(s) covered by the patent (which either the patent holder alone or both the patent holder and the recipient may manufacture).
(q) Co-rights. For purposes of paragraph (o) of this section and paragraph (g) of § 801.2, the term co-rights means shared rights retained by the patent holder to assist the recipient of the exclusive patent rights in developing and commercializing the product covered by the patent. These co-rights include, but are not limited to, co-development, co-promotion, co-marketing and co-commercialization.