2 CFR Part 225, Appendix B to Part 225 - Selected Items of Cost
Appendix B to Part 225—Selected Items of Cost
Table of Contents
1. Advertising and public relations costs
2. Advisory councils
3. Alcoholic beverages
4. Audit costs and related services
5. Bad debts
6. Bonding costs
7. Communication costs
8. Compensation for personal services
9. Contingency provisions
10. Defense and prosecution of criminal and civil proceedings, and claims
11. Depreciation and use allowances
12. Donations and contributions
13. Employee morale, health, and welfare costs
14. Entertainment costs
15. Equipment and other capital expenditures
16. Fines and penalties
17. Fund raising and investment management costs
18. Gains and losses on disposition of depreciable property and other capital assets and substantial relocation of Federal programs
19. General government expenses
20. Goods or services for personal use
21. Idle facilities and idle capacity
22. Insurance and indemnification
25. Maintenance, operations, and repairs
26. Materials and supplies costs
27. Meetings and conferences
28. Memberships, subscriptions, and professional activity costs
29. Patent costs
30. Plant and homeland security costs
31. Pre-award costs
32. Professional service costs
33. Proposal costs
34. Publication and printing costs
35. Rearrangement and alteration costs
36. Reconversion costs
37. Rental costs of building and equipment
38. Royalties and other costs for the use of patents
39. Selling and marketing
41. Termination costs applicable to sponsored agreements
42. Training costs
43. Travel costs
Sections 1 through 43 provide principles to be applied in establishing the allowability or unallowability of certain items of cost. These principles apply whether a cost is treated as direct or indirect. A cost is allowable for Federal reimbursement only to the extent of benefits received by Federal awards and its conformance with the general policies and principles stated in Appendix A to this part. Failure to mention a particular item of cost in these sections is not intended to imply that it is either allowable or unallowable; rather, determination of allowability in each case should be based on the treatment or standards provided for similar or related items of cost.
1. Advertising and public relations costs.
a. The term advertising costs means the costs of advertising media and corollary administrative costs. Advertising media include magazines, newspapers, radio and television, direct mail, exhibits, electronic or computer transmittals, and the like.
b. The term public relations includes community relations and means those activities dedicated to maintaining the image of the governmental unit or maintaining or promoting understanding and favorable relations with the community or public at large or any segment of the public.
c. The only allowable advertising costs are those which are solely for:
(1) The recruitment of personnel required for the performance by the governmental unit of obligations arising under a Federal award;
(2) The procurement of goods and services for the performance of a Federal award;
(3) The disposal of scrap or surplus materials acquired in the performance of a Federal award except when governmental units are reimbursed for disposal costs at a predetermined amount; or
(4) Other specific purposes necessary to meet the requirements of the Federal award.
d. The only allowable public relations costs are:
(1) Costs specifically required by the Federal award;
(2) Costs of communicating with the public and press pertaining to specific activities or accomplishments which result from performance of Federal awards (these costs are considered necessary as part of the outreach effort for the Federal award); or
(3) Costs of conducting general liaison with news media and government public relations officers, to the extent that such activities are limited to communication and liaison necessary keep the public informed on matters of public concern, such as notices of Federal contract/grant awards, financial matters, etc.
e. Costs identified in subsections c and d if incurred for more than one Federal award or for both sponsored work and other work of the governmental unit, are allowable to the extent that the principles in Appendix A to this part, sections E. (“Direct Costs”) and F. (“Indirect Costs”) are observed.
f. Unallowable advertising and public relations costs include the following:
(1) All advertising and public relations costs other than as specified in subsections 1.c, d, and e of this appendix;
(2) Costs of meetings, conventions, convocations, or other events related to other activities of the governmental unit, including:
(a) Costs of displays, demonstrations, and exhibits;
(b) Costs of meeting rooms, hospitality suites, and other special facilities used in conjunction with shows and other special events; and
(c) Salaries and wages of employees engaged in setting up and displaying exhibits, making demonstrations, and providing briefings;
(3) Costs of promotional items and memorabilia, including models, gifts, and souvenirs;
(4) Costs of advertising and public relations designed solely to promote the governmental unit.
2. Advisory councils. Costs incurred by advisory councils or committees are allowable as a direct cost where authorized by the Federal awarding agency or as an indirect cost where allocable to Federal awards.
3. Alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable.
4. Audit costs and related services.
a. The costs of audits required by , and performed in accordance with, the Single Audit Act, as implemented by Circular A-133, “Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations” are allowable. Also see 31 U.S.C. 7505(b) and section 230 (“Audit Costs”) of Circular A-133.
b. Other audit costs are allowable if included in a cost allocation plan or indirect cost proposal, or if specifically approved by the awarding agency as a direct cost to an award.
c. The cost of agreed-upon procedures engagements to monitor subrecipients who are exempted from A-133 under section 200(d) are allowable, subject to the conditions listed in A-133, section 230 (b)(2).
5. Bad debts. Bad debts, including losses (whether actual or estimated) arising from uncollectible accounts and other claims, related collection costs, and related legal costs, are unallowable.
6. Bonding costs.
a. Bonding costs arise when the Federal Government requires assurance against financial loss to itself or others by reason of the act or default of the governmental unit. They arise also in instances where the governmental unit requires similar assurance. Included are such bonds as bid, performance, payment, advance payment, infringement, and fidelity bonds.
b. Costs of bonding required pursuant to the terms of the award are allowable.
c. Costs of bonding required by the governmental unit in the general conduct of its operations are allowable to the extent that such bonding is in accordance with sound business practice and the rates and premiums are reasonable under the circumstances.
7. Communication costs. Costs incurred for telephone services, local and long distance telephone calls, telegrams, postage, messenger, electronic or computer transmittal services and the like are allowable.
8. Compensation for personal services.
a. General. Compensation for personnel services includes all remuneration, paid currently or accrued, for services rendered during the period of performance under Federal awards, including but not necessarily limited to wages, salaries, and fringe benefits. The costs of such compensation are allowable to the extent that they satisfy the specific requirements of this and other appendices under 2 CFR Part 225, and that the total compensation for individual employees:
(1) Is reasonable for the services rendered and conforms to the established policy of the governmental unit consistently applied to both Federal and non-Federal activities;
(2) Follows an appointment made in accordance with a governmental unit's laws and rules and meets merit system or other requirements required by Federal law, where applicable; and
(3) Is determined and supported as provided in subsection h.
b. Reasonableness. Compensation for employees engaged in work on Federal awards will be considered reasonable to the extent that it is consistent with that paid for similar work in other activities of the governmental unit. In cases where the kinds of employees required for Federal awards are not found in the other activities of the governmental unit, compensation will be considered reasonable to the extent that it is comparable to that paid for similar work in the labor market in which the employing government competes for the kind of employees involved. Compensation surveys providing data representative of the labor market involved will be an acceptable basis for evaluating reasonableness.
c. Unallowable costs. Costs which are unallowable under other sections of these principles shall not be allowable under this section solely on the basis that they constitute personnel compensation.
d. Fringe benefits.
(1) Fringe benefits are allowances and services provided by employers to their employees as compensation in addition to regular salaries and wages. Fringe benefits include, but are not limited to, the costs of leave, employee insurance, pensions, and unemployment benefit plans. Except as provided elsewhere in these principles, the costs of fringe benefits are allowable to the extent that the benefits are reasonable and are required by law, governmental unit-employee agreement, or an established policy of the governmental unit.
(2) The cost of fringe benefits in the form of regular compensation paid to employees during periods of authorized absences from the job, such as for annual leave, sick leave, holidays, court leave, military leave, and other similar benefits, are allowable if: They are provided under established written leave policies; the costs are equitably allocated to all related activities, including Federal awards; and, the accounting basis (cash or accrual) selected for costing each type of leave is consistently followed by the governmental unit.
(3) When a governmental unit uses the cash basis of accounting, the cost of leave is recognized in the period that the leave is taken and paid for. Payments for unused leave when an employee retires or terminates employment are allowable in the year of payment provided they are allocated as a general administrative expense to all activities of the governmental unit or component.
(4) The accrual basis may be only used for those types of leave for which a liability as defined by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) exists when the leave is earned. When a governmental unit uses the accrual basis of accounting, in accordance with GAAP, allowable leave costs are the lesser of the amount accrued or funded.
(5) The cost of fringe benefits in the form of employer contributions or expenses for social security; employee life, health, unemployment, and worker's compensation insurance (except as indicated in section 22, Insurance and indemnification); pension plan costs (see subsection e.); and other similar benefits are allowable, provided such benefits are granted under established written policies. Such benefits, whether treated as indirect costs or as direct costs, shall be allocated to Federal awards and all other activities in a manner consistent with the pattern of benefits attributable to the individuals or group(s) of employees whose salaries and wages are chargeable to such Federal awards and other activities.
e. Pension plan costs. Pension plan costs may be computed using a pay-as-you-go method or an acceptable actuarial cost method in accordance with established written policies of the governmental unit.
(1) For pension plans financed on a pay-as-you-go method, allowable costs will be limited to those representing actual payments to retirees or their beneficiaries.
(2) Pension costs calculated using an actuarial cost-based method recognized by GAAP are allowable for a given fiscal year if they are funded for that year within six months after the end of that year. Costs funded after the six month period (or a later period agreed to by the cognizant agency) are allowable in the year funded. The cognizant agency may agree to an extension of the six month period if an appropriate adjustment is made to compensate for the timing of the charges to the Federal Government and related Federal reimbursement and the governmental unit's contribution to the pension fund. Adjustments may be made by cash refund or other equitable procedures to compensate the Federal Government for the time value of Federal reimbursements in excess of contributions to the pension fund.
(3) Amounts funded by the governmental unit in excess of the actuarially determined amount for a fiscal year may be used as the governmental unit's contribution in future periods.
(4) When a governmental unit converts to an acceptable actuarial cost method, as defined by GAAP, and funds pension costs in accordance with this method, the unfunded liability at the time of conversion shall be allowable if amortized over a period of years in accordance with GAAP.
(5) The Federal Government shall receive an equitable share of any previously allowed pension costs (including earnings thereon) which revert or inure to the governmental unit in the form of a refund, withdrawal, or other credit.
f. Post-retirement health benefits. Post-retirement health benefits (PRHB) refers to costs of health insurance or health services not included in a pension plan covered by subsection 8.e. of this appendix for retirees and their spouses, dependents, and survivors. PRHB costs may be computed using a pay-as-you-go method or an acceptable actuarial cost method in accordance with established written polices of the governmental unit.
(1) For PRHB financed on a pay as-you-go method, allowable costs will be limited to those representing actual payments to retirees or their beneficiaries.
(2) PRHB costs calculated using an actuarial cost method recognized by GAAP are allowable if they are funded for that year within six months after the end of that year. Costs funded after the six month period (or a later period agreed to by the cognizant agency) are allowable in the year funded. The cognizant agency may agree to an extension of the six month period if an appropriate adjustment is made to compensate for the timing of the charges to the Federal Government and related Federal reimbursements and the governmental unit's contributions to the PRHB fund. Adjustments may be made by cash refund, reduction in current year's PRHB costs, or other equitable procedures to compensate the Federal Government for the time value of Federal reimbursements in excess of contributions to the PRHB fund.
(3) Amounts funded in excess of the actuarially determined amount for a fiscal year may be used as the government's contribution in a future period.
(4) When a governmental unit converts to an acceptable actuarial cost method and funds PRHB costs in accordance with this method, the initial unfunded liability attributable to prior years shall be allowable if amortized over a period of years in accordance with GAAP, or, if no such GAAP period exists, over a period negotiated with the cognizant agency.
(5) To be allowable in the current year, the PRHB costs must be paid either to:
(a) An insurer or other benefit provider as current year costs or premiums, or
(b) An insurer or trustee to maintain a trust fund or reserve for the sole purpose of providing post-retirement benefits to retirees and other beneficiaries.
(6) The Federal Government shall receive an equitable share of any amounts of previously allowed post-retirement benefit costs (including earnings thereon) which revert or inure to the governmental unit in the form of a refund, withdrawal, or other credit.
g. Severance pay.
(1) Payments in addition to regular salaries and wages made to workers whose employment is being terminated are allowable to the extent that, in each case, they are required by law, employer-employee agreement, or established written policy.
(2) Severance payments (but not accruals) associated with normal turnover are allowable. Such payments shall be allocated to all activities of the governmental unit as an indirect cost.
(3) Abnormal or mass severance pay will be considered on a case-by-case basis and is allowable only if approved by the cognizant Federal agency.
h. Support of salaries and wages. These standards regarding time distribution are in addition to the standards for payroll documentation.
(1) Charges to Federal awards for salaries and wages, whether treated as direct or indirect costs, will be based on payrolls documented in accordance with generally accepted practice of the governmental unit and approved by a responsible official(s) of the governmental unit.
(2) No further documentation is required for the salaries and wages of employees who work in a single indirect cost activity.
(3) Where employees are expected to work solely on a single Federal award or cost objective, charges for their salaries and wages will be supported by periodic certifications that the employees worked solely on that program for the period covered by the certification. These certifications will be prepared at least semi-annually and will be signed by the employee or supervisory official having first hand knowledge of the work performed by the employee.
(4) Where employees work on multiple activities or cost objectives, a distribution of their salaries or wages will be supported by personnel activity reports or equivalent documentation which meets the standards in subsection 8.h.(5) of this appendix unless a statistical sampling system (see subsection 8.h.(6) of this appendix) or other substitute system has been approved by the cognizant Federal agency. Such documentary support will be required where employees work on:
(a) More than one Federal award,
(b) A Federal award and a non-Federal award,
(c) An indirect cost activity and a direct cost activity,
(d) Two or more indirect activities which are allocated using different allocation bases, or
(e) An unallowable activity and a direct or indirect cost activity.
(5) Personnel activity reports or equivalent documentation must meet the following standards:
(a) They must reflect an after-the-fact distribution of the actual activity of each employee,
(b) They must account for the total activity for which each employee is compensated,
(c) They must be prepared at least monthly and must coincide with one or more pay periods, and
(d) They must be signed by the employee.
(e) Budget estimates or other distribution percentages determined before the services are performed do not qualify as support for charges to Federal awards but may be used for interim accounting purposes, provided that:
(i) The governmental unit's system for establishing the estimates produces reasonable approximations of the activity actually performed;
(ii) At least quarterly, comparisons of actual costs to budgeted distributions based on the monthly activity reports are made. Costs charged to Federal awards to reflect adjustments made as a result of the activity actually performed may be recorded annually if the quarterly comparisons show the differences between budgeted and actual costs are less than ten percent; and
(iii) The budget estimates or other distribution percentages are revised at least quarterly, if necessary, to reflect changed circumstances.
(6) Substitute systems for allocating salaries and wages to Federal awards may be used in place of activity reports. These systems are subject to approval if required by the cognizant agency. Such systems may include, but are not limited to, random moment sampling, case counts, or other quantifiable measures of employee effort.
(a) Substitute systems which use sampling methods (primarily for Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Medicaid, and other public assistance programs) must meet acceptable statistical sampling standards including:
(i) The sampling universe must include all of the employees whose salaries and wages are to be allocated based on sample results except as provided in subsection 8.h.(6)(c) of this appendix;
(ii) The entire time period involved must be covered by the sample; and
(iii) The results must be statistically valid and applied to the period being sampled.
(b) Allocating charges for the sampled employees' supervisors, clerical and support staffs, based on the results of the sampled employees, will be acceptable.
(c) Less than full compliance with the statistical sampling standards noted in subsection 8.h.(6)(a) of this appendix may be accepted by the cognizant agency if it concludes that the amounts to be allocated to Federal awards will be minimal, or if it concludes that the system proposed by the governmental unit will result in lower costs to Federal awards than a system which complies with the standards.
(7) Salaries and wages of employees used in meeting cost sharing or matching requirements of Federal awards must be supported in the same manner as those claimed as allowable costs under Federal awards.
i. Donated services.
(1) Donated or volunteer services may be furnished to a governmental unit by professional and technical personnel, consultants, and other skilled and unskilled labor. The value of these services is not reimbursable either as a direct or indirect cost. However, the value of donated services may be used to meet cost sharing or matching requirements in accordance with the provisions of the Common Rule.
(2) The value of donated services utilized in the performance of a direct cost activity shall, when material in amount, be considered in the determination of the governmental unit's indirect costs or rate(s) and, accordingly, shall be allocated a proportionate share of applicable indirect costs.
(3) To the extent feasible, donated services will be supported by the same methods used by the governmental unit to support the allocability of regular personnel services.
9. Contingency provisions. Contributions to a contingency reserve or any similar provision made for events the occurrence of which cannot be foretold with certainty as to time, intensity, or with an assurance of their happening, are unallowable. The term “contingency reserve” excludes self-insurance reserves (see section 22.c. of this appendix), pension plan reserves (see section 8.e.), and post-retirement health and other benefit reserves (section 8.f.) computed using acceptable actuarial cost methods.
10. Defense and prosecution of criminal and civil proceedings, and claims.
a. The following costs are unallowable for contracts covered by 10 U.S.C. 2324(k), “Allowable costs under defense contracts.”
(1) Costs incurred in defense of any civil or criminal fraud proceeding or similar proceeding (including filing of false certification brought by the United States where the contractor is found liable or has pleaded nolo contendere to a charge of fraud or similar proceeding (including filing of a false certification).
(2) Costs incurred by a contractor in connection with any criminal, civil or administrative proceedings commenced by the United States or a State to the extent provided in 10 U.S.C. 2324(k).
b. Legal expenses required in the administration of Federal programs are allowable. Legal expenses for prosecution of claims against the Federal Government are unallowable.
11. Depreciation and use allowances.
a. Depreciation and use allowances are means of allocating the cost of fixed assets to periods benefiting from asset use. Compensation for the use of fixed assets on hand may be made through depreciation or use allowances. A combination of the two methods may not be used in connection with a single class of fixed assets (e.g., buildings, office equipment, computer equipment, etc.) except as provided for in subsection g. Except for enterprise funds and internal service funds that are included as part of a State/local cost allocation plan, classes of assets shall be determined on the same basis used for the government-wide financial statements.
b. The computation of depreciation or use allowances shall be based on the acquisition cost of the assets involved. Where actual cost records have not been maintained, a reasonable estimate of the original acquisition cost may be used. The value of an asset donated to the governmental unit by an unrelated third party shall be its fair market value at the time of donation. Governmental or quasi-governmental organizations located within the same State shall not be considered unrelated third parties for this purpose.
c. The computation of depreciation or use allowances will exclude:
(1) The cost of land;
(2) Any portion of the cost of buildings and equipment borne by or donated by the Federal Government irrespective of where title was originally vested or where it presently resides; and
(3) Any portion of the cost of buildings and equipment contributed by or for the governmental unit, or a related donor organization, in satisfaction of a matching requirement.
d. Where the depreciation method is followed, the following general criteria apply:
(1) The period of useful service (useful life) established in each case for usable capital assets must take into consideration such factors as type of construction, nature of the equipment used, historical usage patterns, technological developments, and the renewal and replacement policies of the governmental unit followed for the individual items or classes of assets involved. In the absence of clear evidence indicating that the expected consumption of the asset will be significantly greater in the early portions than in the later portions of its useful life, the straight line method of depreciation shall be used.
(2) Depreciation methods once used shall not be changed unless approved by the Federal cognizant or awarding agency. When the depreciation method is introduced for application to an asset previously subject to a use allowance, the annual depreciation charge thereon may not exceed the amount that would have resulted had the depreciation method been in effect from the date of acquisition of the asset. The combination of use allowances and depreciation applicable to the asset shall not exceed the total acquisition cost of the asset or fair market value at time of donation.
e. When the depreciation method is used for buildings, a building's shell may be segregated from the major component of the building (e.g., plumbing system, heating, and air conditioning system, etc.) and each major component depreciated over its estimated useful life, or the entire building (i.e., the shell and all components) may be treated as a single asset and depreciated over a single useful life.
f. Where the use allowance method is followed, the following general criteria apply:
(1) The use allowance for buildings and improvements (including land improvements, such as paved parking areas, fences, and sidewalks) will be computed at an annual rate not exceeding two percent of acquisition costs.
(2) The use allowance for equipment will be computed at an annual rate not exceeding 62/3 percent of acquisition cost.
(3) When the use allowance method is used for buildings, the entire building must be treated as a single asset; the building's components (e.g., plumbing system, heating and air condition, etc.) cannot be segregated from the building's shell. The two percent limitation, however, need not be applied to equipment which is merely attached or fastened to the building but not permanently fixed to it and which is used as furnishings or decorations or for specialized purposes (e.g., dentist chairs and dental treatment units, counters, laboratory benches bolted to the floor, dishwashers, modular furniture, carpeting, etc.). Such equipment will be considered as not being permanently fixed to the building if it can be removed without the destruction of, or need for costly or extensive alterations or repairs, to the building or the equipment. Equipment that meets these criteria will be subject to the 62/3 percent equipment use allowance limitation.
g. A reasonable use allowance may be negotiated for any assets that are considered to be fully depreciated, after taking into consideration the amount of depreciation previously charged to the government, the estimated useful life remaining at the time of negotiation, the effect of any increased maintenance charges, decreased efficiency due to age, and any other factors pertinent to the utilization of the asset for the purpose contemplated.
h. Charges for use allowances or depreciation must be supported by adequate property records. Physical inventories must be taken at least once every two years (a statistical sampling approach is acceptable) to ensure that assets exist, and are in use. Governmental units will manage equipment in accordance with State laws and procedures. When the depreciation method is followed, depreciation records indicating the amount of depreciation taken each period must also be maintained.
12. Donations and contributions.
a. Contributions or donations rendered. Contributions or donations, including cash, property, and services, made by the governmental unit, regardless of the recipient, are unallowable.
b. Donated services received:
(1) Donated or volunteer services may be furnished to a governmental unit by professional and technical personnel, consultants, and other skilled and unskilled labor. The value of these services is not reimbursable either as a direct or indirect cost. However, the value of donated services may be used to meet cost sharing or matching requirements in accordance with the Federal Grants Management Common Rule.
(2) The value of donated services utilized in the performance of a direct cost activity shall, when material in amount, be considered in the determination of the governmental unit's indirect costs or rate(s) and, accordingly, shall be allocated a proportionate share of applicable indirect costs.
(3) To the extent feasible, donated services will be supported by the same methods used by the governmental unit to support the allocability of regular personnel services.
13. Employee morale, health, and welfare costs.
a. The costs of employee information publications, health or first-aid clinics and/or infirmaries, recreational activities, employee counseling services, and any other expenses incurred in accordance with the governmental unit's established practice or custom for the improvement of working conditions, employer-employee relations, employee morale, and employee performance are allowable.
b. Such costs will be equitably apportioned to all activities of the governmental unit. Income generated from any of these activities will be offset against expenses.
14. Entertainment. Costs of entertainment, including amusement, diversion, and social activities and any costs directly associated with such costs (such as tickets to shows or sports events, meals, lodging, rentals, transportation, and gratuities) are unallowable.
15. Equipment and other capital expenditures.
a. For purposes of this subsection 15, the following definitions apply:
(1) “Capital Expenditures” means expenditures for the acquisition cost of capital assets (equipment, buildings, land), or expenditures to make improvements to capital assets that materially increase their value or useful life. Acquisition cost means the cost of the asset including the cost to put it in place. Acquisition cost for equipment, for example, means the net invoice price of the equipment, including the cost of any modifications, attachments, accessories, or auxiliary apparatus necessary to make it usable for the purpose for which it is acquired. Ancillary charges, such as taxes, duty, protective in transit insurance, freight, and installation may be included in, or excluded from the acquisition cost in accordance with the governmental unit's regular accounting practices.
(2) “Equipment” means an article of nonexpendable, tangible personal property having a useful life of more than one year and an acquisition cost which equals or exceeds the lesser of the capitalization level established by the governmental unit for financial statement purposes, or $5000.
(3) “Special purpose equipment” means equipment which is used only for research, medical, scientific, or other technical activities. Examples of special purpose equipment include microscopes, x-ray machines, surgical instruments, and spectrometers.
(4) “General purpose equipment” means equipment, which is not limited to research, medical, scientific or other technical activities. Examples include office equipment and furnishings, modular offices, telephone networks, information technology equipment and systems, air conditioning equipment, reproduction and printing equipment, and motor vehicles.
b. The following rules of allowability shall apply to equipment and other capital expenditures:
(1) Capital expenditures for general purpose equipment, buildings, and land are unallowable as direct charges, except where approved in advance by the awarding agency.
(2) Capital expenditures for special purpose equipment are allowable as direct costs, provided that items with a unit cost of $5000 or more have the prior approval of the awarding agency.
(3) Capital expenditures for improvements to land, buildings, or equipment which materially increase their value or useful life are unallowable as a direct cost except with the prior approval of the awarding agency.
(4) When approved as a direct charge pursuant to section 15.b(1), (2), and (3)of this appendix, capital expenditures will be charged in the period in which the expenditure is incurred, or as otherwise determined appropriate and negotiated with the awarding agency. In addition, Federal awarding agencies are authorized at their option to waive or delegate the prior approval requirement.
(5) Equipment and other capital expenditures are unallowable as indirect costs. However, see section 11 of this appendix, Depreciation and use allowance, for rules on the allowability of use allowances or depreciation on buildings, capital improvements, and equipment. Also, see section 37 of this appendix, Rental costs, concerning the allowability of rental costs for land, buildings, and equipment.
(6) The unamortized portion of any equipment written off as a result of a change in capitalization levels may be recovered by continuing to claim the otherwise allowable use allowances or depreciation on the equipment, or by amortizing the amount to be written off over a period of years negotiated with the cognizant agency.
(7) When replacing equipment purchased in whole or in part with Federal funds, the governmental unit may use the equipment to be replaced as a trade-in or sell the property and use the proceeds to offset the cost of the replacement property.
16. Fines and penalties. Fines, penalties, damages, and other settlements resulting from violations (or alleged violations) of, or failure of the governmental unit to comply with, Federal, State, local, or Indian tribal laws and regulations are unallowable except when incurred as a result of compliance with specific provisions of the Federal award or written instructions by the awarding agency authorizing in advance such payments.
17. Fund raising and investment management costs.
a. Costs of organized fund raising, including financial campaigns, solicitation of gifts and bequests, and similar expenses incurred to raise capital or obtain contributions are unallowable, regardless of the purpose for which the funds will be used.
b. Costs of investment counsel and staff and similar expenses incurred to enhance income from investments are unallowable. However, such costs associated with investments covering pension, self-insurance, or other funds which include Federal participation allowed by this and other appendices of 2 CFR part 225 are allowable.
c. Fund raising and investment activities shall be allocated an appropriate share of indirect costs under the conditions described in subsection C.3.b. of Appendix A to this part.
18. Gains and losses on disposition of depreciable property and other capital assets and substantial relocation of Federal programs.
a. (1) Gains and losses on the sale, retirement, or other disposition of depreciable property shall be included in the year in which they occur as credits or charges to the asset cost grouping(s) in which the property was included. The amount of the gain or loss to be included as a credit or charge to the appropriate asset cost grouping(s) shall be the difference between the amount realized on the property and the undepreciated basis of the property.
(2) Gains and losses on the disposition of depreciable property shall not be recognized as a separate credit or charge under the following conditions:
(a) The gain or loss is processed through a depreciation account and is reflected in the depreciation allowable under sections 11 and 15 of this appendix.
(b) The property is given in exchange as part of the purchase price of a similar item and the gain or loss is taken into account in determining the depreciation cost basis of the new item.
(c) A loss results from the failure to maintain permissible insurance, except as otherwise provided in subsection 22.d of this appendix.
(d) Compensation for the use of the property was provided through use allowances in lieu of depreciation.
b. Substantial relocation of Federal awards from a facility where the Federal Government participated in the financing to another facility prior to the expiration of the useful life of the financed facility requires Federal agency approval. The extent of the relocation, the amount of the Federal participation in the financing, and the depreciation charged to date may require negotiation of space charges for Federal awards.
c. Gains or losses of any nature arising from the sale or exchange of property other than the property covered in subsection 18.a. of this appendix, e.g., land or included in the fair market value used in any adjustment resulting from a relocation of Federal awards covered in subsection b. shall be excluded in computing Federal award costs.
19. General government expenses.
a. The general costs of government are unallowable (except as provided in section 43 of this appendix, Travel costs). These include:
(1) Salaries and expenses of the Office of the Governor of a State or the chief executive of a political subdivision or the chief executive of federally-recognized Indian tribal government;
(2) Salaries and other expenses of a State legislature, tribal council, or similar local governmental body, such as a county supervisor, city council, school board, etc., whether incurred for purposes of legislation or executive direction;
(3) Costs of the judiciary branch of a government;
(4) Costs of prosecutorial activities unless treated as a direct cost to a specific program if authorized by program statute or regulation (however, this does not preclude the allowability of other legal activities of the Attorney General); and
(5) Costs of other general types of government services normally provided to the general public, such as fire and police, unless provided for as a direct cost under a program statute or regulation.
b. For federally-recognized Indian tribal governments and Councils Of Governments (COGs), the portion of salaries and expenses directly attributable to managing and operating Federal programs by the chief executive and his staff is allowable.
20. Goods or services for personal use. Costs of goods or services for personal use of the governmental unit's employees are unallowable regardless of whether the cost is reported as taxable income to the employees.
21. Idle facilities and idle capacity.
As used in this section the following terms have the meanings set forth below:
(1) “Facilities” means land and buildings or any portion thereof, equipment individually or collectively, or any other tangible capital asset, wherever located, and whether owned or leased by the governmental unit.
(2) “Idle facilities” means completely unused facilities that are excess to the governmental unit's current needs.
(3) “Idle capacity” means the unused capacity of partially used facilities. It is the difference between: that which a facility could achieve under 100 percent operating time on a one-shift basis less operating interruptions resulting from time lost for repairs, setups, unsatisfactory materials, and other normal delays; and the extent to which the facility was actually used to meet demands during the accounting period. A multi-shift basis should be used if it can be shown that this amount of usage would normally be expected for the type of facility involved.
(4) “Cost of idle facilities or idle capacity” means costs such as maintenance, repair, housing, rent, and other related costs, e.g., insurance, interest, property taxes and depreciation or use allowances.
b. The costs of idle facilities are unallowable except to the extent that:
(1) They are necessary to meet fluctuations in workload; or
(2) Although not necessary to meet fluctuations in workload, they were necessary when acquired and are now idle because of changes in program requirements, efforts to achieve more economical operations, reorganization, termination, or other causes which could not have been reasonably foreseen. Under the exception stated in this subsection, costs of idle facilities are allowable for a reasonable period of time, ordinarily not to exceed one year, depending on the initiative taken to use, lease, or dispose of such facilities.
c. The costs of idle capacity are normal costs of doing business and are a factor in the normal fluctuations of usage or indirect cost rates from period to period. Such costs are allowable, provided that the capacity is reasonably anticipated to be necessary or was originally reasonable and is not subject to reduction or elimination by use on other Federal awards, subletting, renting, or sale, in accordance with sound business, economic, or security practices. Widespread idle capacity throughout an entire facility or among a group of assets having substantially the same function may be considered idle facilities.
22. Insurance and indemnification.
a. Costs of insurance required or approved and maintained, pursuant to the Federal award, are allowable.
b. Costs of other insurance in connection with the general conduct of activities are allowable subject to the following limitations:
(1) Types and extent and cost of coverage are in accordance with the governmental unit's policy and sound business practice.
(2) Costs of insurance or of contributions to any reserve covering the risk of loss of, or damage to, Federal Government property are unallowable except to the extent that the awarding agency has specifically required or approved such costs.
c. Actual losses which could have been covered by permissible insurance (through a self-insurance program or otherwise) are unallowable, unless expressly provided for in the Federal award or as described below. However, the Federal Government will participate in actual losses of a self insurance fund that are in excess of reserves. Costs incurred because of losses not covered under nominal deductible insurance coverage provided in keeping with sound management practice, and minor losses not covered by insurance, such as spoilage, breakage, and disappearance of small hand tools, which occur in the ordinary course of operations, are allowable.
d. Contributions to a reserve for certain self-insurance programs including workers compensation, unemployment compensation, and severance pay are allowable subject to the following provisions:
(1) The type of coverage and the extent of coverage and the rates and premiums would have been allowed had insurance (including reinsurance) been purchased to cover the risks. However, provision for known or reasonably estimated self-insured liabilities, which do not become payable for more than one year after the provision is made, shall not exceed the discounted present value of the liability. The rate used for discounting the liability must be determined by giving consideration to such factors as the governmental unit's settlement rate for those liabilities and its investment rate of return.
(2) Earnings or investment income on reserves must be credited to those reserves.
(3) Contributions to reserves must be based on sound actuarial principles using historical experience and reasonable assumptions. Reserve levels must be analyzed and updated at least biennially for each major risk being insured and take into account any reinsurance, coinsurance, etc. Reserve levels related to employee-related coverages will normally be limited to the value of claims submitted and adjudicated but not paid, submitted but not adjudicated, and incurred but not submitted. Reserve levels in excess of the amounts based on the above must be identified and justified in the cost allocation plan or indirect cost rate proposal.
(4) Accounting records, actuarial studies, and cost allocations (or billings) must recognize any significant differences due to types of insured risk and losses generated by the various insured activities or agencies of the governmental unit. If individual departments or agencies of the governmental unit experience significantly different levels of claims for a particular risk, those differences are to be recognized by the use of separate allocations or other techniques resulting in an equitable allocation.
(5) Whenever funds are transferred from a self-insurance reserve to other accounts (e.g., general fund), refunds shall be made to the Federal Government for its share of funds transferred, including earned or imputed interest from the date of transfer.
e. Actual claims paid to or on behalf of employees or former employees for workers' compensation, unemployment compensation, severance pay, and similar employee benefits (e.g., subsection 8.f. for post retirement health benefits), are allowable in the year of payment provided the governmental unit follows a consistent costing policy and they are allocated as a general administrative expense to all activities of the governmental unit.
f. Insurance refunds shall be credited against insurance costs in the year the refund is received.
g. Indemnification includes securing the governmental unit against liabilities to third persons and other losses not compensated by insurance or otherwise. The Federal Government is obligated to indemnify the governmental unit only to the extent expressly provided for in the Federal award, except as provided in subsection 22.d of this appendix.
h. Costs of commercial insurance that protects against the costs of the contractor for correction of the contractor's own defects in materials or workmanship are unallowable.
a. Costs incurred for interest on borrowed capital or the use of a governmental unit's own funds, however represented, are unallowable except as specifically provided in subsection b. or authorized by Federal legislation.
b. Financing costs (including interest) paid or incurred which are associated with the otherwise allowable costs of building acquisition, construction, or fabrication, reconstruction or remodeling completed on or after October 1, 1980 is allowable subject to the conditions in section 23.b.(1) through (4) of this appendix. Financing costs (including interest) paid or incurred on or after September 1, 1995 for land or associated with otherwise allowable costs of equipment is allowable, subject to the conditions in section 23.b. (1) through (4) of this appendix.
(1) The financing is provided (from other than tax or user fee sources) by a bona fide third party external to the governmental unit;
(2) The assets are used in support of Federal awards;
(3) Earnings on debt service reserve funds or interest earned on borrowed funds pending payment of the construction or acquisition costs are used to offset the current period's cost or the capitalized interest, as appropriate. Earnings subject to being reported to the Federal Internal Revenue Service under arbitrage requirements are excludable.
(4) For debt arrangements over $1 million, unless the governmental unit makes an initial equity contribution to the asset purchase of 25 percent or more, the governmental unit shall reduce claims for interest cost by an amount equal to imputed interest earnings on excess cash flow, which is to be calculated as follows. Annually, non-Federal entities shall prepare a cumulative (from the inception of the project) report of monthly cash flows that includes inflows and outflows, regardless of the funding source. Inflows consist of depreciation expense, amortization of capitalized construction interest, and annual interest cost. For cash flow calculations, the annual inflow figures shall be divided by the number of months in the year (i.e., usually 12) that the building is in service for monthly amounts. Outflows consist of initial equity contributions, debt principal payments (less the pro rata share attributable to the unallowable costs of land) and interest payments. Where cumulative inflows exceed cumulative outflows, interest shall be calculated on the excess inflows for that period and be treated as a reduction to allowable interest cost. The rate of interest to be used to compute earnings on excess cash flows shall be the three-month Treasury bill closing rate as of the last business day of that month.
(5) Interest attributable to fully depreciated assets is unallowable.
a. General. The cost of certain influencing activities associated with obtaining grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, or loans is an unallowable cost. Lobbying with respect to certain grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, and loans shall be governed by the common rule, “New Restrictions on Lobbying” (see Section J.24 of Appendix A to 2 CFR part 220), including definitions, and the Office of Management and Budget “Government-wide Guidance for New Restrictions on Lobbying” and notices published at 54 FR 52306 (December 20, 1989), 55 FR 24540 (June 15, 1990), and 57 FR 1772 (January 15, 1992), respectively.
b. Executive lobbying costs. Costs incurred in attempting to improperly influence either directly or indirectly, an employee or officer of the Executive Branch of the Federal Government to give consideration or to act regarding a sponsored agreement or a regulatory matter are unallowable. Improper influence means any influence that induces or tends to induce a Federal employee or officer to give consideration or to act regarding a federally-sponsored agreement or regulatory matter on any basis other than the merits of the matter.
25. Maintenance, operations, and repairs. Unless prohibited by law, the cost of utilities, insurance, security, janitorial services, elevator service, upkeep of grounds, necessary maintenance, normal repairs and alterations, and the like are allowable to the extent that they: keep property (including Federal property, unless otherwise provided for) in an efficient operating condition, do not add to the permanent value of property or appreciably prolong its intended life, and are not otherwise included in rental or other charges for space. Costs which add to the permanent value of property or appreciably prolong its intended life shall be treated as capital expenditures (see sections 11 and 15 of this appendix).
26. Materials and supplies costs.
a. Costs incurred for materials, supplies, and fabricated parts necessary to carry out a Federal award are allowable.
b. Purchased materials and supplies shall be charged at their actual prices, net of applicable credits. Withdrawals from general stores or stockrooms should be charged at their actual net cost under any recognized method of pricing inventory withdrawals, consistently applied. Incoming transportation charges are a proper part of materials and supplies costs.
c. Only materials and supplies actually used for the performance of a Federal award may be charged as direct costs.
d. Where federally-donated or furnished materials are used in performing the Federal award, such materials will be used without charge.
27. Meetings and conferences. Costs of meetings and conferences, the primary purpose of which is the dissemination of technical information, are allowable. This includes costs of meals, transportation, rental of facilities, speakers' fees, and other items incidental to such meetings or conferences. But see section 14, Entertainment costs, of this appendix.
28. Memberships, subscriptions, and professional activity costs.
a. Costs of the governmental unit's memberships in business, technical, and professional organizations are allowable.
b. Costs of the governmental unit's subscriptions to business, professional, and technical periodicals are allowable.
c. Costs of membership in civic and community, social organizations are allowable as a direct cost with the approval of the Federal awarding agency.
d. Costs of membership in organizations substantially engaged in lobbying are unallowable.
29. Patent costs.
a. The following costs relating to patent and copyright matters are allowable: cost of preparing disclosures, reports, and other documents required by the Federal award and of searching the art to the extent necessary to make such disclosures; cost of preparing documents and any other patent costs in connection with the filing and prosecution of a United States patent application where title or royalty-free license is required by the Federal Government to be conveyed to the Federal Government; and general counseling services relating to patent and copyright matters, such as advice on patent and copyright laws, regulations, clauses, and employee agreements (but see sections 32, Professional service costs, and 38, Royalties and other costs for use of patents and copyrights, of this appendix).
b. The following costs related to patent and copyright matter are unallowable: Cost of preparing disclosures, reports, and other documents and of searching the art to the extent necessary to make disclosures not required by the award; costs in connection with filing and prosecuting any foreign patent application; or any United States patent application, where the Federal award does not require conveying title or a royalty-free license to the Federal Government (but see section 38, Royalties and other costs for use of patents and copyrights, of this appendix).
30. Plant and homeland security costs. Necessary and reasonable expenses incurred for routine and homeland security to protect facilities, personnel, and work products are allowable. Such costs include, but are not limited to, wages and uniforms of personnel engaged in security activities; equipment; barriers; contractual security services; consultants; etc. Capital expenditures for homeland and plant security purposes are subject to section 15, Equipment and other capital expenditures, of this appendix.
31. Pre-award costs. Pre-award costs are those incurred prior to the effective date of the award directly pursuant to the negotiation and in anticipation of the award where such costs are necessary to comply with the proposed delivery schedule or period of performance. Such costs are allowable only to the extent that they would have been allowable if incurred after the date of the award and only with the written approval of the awarding agency.
32. Professional service costs.
a. Costs of professional and consultant services rendered by persons who are members of a particular profession or possess a special skill, and who are not officers or employees of the governmental unit, are allowable, subject to subparagraphs b and c when reasonable in relation to the services rendered and when not contingent upon recovery of the costs from the Federal Government. In addition, legal and related services are limited under section 10 of this appendix.
b. In determining the allowability of costs in a particular case, no single factor or any special combination of factors is necessarily determinative. However, the following factors are relevant:
(1) The nature and scope of the service rendered in relation to the service required.
(2) The necessity of contracting for the service, considering the governmental unit's capability in the particular area.
(3) The past pattern of such costs, particularly in the years prior to Federal awards.
(4) The impact of Federal awards on the governmental unit's business (i.e., what new problems have arisen).
(5) Whether the proportion of Federal work to the governmental unit's total business is such as to influence the governmental unit in favor of incurring the cost, particularly where the services rendered are not of a continuing nature and have little relationship to work under Federal grants and contracts.
(6) Whether the service can be performed more economically by direct employment rather than contracting.
(7) The qualifications of the individual or concern rendering the service and the customary fees charged, especially on non-Federal awards.
(8) Adequacy of the contractual agreement for the service (e.g., description of the service, estimate of time required, rate of compensation, and termination provisions).
c. In addition to the factors in subparagraph b, retainer fees to be allowable must be supported by available or rendered evidence of bona fide services available or rendered.
33. Proposal costs. Costs of preparing proposals for potential Federal awards are allowable. Proposal costs should normally be treated as indirect costs and should be allocated to all activities of the governmental unit utilizing the cost allocation plan and indirect cost rate proposal. However, proposal costs may be charged directly to Federal awards with the prior approval of the Federal awarding agency.
34. Publication and printing costs.
a. Publication costs include the costs of printing (including the processes of composition, plate-making, press work, binding, and the end products produced by such processes), distribution, promotion, mailing, and general handling. Publication costs also include page charges in professional publications.
b. If these costs are not identifiable with a particular cost objective, they should be allocated as indirect costs to all benefiting activities of the governmental unit.
c. Page charges for professional journal publications are allowable as a necessary part of research costs where:
(1) The research papers report work supported by the Federal Government; and
(2) The charges are levied impartially on all research papers published by the journal, whether or not by federally-sponsored authors.
35. Rearrangement and alteration costs. Costs incurred for ordinary and normal rearrangement and alteration of facilities are allowable. Special arrangements and alterations costs incurred specifically for a Federal award are allowable with the prior approval of the Federal awarding agency.
36. Reconversion costs. Costs incurred in the restoration or rehabilitation of the governmental unit's facilities to approximately the same condition existing immediately prior to commencement of Federal awards, less costs related to normal wear and tear, are allowable.
37. Rental costs of buildings and equipment.
a. Subject to the limitations described in subsections b. through d. of this section, rental costs are allowable to the extent that the rates are reasonable in light of such factors as: rental costs of comparable property, if any; market conditions in the area; alternatives available; and the type, life expectancy, condition, and value of the property leased. Rental arrangements should be reviewed periodically to determine if circumstances have changed and other options are available.
b. Rental costs under “sale and lease back” arrangements are allowable only up to the amount that would be allowed had the governmental unit continued to own the property. This amount would include expenses such as depreciation or use allowance, maintenance, taxes, and insurance.
c. Rental costs under “less-than-arm's-length” leases are allowable only up to the amount (as explained in section 37.b of this appendix) that would be allowed had title to the property vested in the governmental unit. For this purpose, a less-than-arm's-length lease is one under which one party to the lease agreement is able to control or substantially influence the actions of the other. Such leases include, but are not limited to those between divisions of a governmental unit; governmental units under common control through common officers, directors, or members; and a governmental unit and a director, trustee, officer, or key employee of the governmental unit or his immediate family, either directly or through corporations, trusts, or similar arrangements in which they hold a controlling interest. For example, a governmental unit may establish a separate corporation for the sole purpose of owning property and leasing it back to the governmental unit.
d. Rental costs under leases which are required to be treated as capital leases under GAAP are allowable only up to the amount (as explained in subsection 37.b of this appendix) that would be allowed had the governmental unit purchased the property on the date the lease agreement was executed. The provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement 13, Accounting for Leases, shall be used to determine whether a lease is a capital lease. Interest costs related to capital leases are allowable to the extent they meet the criteria in section 23 of this appendix. Unallowable costs include amounts paid for profit, management fees, and taxes that would not have been incurred had the governmental unit purchased the facility.
38. Royalties and other costs for the use of patents.
a. Royalties on a patent or copyright or amortization of the cost of acquiring by purchase a copyright, patent, or rights thereto, necessary for the proper performance of the award are allowable unless:
(1) The Federal Government has a license or the right to free use of the patent or copyright.
(2) The patent or copyright has been adjudicated to be invalid, or has been administratively determined to be invalid.
(3) The patent or copyright is considered to be unenforceable.
(4) The patent or copyright is expired.
b. Special care should be exercised in determining reasonableness where the royalties may have been arrived at as a result of less-than-arm's-length bargaining, e.g.:
(1) Royalties paid to persons, including corporations, affiliated with the governmental unit.
(2) Royalties paid to unaffiliated parties, including corporations, under an agreement entered into in contemplation that a Federal award would be made.
(3) Royalties paid under an agreement entered into after an award is made to a governmental unit.
c. In any case involving a patent or copyright formerly owned by the governmental unit, the amount of royalty allowed should not exceed the cost which would have been allowed had the governmental unit retained title thereto.
39. Selling and marketing. Costs of selling and marketing any products or services of the governmental unit are unallowable (unless allowed under section 1. of this appendix as allowable public relations costs or under section 33. of this appendix as allowable proposal costs.
a. Taxes that a governmental unit is legally required to pay are allowable, except for self-assessed taxes that disproportionately affect Federal programs or changes in tax policies that disproportionately affect Federal programs. This provision is applicable to taxes paid during the governmental unit's first fiscal year that begins on or after January 1, 1998, and applies thereafter.
b. Gasoline taxes, motor vehicle fees, and other taxes that are in effect user fees for benefits provided to the Federal Government are allowable.
c. This provision does not restrict the authority of Federal agencies to identify taxes where Federal participation is inappropriate. Where the identification of the amount of unallowable taxes would require an inordinate amount of effort, the cognizant agency may accept a reasonable approximation thereof.
41. Termination costs applicable to sponsored agreements. Termination of awards generally gives rise to the incurrence of costs, or the need for special treatment of costs, which would not have arisen had the Federal award not been terminated. Cost principles covering these items are set forth below. They are to be used in conjunction with the other provisions of this appendix in termination situations.
a. The cost of items reasonably usable on the governmental unit's other work shall not be allowable unless the governmental unit submits evidence that it would not retain such items at cost without sustaining a loss. In deciding whether such items are reasonably usable on other work of the governmental unit, the awarding agency should consider the governmental unit's plans and orders for current and scheduled activity. Contemporaneous purchases of common items by the governmental unit shall be regarded as evidence that such items are reasonably usable on the governmental unit's other work. Any acceptance of common items as allocable to the terminated portion of the Federal award shall be limited to the extent that the quantities of such items on hand, in transit, and on order are in excess of the reasonable quantitative requirements of other work.
b. If in a particular case, despite all reasonable efforts by the governmental unit, certain costs cannot be discontinued immediately after the effective date of termination, such costs are generally allowable within the limitations set forth in this and other appendices of 2 CFR part 225, except that any such costs continuing after termination due to the negligent or willful failure of the governmental unit to discontinue such costs shall be unallowable.
c. Loss of useful value of special tooling, machinery, and equipment is generally allowable if:
(1) Such special tooling, special machinery, or equipment is not reasonably capable of use in the other work of the governmental unit,
(2) The interest of the Federal Government is protected by transfer of title or by other means deemed appropriate by the awarding agency, and
(3) The loss of useful value for any one terminated Federal award is limited to that portion of the acquisition cost which bears the same ratio to the total acquisition cost as the terminated portion of the Federal award bears to the entire terminated Federal award and other Federal awards for which the special tooling, machinery, or equipment was acquired.
d. Rental costs under unexpired leases are generally allowable where clearly shown to have been reasonably necessary for the performance of the terminated Federal award less the residual value of such leases, if:
(1) The amount of such rental claimed does not exceed the reasonable use value of the property leased for the period of the Federal award and such further period as may be reasonable, and
(2) The governmental unit makes all reasonable efforts to terminate, assign, settle, or otherwise reduce the cost of such lease. There also may be included the cost of alterations of such leased property, provided such alterations were necessary for the performance of the Federal award, and of reasonable restoration required by the provisions of the lease.
e. Settlement expenses including the following are generally allowable:
(1) Accounting, legal, clerical, and similar costs reasonably necessary for:
(a) The preparation and presentation to the awarding agency of settlement claims and supporting data with respect to the terminated portion of the Federal award, unless the termination is for default (see Subpart _.44 of the Grants Management Common Rule (see § 215.5) implementing OMB Circular A-102); and
(b) The termination and settlement of subawards.
(2) Reasonable costs for the storage, transportation, protection, and disposition of property provided by the Federal Government or acquired or produced for the Federal award, except when grantees or contractors are reimbursed for disposals at a predetermined amount in accordance with Subparts _.31 and _.32 of the Grants Management Common Rule (see § 215.5) implementing OMB Circular A-102.
f. Claims under subawards, including the allocable portion of claims which are common to the Federal award, and to other work of the governmental unit are generally allowable. An appropriate share of the governmental unit's indirect expense may be allocated to the amount of settlements with subcontractors and/or subgrantees, provided that the amount allocated is otherwise consistent with the basic guidelines contained in Appendix A to this part. The indirect expense so allocated shall exclude the same and similar costs claimed directly or indirectly as settlement expenses.
42. Training costs. The cost of training provided for employee development is allowable.
43. Travel costs.
a. General. Travel costs are the expenses for transportation, lodging, subsistence, and related items incurred by employees who are in travel status on official business of the governmental unit. Such costs may be charged on an actual cost basis, on a per diem or mileage basis in lieu of actual costs incurred, or on a combination of the two, provided the method used is applied to an entire trip and not to selected days of the trip, and results in charges consistent with those normally allowed in like circumstances in the governmental unit's non-federally-sponsored activities. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 19 of this appendix, General government expenses, travel costs of officials covered by that section are allowable with the prior approval of an awarding agency when they are specifically related to Federal awards.
b. Lodging and subsistence. Costs incurred by employees and officers for travel, including costs of lodging, other subsistence, and incidental expenses, shall be considered reasonable and allowable only to the extent such costs do not exceed charges normally allowed by the governmental unit in its regular operations as the result of the governmental unit's written travel policy. In the absence of an acceptable, written governmental unit policy regarding travel costs, the rates and amounts established under subchapter I of Chapter 57, Title 5, United States Code (“Travel and Subsistence Expenses; Mileage Allowances”), or by the Administrator of General Services, or by the President (or his or her designee) pursuant to any provisions of such subchapter shall apply to travel under Federal awards (48 CFR 31.205-46(a)).
c. Commercial air travel.
(1) Airfare costs in excess of the customary standard commercial airfare (coach or equivalent), Federal Government contract airfare (where authorized and available), or the lowest commercial discount airfare are unallowable except when such accommodations would:
(a) Require circuitous routing;
(b) Require travel during unreasonable hours;
(c) Excessively prolong travel;
(d) Result in additional costs that would offset the transportation savings; or
(e) Offer accommodations not reasonably adequate for the traveler's medical needs. The governmental unit must justify and document these conditions on a case-by-case basis in order for the use of first-class airfare to be allowable in such cases.
(2) Unless a pattern of avoidance is detected, the Federal Government will generally not question a governmental unit's determinations that customary standard airfare or other discount airfare is unavailable for specific trips if the governmental unit can demonstrate either of the following:
(aa) That such airfare was not available in the specific case; or
(b) That it is the governmental unit's overall practice to make routine use of such airfare.
d. Air travel by other than commercial carrier. Costs of travel by governmental unit-owned, -leased, or -chartered aircraft include the cost of lease, charter, operation (including personnel costs), maintenance, depreciation, insurance, and other related costs. The portion of such costs that exceeds the cost of allowable commercial air travel, as provided for in subsection 43.c. of this appendix, is unallowable.
e. Foreign travel. Direct charges for foreign travel costs are allowable only when the travel has received prior approval of the awarding agency. Each separate foreign trip must receive such approval. For purposes of this provision, “foreign travel” includes any travel outside Canada, Mexico, the United States, and any United States territories and possessions. However, the term “foreign travel” for a governmental unit located in a foreign country means travel outside that country.
Title 2 published on 2014-01-01.
No entries appear in the Federal Register after this date, for 2 CFR Part 225.