16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.
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Any transaction(s) or other device(s) entered into or employed for the purpose of avoiding the obligation to comply with the requirements of the act shall be disregarded, and the obligation to comply shall be determined by applying the act and these rules to the substance of the transaction.
1. Suppose corporations A and B wish to form a joint venture. A and B contemplate a total investment of over $100 million (as adjusted) in the joint venture; persons “A” and “B” each have total assets in excess of $100 million (as adjusted). Instead of filing notification pursuant to § 801.40, A creates a new subsidiary, A1, which issues half of its authorized shares to A. Assume that A1 has total assets of $3000. “A” then sells 50 percent of its A1 stock to “B” for $1500. Thereafter, “A” and “B” each contribute in excess of $50 million (as adjusted) to A1 in exchange for the remaining authorized A1 stock (one-fourth each to “A” and “B”). A's creation of A1 was exempt under Sec. 802.30; its $1500 sale of A1 stock to “B” did not meet the size-of-transaction filing threshold in Section 7A(a)(2)(B); and the second acquisition of stock in A1 by “A” and “B” was exempt under § 802.30 and Sections 7A(c)(3) and (10). Since this scheme appears to be for the purpose of avoiding the requirements of the act, the sequence of transactions will be disregarded. The transactions will be viewed as the formation of a joint venture corporation by “A” and “B” having over $10 million (as adjusted) in assets. Such a transaction would be covered by § 801.40 and “A” and “B” must file notification and observe the waiting period.
2. Suppose “A” wholly owns and operates a chain of twenty retail hardware stores, each of which is separately incorporated and has assets of less than $10 million. The aggregate fair market value of the assets of the twenty store corporations is in excess of $50 million (as adjusted). “A” proposes to sell the stores to “B” for in excess of $50 million (as adjusted). For various reasons it is decided that “B” will buy the stock of each of the store corporations from “A.” Instead of filing notification and observing the waiting period as contemplated by the act, “A” and “B” enter into a series of five stock purchase-sale agreements for $12 million each. Under the terms of each contract, the stock of four stores will pass from “A” to “B”. The five agreements are to be consummated on five successive days. Because after each of these transactions the store corporations are no longer part of the acquired person (§ 801.13(a) does not apply because control has passed, see § 801.2), and because $12 million is below the size-of-transaction filing threshold of Section 7A(a)(2)(B), none of the contemplated acquisitions would be subject to the requirements of the act. However, if the stock of all of the store corporations were to be purchased in one transaction, no exemption would be applicable, and the act's requirements would have to be met. Because it appears that the purpose of making five separate contracts is to avoid the requirements of the act, this section would ignore the form of the separate transactions and consider the substance to be one transaction requiring compliance with the act.
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