2 CFR Part 230, Appendix B to Part 230 - Selected Items of Cost
Appendix B to Part 230—Selected Items of Cost
Selected Items of Cost
Table of Contents
1. Advertising and public relations costs
2. Advisory councils
3. Alcoholic beverages
4. Audit costs and related services
5. Bad debts
6. Bonding costs
7. Communication costs
8. Compensation for personal services
9. Contingency provisions
10. Defense and prosecution of criminal and civil proceedings, claims, appeals and patent infringement
11. Depreciation and use allowances
12. Donations and contributions
13. Employee morale, health, and welfare costs
14. Entertainment costs
15. Equipment and other capital expenditures
16. Fines and penalties
17. Fund raising and investment management costs
18. Gains and losses on depreciable assets
19. Goods or services for personal use
20. Housing and personal living expenses
21. Idle facilities and idle capacity
22. Insurance and indemnification
24. Labor relations costs
26. Losses on other sponsored agreements or contracts
27. Maintenance and repair costs
28. Materials and supplies costs
29. Meetings and conferences
30. Memberships, subscriptions, and professional activity costs
31. Organization costs
32. Page charges in professional journals
33. Participant support costs
34. Patent costs
35. Plant and homeland security costs
36. Pre-agreement costs
37. Professional services costs
38. Publication and printing costs
39. Rearrangement and alteration costs
40. Reconversion costs
41. Recruiting costs
42. Relocation costs
43. Rental costs of buildings and equipment
44. Royalties and other costs for use of patents and copyrights
45. Selling and marketing
46. Specialized service facilities
48. Termination costs applicable to sponsored agreements
49. Training costs
50. Transportation costs
51. Travel costs
Appendix B to Part 230—Selected Items of Cost
Paragraphs 1 through 52 of this appendix provide principles to be applied in establishing the allowability of certain items of cost. These principles apply whether a cost is treated as direct or indirect. Failure to mention a particular item of cost is not intended to imply that it is unallowable; rather, determination as to allowability in each case should be based on the treatment or principles provided for similar or related items of cost.
1. Advertising and public relations costs. a. The term advertising costs means the costs of advertising media and corollary administrative costs. Advertising media include magazines, newspapers, radio and television, direct mail, exhibits, electronic or computer transmittals, and the like.
b. The term public relations includes community relations and means those activities dedicated to maintaining the image of the non-profit organization or maintaining or promoting understanding and favorable relations with the community or public at large or any segment of the public.
c. The only allowable advertising costs are those which are solely for:
(1) The recruitment of personnel required for the performance by the non-profit organization of obligations arising under a Federal award (See also paragraph 41, Recruiting costs, and paragraph 42, Relocation costs, of this appendix);
(2) The procurement of goods and services for the performance of a Federal award;
(3) The disposal of scrap or surplus materials acquired in the performance of a Federal award except when non-profit organizations are reimbursed for disposal costs at a predetermined amount; or
(4) Other specific purposes necessary to meet the requirements of the Federal award.
d. The only allowable public relations costs are:
(1) Costs specifically required by the Federal award;
(2) Costs of communicating with the public and press pertaining to specific activities or accomplishments which result from performance of Federal awards (these costs are considered necessary as part of the outreach effort for the Federal award); or
(3) Costs of conducting general liaison with news media and government public relations officers, to the extent that such activities are limited to communication and liaison necessary keep the public informed on matters of public concern, such as notices of Federal contract/grant awards, financial matters, etc.
e. Costs identified in subparagraphs c and d if incurred for more than one Federal award or for both sponsored work and other work of the non-profit organization, are allowable to the extent that the principles in Appendix A to this part, paragraphs B. (“Direct Costs”) and C. (“Indirect Costs”) are observed.
f. Unallowable advertising and public relations costs include the following:
(1) All advertising and public relations costs other than as specified in subparagraphs c, d, and e;
(2) Costs of meetings, conventions, convocations, or other events related to other activities of the non-profit organization, including:
(a) Costs of displays, demonstrations, and exhibits;
(b) Costs of meeting rooms, hospitality suites, and other special facilities used in conjunction with shows and other special events; and
(c) Salaries and wages of employees engaged in setting up and displaying exhibits, making demonstrations, and providing briefings;
(3) Costs of promotional items and memorabilia, including models, gifts, and souvenirs;
(4) Costs of advertising and public relations designed solely to promote the non-profit organization.
2. Advisory Councils. Costs incurred by advisory councils or committees are allowable as a direct cost where authorized by the Federal awarding agency or as an indirect cost where allocable to Federal awards.
3. Alcoholic beverages. Costs of alcoholic beverages are unallowable.
4. Audit costs and related services. a. The costs of audits required by, and performed in accordance with, the Single Audit Act, as implemented by Circular A-133, “Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations” are allowable. Also see 31 U.S.C. 7505(b) and section 230 (“Audit Costs”) of Circular A-133.
b. Other audit costs are allowable if included in an indirect cost rate proposal, or if specifically approved by the awarding agency as a direct cost to an award.
c. The cost of agreed-upon procedures engagements to monitor subrecipients who are exempted from A-133 under section 200(d) are allowable, subject to the conditions listed in A-133, section 230 (b)(2).
5. Bad debts. Bad debts, including losses (whether actual or estimated) arising from uncollectible accounts and other claims, related collection costs, and related legal costs, are unallowable.
6. Bonding costs. a. Bonding costs arise when the Federal Government requires assurance against financial loss to itself or others by reason of the act or default of the non-profit organization. They arise also in instances where the non-profit organization requires similar assurance. Included are such bonds as bid, performance, payment, advance payment, infringement, and fidelity bonds.
b. Costs of bonding required pursuant to the terms of the award are allowable.
c. Costs of bonding required by the non-profit organization in the general conduct of its operations are allowable to the extent that such bonding is in accordance with sound business practice and the rates and premiums are reasonable under the circumstances.
7. Communication costs. Costs incurred for telephone services, local and long distance telephone calls, telegrams, postage, messenger, electronic or computer transmittal services and the like are allowable.
8. Compensation for personal services. a. Definition. Compensation for personal services includes all compensation paid currently or accrued by the organization for services of employees rendered during the period of the award (except as otherwise provided in subparagraph 8.h of this appendix). It includes, but is not limited to, salaries, wages, director's and executive committee member's fees, incentive awards, fringe benefits, pension plan costs, allowances for off-site pay, incentive pay, location allowances, hardship pay, and cost of living differentials.
b. Allowability. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this paragraph, the costs of such compensation are allowable to the extent that:
(1) Total compensation to individual employees is reasonable for the services rendered and conforms to the established policy of the organization consistently applied to both Federal and non-Federal activities; and
(2) Charges to awards whether treated as direct or indirect costs are determined and supported as required in this paragraph.
c. Reasonableness. (1) When the organization is predominantly engaged in activities other than those sponsored by the Federal Government, compensation for employees on federally-sponsored work will be considered reasonable to the extent that it is consistent with that paid for similar work in the organization's other activities.
(2) When the organization is predominantly engaged in federally-sponsored activities and in cases where the kind of employees required for the Federal activities are not found in the organization's other activities, compensation for employees on federally-sponsored work will be considered reasonable to the extent that it is comparable to that paid for similar work in the labor markets in which the organization competes for the kind of employees involved.
d. Special considerations in determining allowability. Certain conditions require special consideration and possible limitations in determining costs under Federal awards where amounts or types of compensation appear unreasonable. Among such conditions are the following:
(1) Compensation to members of non-profit organizations, trustees, directors, associates, officers, or the immediate families thereof. Determination should be made that such compensation is reasonable for the actual personal services rendered rather than a distribution of earnings in excess of costs.
(2) Any change in an organization's compensation policy resulting in a substantial increase in the organization's level of compensation, particularly when it was concurrent with an increase in the ratio of Federal awards to other activities of the organization or any change in the treatment of allowability of specific types of compensation due to changes in Federal policy.
e. Unallowable costs. Costs which are unallowable under other paragraphs of this appendix shall not be allowable under this paragraph solely on the basis that they constitute personal compensation.
f. Overtime, extra-pay shift, and multi-shift premiums. Premiums for overtime, extra-pay shifts, and multi-shift work are allowable only with the prior approval of the awarding agency except:
(1) When necessary to cope with emergencies, such as those resulting from accidents, natural disasters, breakdowns of equipment, or occasional operational bottlenecks of a sporadic nature.
(2) When employees are performing indirect functions, such as administration, maintenance, or accounting.
(3) In the performance of tests, laboratory procedures, or other similar operations which are continuous in nature and cannot reasonably be interrupted or otherwise completed.
(4) When lower overall cost to the Federal Government will result.
g. Fringe benefits. (1) Fringe benefits in the form of regular compensation paid to employees during periods of authorized absences from the job, such as vacation leave, sick leave, military leave, and the like, are allowable, provided such costs are absorbed by all organization activities in proportion to the relative amount of time or effort actually devoted to each.
(2) Fringe benefits in the form of employer contributions or expenses for social security, employee insurance, workmen's compensation insurance, pension plan costs (see subparagraph 8.h of this appendix), and the like, are allowable, provided such benefits are granted in accordance with established written organization policies. Such benefits whether treated as indirect costs or as direct costs, shall be distributed to particular awards and other activities in a manner consistent with the pattern of benefits accruing to the individuals or group of employees whose salaries and wages are chargeable to such awards and other activities.
(3)(a) Provisions for a reserve under a self-insurance program for unemployment compensation or workers' compensation are allowable to the extent that the provisions represent reasonable estimates of the liabilities for such compensation, and the types of coverage, extent of coverage, and rates and premiums would have been allowable had insurance been purchased to cover the risks. However, provisions for self-insured liabilities which do not become payable for more than one year after the provision is made shall not exceed the present value of the liability.
(b) Where an organization follows a consistent policy of expensing actual payments to, or on behalf of, employees or former employees for unemployment compensation or workers' compensation, such payments are allowable in the year of payment with the prior approval of the awarding agency, provided they are allocated to all activities of the organization.
(4) Costs of insurance on the lives of trustees, officers, or other employees holding positions of similar responsibility are allowable only to the extent that the insurance represents additional compensation. The costs of such insurance when the organization is named as beneficiary are unallowable.
h. Organization-furnished automobiles. That portion of the cost of organization-furnished automobiles that relates to personal use by employees (including transportation to and from work) is unallowable as fringe benefit or indirect costs regardless of whether the cost is reported as taxable income to the employees. These costs are allowable as direct costs to sponsored award when necessary for the performance of the sponsored award and approved by awarding agencies.
i. Pension plan costs. (1) Costs of the organization's pension plan which are incurred in accordance with the established policies of the organization are allowable, provided:
(a) Such policies meet the test of reasonableness;
(b) The methods of cost allocation are not discriminatory;
(c) The cost assigned to each fiscal year is determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), as prescribed in Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 8 issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants; and
(d) The costs assigned to a given fiscal year are funded for all plan participants within six months after the end of that year. However, increases to normal and past service pension costs caused by a delay in funding the actuarial liability beyond 30 days after each quarter of the year to which such costs are assignable are unallowable.
(2) Pension plan termination insurance premiums paid pursuant to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 (Pub. L. 93-406) are allowable. Late payment charges on such premiums are unallowable.
(3) Excise taxes on accumulated funding deficiencies and other penalties imposed under ERISA are unallowable.
j. Incentive compensation. Incentive compensation to employees based on cost reduction, or efficient performance, suggestion awards, safety awards, etc., are allowable to the extent that the overall compensation is determined to be reasonable and such costs are paid or accrued pursuant to an agreement entered into in good faith between the organization and the employees before the services were rendered, or pursuant to an established plan followed by the organization so consistently as to imply, in effect, an agreement to make such payment.
k. Severance pay. (1) Severance pay, also commonly referred to as dismissal wages, is a payment in addition to regular salaries and wages, by organizations to workers whose employment is being terminated. Costs of severance pay are allowable only to the extent that in each case, it is required by:
(b) Employer-employee agreement
(c) Established policy that constitutes, in effect, an implied agreement on the organization's part, or
(d) Circumstances of the particular employment.
(2) Costs of severance payments are divided into two categories as follows:
(a) Actual normal turnover severance payments shall be allocated to all activities; or, where the organization provides for a reserve for normal severances, such method will be acceptable if the charge to current operations is reasonable in light of payments actually made for normal severances over a representative past period, and if amounts charged are allocated to all activities of the organization.
(b) Abnormal or mass severance pay is of such a conjectural nature that measurement of costs by means of an accrual will not achieve equity to both parties. Thus, accruals for this purpose are not allowable. However, the Federal Government recognizes its obligation to participate, to the extent of its fair share, in any specific payment. Thus, allowability will be considered on a case-by-case basis in the event or occurrence.
(c) Costs incurred in certain severance pay packages (commonly known as “a golden parachute” payment) which are in an amount in excess of the normal severance pay paid by the organization to an employee upon termination of employment and are paid to the employee contingent upon a change in management control over, or ownership of, the organization's assets are unallowable.
(d) Severance payments to foreign nationals employed by the organization outside the United States, to the extent that the amount exceeds the customary or prevailing practices for the organization in the United States are unallowable, unless they are necessary for the performance of Federal programs and approved by awarding agencies.
(e) Severance payments to foreign nationals employed by the organization outside the United States due to the termination of the foreign national as a result of the closing of, or curtailment of activities by, the organization in that country, are unallowable, unless they are necessary for the performance of Federal programs and approved by awarding agencies.
l. Training costs. See paragraph 49 of this appendix.
m. Support of salaries and wages.
(1) Charges to awards for salaries and wages, whether treated as direct costs or indirect costs, will be based on documented payrolls approved by a responsible official(s) of the organization. The distribution of salaries and wages to awards must be supported by personnel activity reports, as prescribed in subparagraph 8.m.(2) of this appendix, except when a substitute system has been approved in writing by the cognizant agency. (See subparagraph E.2 of Appendix A to this part.)
(2) Reports reflecting the distribution of activity of each employee must be maintained for all staff members (professionals and nonprofessionals) whose compensation is charged, in whole or in part, directly to awards. In addition, in order to support the allocation of indirect costs, such reports must also be maintained for other employees whose work involves two or more functions or activities if a distribution of their compensation between such functions or activities is needed in the determination of the organization's indirect cost rate(s) (e.g., an employee engaged part-time in indirect cost activities and part-time in a direct function). Reports maintained by non-profit organizations to satisfy these requirements must meet the following standards:
(a) The reports must reflect an after-the-fact determination of the actual activity of each employee. Budget estimates (i.e., estimates determined before the services are performed) do not qualify as support for charges to awards.
(b) Each report must account for the total activity for which employees are compensated and which is required in fulfillment of their obligations to the organization.
(c) The reports must be signed by the individual employee, or by a responsible supervisory official having first hand knowledge of the activities performed by the employee, that the distribution of activity represents a reasonable estimate of the actual work performed by the employee during the periods covered by the reports.
(d) The reports must be prepared at least monthly and must coincide with one or more pay periods.
(3) Charges for the salaries and wages of nonprofessional employees, in addition to the supporting documentation described in subparagraphs (1) and (2), must also be supported by records indicating the total number of hours worked each day maintained in conformance with Department of Labor regulations implementing the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) (29 CFR part 516). For this purpose, the term “nonprofessional employee” shall have the same meaning as “nonexempt employee,” under FLSA.
(4) Salaries and wages of employees used in meeting cost sharing or matching requirements on awards must be supported in the same manner as salaries and wages claimed for reimbursement from awarding agencies.
9. Contingency provisions. Contributions to a contingency reserve or any similar provision made for events the occurrence of which cannot be foretold with certainty as to time, intensity, or with an assurance of their happening, are unallowable. The term “contingency reserve” excludes self-insurance reserves (see Appendix B to this part, paragraphs 8.g.(3) and 22.a(2)(d)); pension funds (see paragraph 8.i): and reserves for normal severance pay (see paragraph 8.k.)
10. Defense and prosecution of criminal and civil proceedings, claims, appeals and patent infringement.
a. Definitions. (1) Conviction, as used herein, means a judgment or a conviction of a criminal offense by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether entered upon as a verdict or a plea, including a conviction due to a plea of nolo contendere.
(2) Costs include, but are not limited to, administrative and clerical expenses; the cost of legal services, whether performed by in-house or private counsel; and the costs of the services of accountants, consultants, or others retained by the organization to assist it; costs of employees, officers and trustees, and any similar costs incurred before, during, and after commencement of a judicial or administrative proceeding that bears a direct relationship to the proceedings.
(3) Fraud, as used herein, means acts of fraud corruption or attempts to defraud the Federal Government or to corrupt its agents, acts that constitute a cause for debarment or suspension (as specified in agency regulations), and acts which violate the False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C., sections 3729-3731, or the Anti-Kickback Act, 41 U.S.C., sections 51 and 54.
(4) Penalty does not include restitution, reimbursement, or compensatory damages.
(5) Proceeding includes an investigation.
b. (1) Except as otherwise described herein, costs incurred in connection with any criminal, civil or administrative proceeding (including filing of a false certification) commenced by the Federal Government, or a State, local or foreign government, are not allowable if the proceeding: Relates to a violation of, or failure to comply with, a Federal, State, local or foreign statute or regulation by the organization (including its agents and employees), and results in any of the following dispositions:
(a) In a criminal proceeding, a conviction.
(b) In a civil or administrative proceeding involving an allegation of fraud or similar misconduct, a determination of organizational liability.
(c) In the case of any civil or administrative proceeding, the imposition of a monetary penalty.
(d) A final decision by an appropriate Federal official to debar or suspend the organization, to rescind or void an award, or to terminate an award for default by reason of a violation or failure to comply with a law or regulation.
(e) A disposition by consent or compromise, if the action could have resulted in any of the dispositions described in subparagraphs 10.b.(1)(a), (b), (c) or (d) of this appendix.
(2) If more than one proceeding involves the same alleged misconduct, the costs of all such proceedings shall be unallowable if any one of them results in one of the dispositions shown in subparagraph 10.b.(1) of this appendix.
c. If a proceeding referred to in subparagraph 10.b of this appendix is commenced by the Federal Government and is resolved by consent or compromise pursuant to an agreement entered into by the organization and the Federal Government, then the costs incurred by the organization in connection with such proceedings that are otherwise not allowable under subparagraph 10.b of this appendix may be allowed to the extent specifically provided in such agreement.
d. If a proceeding referred to in subparagraph 10.b of this appendix is commenced by a State, local or foreign government, the authorized Federal official may allow the costs incurred by the organization for such proceedings, if such authorized official determines that the costs were incurred as a result of a specific term or condition of a federally-sponsored award, or specific written direction of an authorized official of the sponsoring agency.
e. Costs incurred in connection with proceedings described in subparagraph 10.b of this appendix, but which are not made unallowable by that subparagraph, may be allowed by the Federal Government, but only to the extent that:
(1) The costs are reasonable in relation to the activities required to deal with the proceeding and the underlying cause of action;
(2) Payment of the costs incurred, as allowable and allocable costs, is not prohibited by any other provision(s) of the sponsored award;
(3) The costs are not otherwise recovered from the Federal Government or a third party, either directly as a result of the proceeding or otherwise; and,
(4) The percentage of costs allowed does not exceed the percentage determined by an authorized Federal official to be appropriate, considering the complexity of the litigation, generally accepted principles governing the award of legal fees in civil actions involving the United States as a party, and such other factors as may be appropriate. Such percentage shall not exceed 80 percent. However, if an agreement reached under subparagraph 10.c of this appendix has explicitly considered this 80 percent limitation and permitted a higher percentage, then the full amount of costs resulting from that agreement shall be allowable.
f. Costs incurred by the organization in connection with the defense of suits brought by its employees or ex-employees under section 2 of the Major Fraud Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-700), including the cost of all relief necessary to make such employee whole, where the organization was found liable or settled, are unallowable.
g. Costs of legal, accounting, and consultant services, and related costs, incurred in connection with defense against Federal Government claims or appeals, antitrust suits, or the prosecution of claims or appeals against the Federal Government, are unallowable.
h. Costs of legal, accounting, and consultant services, and related costs, incurred in connection with patent infringement litigation, are unallowable unless otherwise provided for in the sponsored awards.
i. Costs which may be unallowable under this paragraph, including directly associated costs, shall be segregated and accounted for by the organization separately. During the pendency of any proceeding covered by subparagraphs 10.b and f of this appendix, the Federal Government shall generally withhold payment of such costs. However, if in the best interests of the Federal Government, the Federal Government may provide for conditional payment upon provision of adequate security, or other adequate assurance, and agreements by the organization to repay all unallowable costs, plus interest, if the costs are subsequently determined to be unallowable.
11. Depreciation and use allowances. a. Compensation for the use of buildings, other capital improvements, and equipment on hand may be made through use allowance or depreciation. However, except as provided in paragraph 11.f of this appendix, a combination of the two methods may not be used in connection with a single class of fixed assets (e.g., buildings, office equipment, computer equipment, etc.).
b. The computation of use allowances or depreciation shall be based on the acquisition cost of the assets involved. The acquisition cost of an asset donated to the non-profit organization by a third party shall be its fair market value at the time of the donation.
c. The computation of use allowances or depreciation will exclude:
(1) The cost of land;
(2) Any portion of the cost of buildings and equipment borne by or donated by the Federal Government irrespective of where title was originally vested or where it presently resides; and
(3) Any portion of the cost of buildings and equipment contributed by or for the non-profit organization in satisfaction of a statutory matching requirement.
d. General criteria where depreciation method is followed:
(1) The period of useful service (useful life) established in each case for usable capital assets must take into consideration such factors as type of construction, nature of the equipment used, technological developments in the particular program area, and the renewal and replacement policies followed for the individual items or classes of assets involved. The method of depreciation used to assign the cost of an asset (or group of assets) to accounting periods shall reflect the pattern of consumption of the asset during its useful life.
(2) In the absence of clear evidence indicating that the expected consumption of the asset will be significantly greater or lesser in the early portions of its useful life than in the later portions, the straight-line method shall be presumed to be the appropriate method.
(3) Depreciation methods once used shall not be changed unless approved in advance by the cognizant Federal agency. When the depreciation method is introduced for application to assets previously subject to a use allowance, the combination of use allowances and depreciation applicable to such assets must not exceed the total acquisition cost of the assets.
e. When the depreciation method is used for buildings, a building's shell may be segregated from each building component (e.g., plumbing system, heating, and air conditioning system, etc.) and each item depreciated over its estimated useful life; or the entire building (i.e., the shell and all components) may be treated as a single asset and depreciated over a single useful life.
f. When the depreciation method is used for a particular class of assets, no depreciation may be allowed on any such assets that, under subparagraph 11.d of this appendix, would be viewed as fully depreciated. However, a reasonable use allowance may be negotiated for such assets if warranted after taking into consideration the amount of depreciation previously charged to the Federal Government, the estimated useful life remaining at time of negotiation, the effect of any increased maintenance charges or decreased efficiency due to age, and any other factors pertinent to the utilization of the asset for the purpose contemplated.
g. Criteria where the use allowance method is followed:
(1) The use allowance for buildings and improvement (including land improvements, such as paved parking areas, fences, and sidewalks) will be computed at an annual rate not exceeding two percent of acquisition cost.
(2) The use allowance for equipment will be computed at an annual rate not exceeding six and two-thirds percent of acquisition cost. When the use allowance method is used for buildings, the entire building must be treated as a single asset; the building's components (e.g., plumbing system, heating and air conditioning, etc.) cannot be segregated from the building's shell.
(3) The two percent limitation, however, need not be applied to equipment which is merely attached or fastened to the building but not permanently fixed to it and which is used as furnishings or decorations or for specialized purposes (e.g., dentist chairs and dental treatment units, counters, laboratory benches bolted to the floor, dishwashers, modular furniture, carpeting, etc.). Such equipment will be considered as not being permanently fixed to the building if it can be removed without the need for costly or extensive alterations or repairs to the building or the equipment. Equipment that meets these criteria will be subject to the 62/3 percent equipment use allowance limitation.
h. Charges for use allowances or depreciation must be supported by adequate property records and physical inventories must be taken at least once every two years (a statistical sampling basis is acceptable) to ensure that assets exist and are usable and needed. When the depreciation method is followed, adequate depreciation records indicating the amount of depreciation taken each period must also be maintained.
12. Donations and contributions.
a. Contributions or donations rendered. Contributions or donations, including cash, property, and services, made by the organization, regardless of the recipient, are unallowable.
b. Donated services received:
(1) Donated or volunteer services may be furnished to an organization by professional and technical personnel, consultants, and other skilled and unskilled labor. The value of these services is not reimbursable either as a direct or indirect cost. However, the value of donated services may be used to meet cost sharing or matching requirements in accordance with the Common Rule.
(2) The value of donated services utilized in the performance of a direct cost activity shall, when material in amount, be considered in the determination of the non-profit organization's indirect costs or rate(s) and, accordingly, shall be allocated a proportionate share of applicable indirect costs when the following exist:
(a) The aggregate value of the services is material;
(b) The services are supported by a significant amount of the indirect costs incurred by the non-profit organization; and
(c) The direct cost activity is not pursued primarily for the benefit of the Federal Government.
(3) In those instances where there is no basis for determining the fair market value of the services rendered, the recipient and the cognizant agency shall negotiate an appropriate allocation of indirect cost to the services.
(4) Where donated services directly benefit a project supported by an award, the indirect costs allocated to the services will be considered as a part of the total costs of the project. Such indirect costs may be reimbursed under the award or used to meet cost sharing or matching requirements.
(5) The value of the donated services may be used to meet cost sharing or matching requirements under conditions described in Section 215.23 of2 CFR part 215 (OMB Circular A-110). Where donated services are treated as indirect costs, indirect cost rates will separate the value of the donations so that reimbursement will not be made.
c. Donated goods or space. (1) Donated goods; i.e., expendable personal property/supplies, and donated use of space may be furnished to a non-profit organization. The value of the goods and space is not reimbursable either as a direct or indirect cost.
(2) The value of the donations may be used to meet cost sharing or matching share requirements under the conditions described in 2 CFR part 215 (OMB Circular A-110). Where donations are treated as indirect costs, indirect cost rates will separate the value of the donations so that reimbursement will not be made.
13. Employee morale, health, and welfare costs.
a. The costs of employee information publications, health or first-aid clinics and/or infirmaries, recreational activities, employee counseling services, and any other expenses incurred in accordance with the non-profit organization's established practice or custom for the improvement of working conditions, employer-employee relations, employee morale, and employee performance are allowable.
b. Such costs will be equitably apportioned to all activities of the non-profit organization. Income generated from any of these activities will be credited to the cost thereof unless such income has been irrevocably set over to employee welfare organizations.
14. Entertainment costs. Costs of entertainment, including amusement, diversion, and social activities and any costs directly associated with such costs (such as tickets to shows or sports events, meals, lodging, rentals, transportation, and gratuities) are unallowable.
15. Equipment and other capital expenditures.
a. For purposes of this subparagraph, the following definitions apply:
(1) “Capital Expenditures” means expenditures for the acquisition cost of capital assets (equipment, buildings, land), or expenditures to make improvements to capital assets that materially increase their value or useful life. Acquisition cost means the cost of the asset including the cost to put it in place. Acquisition cost for equipment, for example, means the net invoice price of the equipment, including the cost of any modifications, attachments, accessories, or auxiliary apparatus necessary to make it usable for the purpose for which it is acquired. Ancillary charges, such as taxes, duty, protective in transit insurance, freight, and installation may be included in, or excluded from the acquisition cost in accordance with the non-profit organization's regular accounting practices.
(2) “Equipment” means an article of nonexpendable, tangible personal property having a useful life of more than one year and an acquisition cost which equals or exceeds the lesser of the capitalization level established by the non-profit organization for financial statement purposes, or $5000.
(3) “Special purpose equipment” means equipment which is used only for research, medical, scientific, or other technical activities. Examples of special purpose equipment include microscopes, x-ray machines, surgical instruments, and spectrometers.
(4) “General purpose equipment” means equipment, which is not limited to research, medical, scientific or other technical activities. Examples include office equipment and furnishings, modular offices, telephone networks, information technology equipment and systems, air conditioning equipment, reproduction and printing equipment, and motor vehicles.
b. The following rules of allowability shall apply to equipment and other capital expenditures:
(1) Capital expenditures for general purpose equipment, buildings, and land are unallowable as direct charges, except where approved in advance by the awarding agency.
(2) Capital expenditures for special purpose equipment are allowable as direct costs, provided that items with a unit cost of $5000 or more have the prior approval of the awarding agency.
(3) Capital expenditures for improvements to land, buildings, or equipment which materially increase their value or useful life are unallowable as a direct cost except with the prior approval of the awarding agency.
(4) When approved as a direct charge pursuant to paragraph 15.b.(1), (2), and (3) above, capital expenditures will be charged in the period in which the expenditure is incurred, or as otherwise determined appropriate by and negotiated with the awarding agency.
(5) Equipment and other capital expenditures are unallowable as indirect costs. However, see paragraph 11., Depreciation and use allowance, of this appendix for rules on the allowability of use allowances or depreciation on buildings, capital improvements, and equipment. Also, see paragraph 43., Rental costs of buildings and equipment, of this appendix for rules on the allowability of rental costs for land, buildings, and equipment.
(6) The unamortized portion of any equipment written off as a result of a change in capitalization levels may be recovered by continuing to claim the otherwise allowable use allowances or depreciation on the equipment, or by amortizing the amount to be written off over a period of years negotiated with the cognizant agency.
16. Fines and penalties. Costs of fines and penalties resulting from violations of, or failure of the organization to comply with Federal, State, and local laws and regulations are unallowable except when incurred as a result of compliance with specific provisions of an award or instructions in writing from the awarding agency.
17. Fund raising and investment management costs. a. Costs of organized fund raising, including financial campaigns, endowment drives, solicitation of gifts and bequests, and similar expenses incurred solely to raise capital or obtain contributions are unallowable.
b. Costs of investment counsel and staff and similar expenses incurred solely to enhance income from investments are unallowable.
c. Fund raising and investment activities shall be allocated an appropriate share of indirect costs under the conditions described in subparagraph B.3 of Appendix A to this part.
18. Gains and losses on depreciable assets. a. (1) Gains and losses on sale, retirement, or other disposition of depreciable property shall be included in the year in which they occur as credits or charges to cost grouping(s) in which the depreciation applicable to such property was included. The amount of the gain or loss to be included as a credit or charge to the appropriate cost grouping(s) shall be the difference between the amount realized on the property and the undepreciated basis of the property.
(2) Gains and losses on the disposition of depreciable property shall not be recognized as a separate credit or charge under the following conditions:
(a) The gain or loss is processed through a depreciation account and is reflected in the depreciation allowable under paragraph 11 of this appendix.
(b) The property is given in exchange as part of the purchase price of a similar item and the gain or loss is taken into account in determining the depreciation cost basis of the new item.
(c) A loss results from the failure to maintain permissible insurance, except as otherwise provided in paragraph 22 of this appendix.
(d) Compensation for the use of the property was provided through use allowances in lieu of depreciation in accordance with paragraph 9 of this appendix.
(e) Gains and losses arising from mass or extraordinary sales, retirements, or other dispositions shall be considered on a case-by-case basis.
b. Gains or losses of any nature arising from the sale or exchange of property other than the property covered in subparagraph a shall be excluded in computing award costs.
19. Goods or services for personal use. Costs of goods or services for personal use of the organization's employees are unallowable regardless of whether the cost is reported as taxable income to the employees.
20. Housing and personal living expenses. a. Costs of housing (e.g., depreciation, maintenance, utilities, furnishings, rent, etc.), housing allowances and personal living expenses for/of the organization's officers are unallowable as fringe benefit or indirect costs regardless of whether the cost is reported as taxable income to the employees. These costs are allowable as direct costs to sponsored award when necessary for the performance of the sponsored award and approved by awarding agencies.
b. The term “officers” includes current and past officers and employees.
21. Idle facilities and idle capacity. a. As used in this section the following terms have the meanings set forth below:
(1) “Facilities” means land and buildings or any portion thereof, equipment individually or collectively, or any other tangible capital asset, wherever located, and whether owned or leased by the non-profit organization.
(2) “Idle facilities” means completely unused facilities that are excess to the non-profit organization's current needs.
(3) “Idle capacity” means the unused capacity of partially used facilities. It is the difference between: That which a facility could achieve under 100 percent operating time on a one-shift basis less operating interruptions resulting from time lost for repairs, setups, unsatisfactory materials, and other normal delays; and the extent to which the facility was actually used to meet demands during the accounting period. A multi-shift basis should be used if it can be shown that this amount of usage would normally be expected for the type of facility involved.
(4) “Cost of idle facilities or idle capacity” means costs such as maintenance, repair, housing, rent, and other related costs, e.g., insurance, interest, property taxes and depreciation or use allowances.
b. The costs of idle facilities are unallowable except to the extent that:
(1) They are necessary to meet fluctuations in workload; or
(2) Although not necessary to meet fluctuations in workload, they were necessary when acquired and are now idle because of changes in program requirements, efforts to achieve more economical operations, reorganization, termination, or other causes which could not have been reasonably foreseen. Under the exception stated in this subparagraph, costs of idle facilities are allowable for a reasonable period of time, ordinarily not to exceed one year, depending on the initiative taken to use, lease, or dispose of such facilities.
c. The costs of idle capacity are normal costs of doing business and are a factor in the normal fluctuations of usage or indirect cost rates from period to period. Such costs are allowable, provided that the capacity is reasonably anticipated to be necessary or was originally reasonable and is not subject to reduction or elimination by use on other Federal awards, subletting, renting, or sale, in accordance with sound business, economic, or security practices. Widespread idle capacity throughout an entire facility or among a group of assets having substantially the same function may be considered idle facilities.
22. Insurance and indemnification. a. Insurance includes insurance which the organization is required to carry, or which is approved, under the terms of the award and any other insurance which the organization maintains in connection with the general conduct of its operations. This paragraph does not apply to insurance which represents fringe benefits for employees (see subparagraphs 8.g and 8.i(2) of this appendix).
(1) Costs of insurance required or approved, and maintained, pursuant to the award are allowable.
(2) Costs of other insurance maintained by the organization in connection with the general conduct of its operations are allowable subject to the following limitations:
(a) Types and extent of coverage shall be in accordance with sound business practice and the rates and premiums shall be reasonable under the circumstances.
(b) Costs allowed for business interruption or other similar insurance shall be limited to exclude coverage of management fees.
(c) Costs of insurance or of any provisions for a reserve covering the risk of loss or damage to Federal property are allowable only to the extent that the organization is liable for such loss or damage.
(d) Provisions for a reserve under a self-insurance program are allowable to the extent that types of coverage, extent of coverage, rates, and premiums would have been allowed had insurance been purchased to cover the risks. However, provision for known or reasonably estimated self-insured liabilities, which do not become payable for more than one year after the provision is made, shall not exceed the present value of the liability.
(e) Costs of insurance on the lives of trustees, officers, or other employees holding positions of similar responsibilities are allowable only to the extent that the insurance represents additional compensation (see subparagraph 8.g(4) of this appendix). The cost of such insurance when the organization is identified as the beneficiary is unallowable.
(f) Insurance against defects. Costs of insurance with respect to any costs incurred to correct defects in the organization's materials or workmanship are unallowable.
(g) Medical liability (malpractice) insurance. Medical liability insurance is an allowable cost of Federal research programs only to the extent that the Federal research programs involve human subjects or training of participants in research techniques. Medical liability insurance costs shall be treated as a direct cost and shall be assigned to individual projects based on the manner in which the insurer allocates the risk to the population covered by the insurance.
(3) Actual losses which could have been covered by permissible insurance (through the purchase of insurance or a self-insurance program) are unallowable unless expressly provided for in the award, except:
(a) Costs incurred because of losses not covered under nominal deductible insurance coverage provided in keeping with sound business practice are allowable.
(b) Minor losses not covered by insurance, such as spoilage, breakage, and disappearance of supplies, which occur in the ordinary course of operations, are allowable.
b. Indemnification includes securing the organization against liabilities to third persons and any other loss or damage, not compensated by insurance or otherwise. The Federal Government is obligated to indemnify the organization only to the extent expressly provided in the award.
23. Interest. a. Costs incurred for interest on borrowed capital, temporary use of endowment funds, or the use of the non-profit organization's own funds, however represented, are unallowable. However, interest on debt incurred after September 29, 1995 to acquire or replace capital assets (including renovations, alterations, equipment, land, and capital assets acquired through capital leases), acquired after September 29, 1995 and used in support of Federal awards is allowable, provided that:
(1) For facilities acquisitions (excluding renovations and alterations) costing over $10 million where the Federal Government's reimbursement is expected to equal or exceed 40 percent of an asset's cost, the non-profit organization prepares, prior to the acquisition or replacement of the capital asset(s), a justification that demonstrates the need for the facility in the conduct of federally-sponsored activities. Upon request, the needs justification must be provided to the Federal agency with cost cognizance authority as a prerequisite to the continued allowability of interest on debt and depreciation related to the facility. The needs justification for the acquisition of a facility should include, at a minimum, the following:
(a) A statement of purpose and justification for facility acquisition or replacement.
(b) A statement as to why current facilities are not adequate.
(c) A statement of planned future use of the facility.
(d) A description of the financing agreement to be arranged for the facility.
(e) A summary of the building contract with estimated cost information and statement of source and use of funds.
(f) A schedule of planned occupancy dates.
(2) For facilities costing over $500,000, the non-profit organization prepares, prior to the acquisition or replacement of the facility, a lease/purchase analysis in accordance with the provisions of §§ 215.30 through 215.37 of 2 CFR 215 (OMB Circular A-110), which shows that a financed purchase or capital lease is less costly to the organization than other leasing alternatives, on a net present value basis. Discount rates used should be equal to the non-profit organization's anticipated interest rates and should be no higher than the fair market rate available to the non-profit organization from an unrelated (“arm's length”) third-party. The lease/purchase analysis shall include a comparison of the net present value of the projected total cost comparisons of both alternatives over the period the asset is expected to be used by the non-profit organization. The cost comparisons associated with purchasing the facility shall include the estimated purchase price, anticipated operating and maintenance costs (including property taxes, if applicable) not included in the debt financing, less any estimated asset salvage value at the end of the period defined above. The cost comparison for a capital lease shall include the estimated total lease payments, any estimated bargain purchase option, operating and maintenance costs, and taxes not included in the capital leasing arrangement, less any estimated credits due under the lease at the end of the period defined above. Projected operating lease costs shall be based on the anticipated cost of leasing comparable facilities at fair market rates under rental agreements that would be renewed or reestablished over the period defined above, and any expected maintenance costs and allowable property taxes to be borne by the non-profit organization directly or as part of the lease arrangement.
(3) The actual interest cost claimed is predicated upon interest rates that are no higher than the fair market rate available to the non-profit organization from an unrelated (“arm's length”) third party.
(4) Investment earnings, including interest income, on bond or loan principal, pending payment of the construction or acquisition costs, are used to offset allowable interest cost. Arbitrage earnings reportable to the Internal Revenue Service are not required to be offset against allowable interest costs.
(5) Reimbursements are limited to the least costly alternative based on the total cost analysis required under subparagraph 23.b. of this appendix. For example, if an operating lease is determined to be less costly than purchasing through debt financing, then reimbursement is limited to the amount determined if leasing had been used. In all cases where a lease/purchase analysis is performed, Federal reimbursement shall be based upon the least expensive alternative.
(6) Non-profit organizations are also subject to the following conditions:
(a) Interest on debt incurred to finance or refinance assets acquired before or reacquired after September 29, 1995, is not allowable.
(b) Interest attributable to fully depreciated assets is unallowable.
(c) For debt arrangements over $1 million, unless the non-profit organization makes an initial equity contribution to the asset purchase of 25 percent or more, non-profit organizations shall reduce claims for interest expense by an amount equal to imputed interest earnings on excess cash flow, which is to be calculated as follows. Annually, non-profit organizations shall prepare a cumulative (from the inception of the project) report of monthly cash flows that includes inflows and outflows, regardless of the funding source. Inflows consist of depreciation expense, amortization of capitalized construction interest, and annual interest expense. For cash flow calculations, the annual inflow figures shall be divided by the number of months in the year (usually 12) that the building is in service for monthly amounts. Outflows consist of initial equity contributions, debt principal payments (less the pro rata share attributable to the unallowable costs of land) and interest payments. Where cumulative inflows exceed cumulative outflows, interest shall be calculated on the excess inflows for that period and be treated as a reduction to allowable interest expense. The rate of interest to be used to compute earnings on excess cash flows shall be the three month Treasury Bill closing rate as of the last business day of that month.
(d) Substantial relocation of federally-sponsored activities from a facility financed by indebtedness, the cost of which was funded in whole or part through Federal reimbursements, to another facility prior to the expiration of a period of 20 years requires notice to the Federal cognizant agency. The extent of the relocation, the amount of the Federal participation in the financing, and the depreciation and interest charged to date may require negotiation and/or downward adjustments of replacement space charged to Federal programs in the future.
(e) The allowable costs to acquire facilities and equipment are limited to a fair market value available to the non-profit organization from an unrelated (“arm's length”) third party.
b. For non-profit organizations subject to “full coverage” under the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) as defined at 48 CFR 9903.201, the interest allowability provisions of subparagraph a do not apply. Instead, these organizations' sponsored agreements are subject to CAS 414 (48 CFR 9903.414), cost of money as an element of the cost of facilities capital, and CAS 417 (48 CFR 9903.417), cost of money as an element of the cost of capital assets under construction.
c. The following definitions are to be used for purposes of this paragraph:
(1) Re-acquired assets means assets held by the non-profit organization prior to September 29, 1995 that have again come to be held by the organization, whether through repurchase or refinancing. It does not include assets acquired to replace older assets.
(2) Initial equity contribution means the amount or value of contributions made by non-profit organizations for the acquisition of the asset or prior to occupancy of facilities.
(3) Asset costs means the capitalizable costs of an asset, including construction costs, acquisition costs, and other such costs capitalized in accordance with GAAP.
24. Labor relations costs. Costs incurred in maintaining satisfactory relations between the organization and its employees, including costs of labor management committees, employee publications, and other related activities are allowable.
25. Lobbying. a. Notwithstanding other provisions of this appendix, costs associated with the following activities are unallowable:
(1) Attempts to influence the outcomes of any Federal, State, or local election, referendum, initiative, or similar procedure, through in kind or cash contributions, endorsements, publicity, or similar activity;
(2) Establishing, administering, contributing to, or paying the expenses of a political party, campaign, political action committee, or other organization established for the purpose of influencing the outcomes of elections;
(3) Any attempt to influence: The introduction of Federal or State legislation; or the enactment or modification of any pending Federal or State legislation through communication with any member or employee of the Congress or State legislature (including efforts to influence State or local officials to engage in similar lobbying activity), or with any Government official or employee in connection with a decision to sign or veto enrolled legislation;
(4) Any attempt to influence: The introduction of Federal or State legislation; or the enactment or modification of any pending Federal or State legislation by preparing, distributing or using publicity or propaganda, or by urging members of the general public or any segment thereof to contribute to or participate in any mass demonstration, march, rally, fundraising drive, lobbying campaign or letter writing or telephone campaign; or
(5) Legislative liaison activities, including attendance at legislative sessions or committee hearings, gathering information regarding legislation, and analyzing the effect of legislation, when such activities are carried on in support of or in knowing preparation for an effort to engage in unallowable lobbying.
b. The following activities are excepted from the coverage of subparagraph 25.a of this appendix:
(1) Providing a technical and factual presentation of information on a topic directly related to the performance of a grant, contract or other agreement through hearing testimony, statements or letters to the Congress or a State legislature, or subdivision, member, or cognizant staff member thereof, in response to a documented request (including a Congressional Record notice requesting testimony or statements for the record at a regularly scheduled hearing) made by the recipient member, legislative body or subdivision, or a cognizant staff member thereof; provided such information is readily obtainable and can be readily put in deliverable form; and further provided that costs under this section for travel, lodging or meals are unallowable unless incurred to offer testimony at a regularly scheduled Congressional hearing pursuant to a written request for such presentation made by the Chairman or Ranking Minority Member of the Committee or Subcommittee conducting such hearing.
(2) Any lobbying made unallowable by subparagraph 25.a.(3) of this appendix to influence State legislation in order to directly reduce the cost, or to avoid material impairment of the organization's authority to perform the grant, contract, or other agreement.
(3) Any activity specifically authorized by statute to be undertaken with funds from the grant, contract, or other agreement.
c. (1) When an organization seeks reimbursement for indirect costs, total lobbying costs shall be separately identified in the indirect cost rate proposal, and thereafter treated as other unallowable activity costs in accordance with the procedures of subparagraph B.3 of Appendix A to this part.
(2) Organizations shall submit, as part of the annual indirect cost rate proposal, a certification that the requirements and standards of this paragraph have been complied with.
(3) Organizations shall maintain adequate records to demonstrate that the determination of costs as being allowable or unallowable pursuant to paragraph 25 complies with the requirements of this Appendix.
(4) Time logs, calendars, or similar records shall not be required to be created for purposes of complying with this paragraph during any particular calendar month when: the employee engages in lobbying (as defined in subparagraphs 25.a. and b. of this appendix) 25 percent or less of the employee's compensated hours of employment during that calendar month, and within the preceding five-year period, the organization has not materially misstated allowable or unallowable costs of any nature, including legislative lobbying costs. When the conditions described in this subparagraph are met, organizations are not required to establish records to support the allowability of claimed costs in addition to records already required or maintained. Also, when the conditions described in this subparagraph are met, the absence of time logs, calendars, or similar records will not serve as a basis for disallowing costs by contesting estimates of lobbying time spent by employees during a calendar month.
(5) Agencies shall establish procedures for resolving in advance, in consultation with OMB, any significant questions or disagreements concerning the interpretation or application of paragraph 25. Any such advance resolution shall be binding in any subsequent settlements, audits or investigations with respect to that grant or contract for purposes of interpretation of this Appendix; provided, however, that this shall not be construed to prevent a contractor or grantee from contesting the lawfulness of such a determination.
d. Executive lobbying costs. Costs incurred in attempting to improperly influence either directly or indirectly, an employee or officer of the Executive Branch of the Federal Government to give consideration or to act regarding a sponsored agreement or a regulatory matter are unallowable. Improper influence means any influence that induces or tends to induce a Federal employee or officer to give consideration or to act regarding a federally-sponsored agreement or regulatory matter on any basis other than the merits of the matter.
26. Losses on other sponsored agreements or contracts. Any excess of costs over income on any award is unallowable as a cost of any other award. This includes, but is not limited to, the organization's contributed portion by reason of cost sharing agreements or any under-recoveries through negotiation of lump sums for, or ceilings on, indirect costs.
27. Maintenance and repair costs. Costs incurred for necessary maintenance, repair, or upkeep of buildings and equipment (including Federal property unless otherwise provided for) which neither add to the permanent value of the property nor appreciably prolong its intended life, but keep it in an efficient operating condition, are allowable. Costs incurred for improvements which add to the permanent value of the buildings and equipment or appreciably prolong their intended life shall be treated as capital expenditures (see paragraph 15 of this appendix).
28. Materials and supplies costs. a. Costs incurred for materials, supplies, and fabricated parts necessary to carry out a Federal award are allowable.
b. Purchased materials and supplies shall be charged at their actual prices, net of applicable credits. Withdrawals from general stores or stockrooms should be charged at their actual net cost under any recognized method of pricing inventory withdrawals, consistently applied. Incoming transportation charges are a proper part of materials and supplies costs.
c. Only materials and supplies actually used for the performance of a Federal award may be charged as direct costs.
d. Where federally-donated or furnished materials are used in performing the Federal award, such materials will be used without charge.
29. Meetings and conferences. Costs of meetings and conferences, the primary purpose of which is the dissemination of technical information, are allowable. This includes costs of meals, transportation, rental of facilities, speakers' fees, and other items incidental to such meetings or conferences. But see paragraphs 14., Entertainment costs, and 33., Participant support costs of this appendix.
30. Memberships, subscriptions, and professional activity costs. a. Costs of the non-profit organization's membership in business, technical, and professional organizations are allowable.
b. Costs of the non-profit organization's subscriptions to business, professional, and technical periodicals are allowable.
c. Costs of membership in any civic or community organization are allowable with prior approval by Federal cognizant agency.
d. Costs of membership in any country club or social or dining club or organization are unallowable.
31. Organization costs. Expenditures, such as incorporation fees, brokers' fees, fees to promoters, organizers or management consultants, attorneys, accountants, or investment counselors, whether or not employees of the organization, in connection with establishment or reorganization of an organization, are unallowable except with prior approval of the awarding agency.
32. Page charges in professional journals. Page charges for professional journal publications are allowable as a necessary part of research costs, where:
a. The research papers report work supported by the Federal Government; and
b. The charges are levied impartially on all research papers published by the journal, whether or not by federally-sponsored authors.
33. Participant support costs. Participant support costs are direct costs for items such as stipends or subsistence allowances, travel allowances, and registration fees paid to or on behalf of participants or trainees (but not employees) in connection with meetings, conferences, symposia, or training projects. These costs are allowable with the prior approval of the awarding agency.
34. Patent costs. a. The following costs relating to patent and copyright matters are allowable: cost of preparing disclosures, reports, and other documents required by the Federal award and of searching the art to the extent necessary to make such disclosures; cost of preparing documents and any other patent costs in connection with the filing and prosecution of a United States patent application where title or royalty-free license is required by the Federal Government to be conveyed to the Federal Government; and general counseling services relating to patent and copyright matters, such as advice on patent and copyright laws, regulations, clauses, and employee agreements (but see paragraphs 37., Professional services costs, and 44., Royalties and other costs for use of patents and copyrights, of this appendix).
b. The following costs related to patent and copyright matter are unallowable:
(1) Cost of preparing disclosures, reports, and other documents and of searching the art to the extent necessary to make disclosures not required by the award.
(2) Costs in connection with filing and prosecuting any foreign patent application, or any United States patent application, where the Federal award does not require conveying title or a royalty-free license to the Federal Government (but see paragraph 45., Royalties and other costs for use of patents and copyrights, of this appendix).
35. Plant and homeland security costs. Necessary and reasonable expenses incurred for routine and homeland security to protect facilities, personnel, and work products are allowable. Such costs include, but are not limited to, wages and uniforms of personnel engaged in security activities; equipment; barriers; contractual security services; consultants; etc. Capital expenditures for homeland and plant security purposes are subject to paragraph 15., Equipment and other capital expenditures, of this appendix.
36. Pre-agreement costs. Pre-award costs are those incurred prior to the effective date of the award directly pursuant to the negotiation and in anticipation of the award where such costs are necessary to comply with the proposed delivery schedule or period of performance. Such costs are allowable only to the extent that they would have been allowable if incurred after the date of the award and only with the written approval of the awarding agency.
37. Professional services costs. a. Costs of professional and consultant services rendered by persons who are members of a particular profession or possess a special skill, and who are not officers or employees of the non-profit organization, are allowable, subject to subparagraphs b and c when reasonable in relation to the services rendered and when not contingent upon recovery of the costs from the Federal Government. In addition, legal and related services are limited under paragraph 10 of this appendix.
b. In determining the allowability of costs in a particular case, no single factor or any special combination of factors is necessarily determinative. However, the following factors are relevant:
(1) The nature and scope of the service rendered in relation to the service required.
(2) The necessity of contracting for the service, considering the non-profit organization's capability in the particular area.
(3) The past pattern of such costs, particularly in the years prior to Federal awards.
(4) The impact of Federal awards on the non-profit organization's business (i.e., what new problems have arisen).
(5) Whether the proportion of Federal work to the non-profit organization's total business is such as to influence the non-profit organization in favor of incurring the cost, particularly where the services rendered are not of a continuing nature and have little relationship to work under Federal grants and contracts.
(6) Whether the service can be performed more economically by direct employment rather than contracting.
(7) The qualifications of the individual or concern rendering the service and the customary fees charged, especially on non-Federal awards.
(8) Adequacy of the contractual agreement for the service (e.g., description of the service, estimate of time required, rate of compensation, and termination provisions).
c. In addition to the factors in subparagraph 37.b of this appendix, retainer fees to be allowable must be supported by evidence of bona fide services available or rendered
38. Publication and printing costs. a. Publication costs include the costs of printing (including the processes of composition, plate-making, press work, binding, and the end products produced by such processes), distribution, promotion, mailing, and general handling. Publication costs also include page charges in professional publications.
b. If these costs are not identifiable with a particular cost objective, they should be allocated as indirect costs to all benefiting activities of the non-profit organization.
c. Page charges for professional journal publications are allowable as a necessary part of research costs where:
(1) The research papers report work supported by the Federal Government: and
(2) The charges are levied impartially on all research papers published by the journal, whether or not by federally-sponsored authors.
39. Rearrangement and alteration costs. Costs incurred for ordinary or normal rearrangement and alteration of facilities are allowable. Special arrangement and alteration costs incurred specifically for the project are allowable with the prior approval of the awarding agency.
40. Reconversion costs. Costs incurred in the restoration or rehabilitation of the non-profit organization's facilities to approximately the same condition existing immediately prior to commencement of Federal awards, less costs related to normal wear and tear, are allowable.
41. Recruiting costs. a. Subject to subparagraphs 41.b, c, and d of this appendix, and provided that the size of the staff recruited and maintained is in keeping with workload requirements, costs of “help wanted” advertising, operating costs of an employment office necessary to secure and maintain an adequate staff, costs of operating an aptitude and educational testing program, travel costs of employees while engaged in recruiting personnel, travel costs of applicants for interviews for prospective employment, and relocation costs incurred incident to recruitment of new employees, are allowable to the extent that such costs are incurred pursuant to a well-managed recruitment program. Where the organization uses employment agencies, costs that are not in excess of standard commercial rates for such services are allowable.
b. In publications, costs of help wanted advertising that includes color, includes advertising material for other than recruitment purposes, or is excessive in size (taking into consideration recruitment purposes for which intended and normal organizational practices in this respect), are unallowable.
c. Costs of help wanted advertising, special emoluments, fringe benefits, and salary allowances incurred to attract professional personnel from other organizations that do not meet the test of reasonableness or do not conform with the established practices of the organization, are unallowable.
d. Where relocation costs incurred incident to recruitment of a new employee have been allowed either as an allocable direct or indirect cost, and the newly hired employee resigns for reasons within his control within twelve months after being hired, the organization will be required to refund or credit such relocation costs to the Federal Government.
42. Relocation costs. a. Relocation costs are costs incident to the permanent change of duty assignment (for an indefinite period or for a stated period of not less than 12 months) of an existing employee or upon recruitment of a new employee. Relocation costs are allowable, subject to the limitation described in subparagraphs 42.b, c, and d of this appendix, provided that:
(1) The move is for the benefit of the employer.
(2) Reimbursement to the employee is in accordance with an established written policy consistently followed by the employer.
(3) The reimbursement does not exceed the employee's actual (or reasonably estimated) expenses.
b. Allowable relocation costs for current employees are limited to the following:
(1) The costs of transportation of the employee, members of his immediate family and his household, and personal effects to the new location.
(2) The costs of finding a new home, such as advance trips by employees and spouses to locate living quarters and temporary lodging during the transition period, up to maximum period of 30 days, including advance trip time.
(3) Closing costs, such as brokerage, legal, and appraisal fees, incident to the disposition of the employee's former home. These costs, together with those described in subparagraph 42.b.(4) of this appendix, are limited to 8 percent of the sales price of the employee's former home.
(4) The continuing costs of ownership of the vacant former home after the settlement or lease date of the employee's new permanent home, such as maintenance of buildings and grounds (exclusive of fixing up expenses), utilities, taxes, and property insurance.
(5) Other necessary and reasonable expenses normally incident to relocation, such as the costs of canceling an unexpired lease, disconnecting and reinstalling household appliances, and purchasing insurance against loss of or damages to personal property. The cost of canceling an unexpired lease is limited to three times the monthly rental.
c. Allowable relocation costs for new employees are limited to those described in subparagraph 42.b(1) and (2) of this appendix. When relocation costs incurred incident to the recruitment of new employees have been allowed either as a direct or indirect cost and the employee resigns for reasons within his control within 12 months after hire, the organization shall refund or credit the Federal Government for its share of the cost. However, the costs of travel to an overseas location shall be considered travel costs in accordance with paragraph 50 and not relocation costs for the purpose of this paragraph if dependents are not permitted at the location for any reason and the costs do not include costs of transporting household goods.
d. The following costs related to relocation are unallowable:
(1) Fees and other costs associated with acquiring a new home.
(2) A loss on the sale of a former home.
(3) Continuing mortgage principal and interest payments on a home being sold.
(4) Income taxes paid by an employee related to reimbursed relocation costs.
43. Rental costs of buildings and equipment. a. Subject to the limitations described in subparagraphs 43.b. through d. of this appendix, rental costs are allowable to the extent that the rates are reasonable in light of such factors as: Rental costs of comparable property, if any; market conditions in the area; alternatives available; and, the type, life expectancy, condition, and value of the property leased. Rental arrangements should be reviewed periodically to determine if circumstances have changed and other options are available.
b. Rental costs under “sale and lease back” arrangements are allowable only up to the amount that would be allowed had the non-profit organization continued to own the property. This amount would include expenses such as depreciation or use allowance, maintenance, taxes, and insurance.
c. Rental costs under “less-than-arms-length” leases are allowable only up to the amount (as explained in subparagraph 43.b. of this appendix) that would be allowed had title to the property vested in the non-profit organization. For this purpose, a less-than-arms-length lease is one under which one party to the lease agreement is able to control or substantially influence the actions of the other. Such leases include, but are not limited to those between divisions of a non-profit organization; non-profit organizations under common control through common officers, directors, or members; and a non-profit organization and a director, trustee, officer, or key employee of the non-profit organization or his immediate family, either directly or through corporations, trusts, or similar arrangements in which they hold a controlling interest. For example, a non-profit organization may establish a separate corporation for the sole purpose of owning property and leasing it back to the non-profit organization.
d. Rental costs under leases which are required to be treated as capital leases under GAAP are allowable only up to the amount (as explained in subparagraph b) that would be allowed had the non-profit organization purchased the property on the date the lease agreement was executed. The provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement 13, Accounting for Leases, shall be used to determine whether a lease is a capital lease. Interest costs related to capital leases are allowable to the extent they meet the criteria in paragraph 23 of this appendix. Unallowable costs include amounts paid for profit, management fees, and taxes that would not have been incurred had the non-profit organization purchased the facility.
44. Royalties and other costs for use of patents and copyrights. a. Royalties on a patent or copyright or amortization of the cost of acquiring by purchase a copyright, patent, or rights thereto, necessary for the proper performance of the award are allowable unless:
(1) The Federal Government has a license or the right to free use of the patent or copyright.
(2) The patent or copyright has been adjudicated to be invalid, or has been administratively determined to be invalid.
(3) The patent or copyright is considered to be unenforceable.
(4) The patent or copyright is expired.
b. Special care should be exercised in determining reasonableness where the royalties may have arrived at as a result of less-than-arm's-length bargaining, e.g.:
(1) Royalties paid to persons, including corporations, affiliated with the non-profit organization.
(2) Royalties paid to unaffiliated parties, including corporations, under an agreement entered into in contemplation that a Federal award would be made.
(3) Royalties paid under an agreement entered into after an award is made to a non-profit organization.
c. In any case involving a patent or copyright formerly owned by the non-profit organization, the amount of royalty allowed should not exceed the cost which would have been allowed had the non-profit organization retained title thereto.
45. Selling and marketing. Costs of selling and marketing any products or services of the non-profit organization are unallowable (unless allowed under paragraph 1. of this appendix as allowable public relations cost. However, these costs are allowable as direct costs, with prior approval by awarding agencies, when they are necessary for the performance of Federal programs.
46. Specialized service facilities. a. The costs of services provided by highly complex or specialized facilities operated by the non-profit organization, such as computers, wind tunnels, and reactors are allowable, provided the charges for the services meet the conditions of either paragraph 46 b. or c. of this appendix and, in addition, take into account any items of income or Federal financing that qualify as applicable credits under subparagraph A.5. of Appendix A to this part.
b. The costs of such services, when material, must be charged directly to applicable awards based on actual usage of the services on the basis of a schedule of rates or established methodology that does not discriminate against federally-supported activities of the non-profit organization, including usage by the non-profit organization for internal purposes, and is designed to recover only the aggregate costs of the services. The costs of each service shall consist normally of both its direct costs and its allocable share of all indirect costs. Rates shall be adjusted at least biennially, and shall take into consideration over/under applied costs of the previous period(s).
c. Where the costs incurred for a service are not material, they may be allocated as indirect costs.
d. Under some extraordinary circumstances, where it is in the best interest of the Federal Government and the institution to establish alternative costing arrangements, such arrangements may be worked out with the cognizant Federal agency.
47. Taxes. a. In general, taxes which the organization is required to pay and which are paid or accrued in accordance with GAAP, and payments made to local governments in lieu of taxes which are commensurate with the local government services received are allowable, except for taxes from which exemptions are available to the organization directly or which are available to the organization based on an exemption afforded the Federal Government and in the latter case when the awarding agency makes available the necessary exemption certificates, special assessments on land which represent capital improvements, and Federal income taxes.
b. Any refund of taxes, and any payment to the organization of interest thereon, which were allowed as award costs, will be credited either as a cost reduction or cash refund, as appropriate, to the Federal Government.
48. Termination costs applicable to sponsored agreements. Termination of awards generally gives rise to the incurrence of costs, or the need for special treatment of costs, which would not have arisen had the Federal award not been terminated. Cost principles covering these items are set forth below. They are to be used in conjunction with the other provisions of this appendix in termination situations.
a. The cost of items reasonably usable on the non-profit organization's other work shall not be allowable unless the non-profit organization submits evidence that it would not retain such items at cost without sustaining a loss. In deciding whether such items are reasonably usable on other work of the non-profit organization, the awarding agency should consider the non-profit organization's plans and orders for current and scheduled activity. Contemporaneous purchases of common items by the non-profit organization shall be regarded as evidence that such items are reasonably usable on the non-profit organization's other work. Any acceptance of common items as allocable to the terminated portion of the Federal award shall be limited to the extent that the quantities of such items on hand, in transit, and on order are in excess of the reasonable quantitative requirements of other work.
b. If in a particular case, despite all reasonable efforts by the non-profit organization, certain costs cannot be discontinued immediately after the effective date of termination, such costs are generally allowable within the limitations set forth in this appendix, except that any such costs continuing after termination due to the negligent or willful failure of the non-profit organization to discontinue such costs shall be unallowable.
c. Loss of useful value of special tooling, machinery, and is generally allowable if:
(1) Such special tooling, special machinery, or equipment is not reasonably capable of use in the other work of the non-profit organization,
(2) The interest of the Federal Government is protected by transfer of title or by other means deemed appropriate by the awarding agency, and
(3) The loss of useful value for any one terminated Federal award is limited to that portion of the acquisition cost which bears the same ratio to the total acquisition cost as the terminated portion of the Federal award bears to the entire terminated Federal award and other Federal awards for which the special tooling, special machinery, or equipment was acquired.
d. Rental costs under unexpired leases are generally allowable where clearly shown to have been reasonably necessary for the performance of the terminated Federal award less the residual value of such leases, if:
(1) The amount of such rental claimed does not exceed the reasonable use value of the property leased for the period of the Federal award and such further period as may be reasonable, and
(2) The non-profit organization makes all reasonable efforts to terminate, assign, settle, or otherwise reduce the cost of such lease. There also may be included the cost of alterations of such leased property, provided such alterations were necessary for the performance of the Federal award, and of reasonable restoration required by the provisions of the lease.
e. Settlement expenses including the following are generally allowable:
(1) Accounting, legal, clerical, and similar costs reasonably necessary for:
(a) The preparation and presentation to the awarding agency of settlement claims and supporting data with respect to the terminated portion of the Federal award, unless the termination is for default (see § 215.61 of2 CFR part 215 (OMB Circular A-110)); and
(b) The termination and settlement of subawards.
(2) Reasonable costs for the storage, transportation, protection, and disposition of property provided by the Federal Government or acquired or produced for the Federal award, except when grantees or contractors are reimbursed for disposals at a predetermined amount in accordance with § 215.32 through 215.37 of 2 CFR part 215 (OMB Circular A-110).
(3) Indirect costs related to salaries and wages incurred as settlement expenses in subparagraphs 48.e.(1) and (2) of this appendix. Normally, such indirect costs shall be limited to fringe benefits, occupancy cost, and immediate supervision.
f. Claims under sub awards, including the allocable portion of claims which are common to the Federal award, and to other work of the non-profit organization are generally allowable.
An appropriate share of the non-profit organization's indirect expense may be allocated to the amount of settlements with subcontractors and/or subgrantees, provided that the amount allocated is otherwise consistent with the basic guidelines contained in Appendix A. The indirect expense so allocated shall exclude the same and similar costs claimed directly or indirectly as settlement expenses.
49. Training costs. a. Costs of preparation and maintenance of a program of instruction including but not limited to on-the-job, classroom, and apprenticeship training, designed to increase the vocational effectiveness of employees, including training materials, textbooks, salaries or wages of trainees (excluding overtime compensation which might arise therefrom), and (i) salaries of the director of training and staff when the training program is conducted by the organization; or (ii) tuition and fees when the training is in an institution not operated by the organization, are allowable.
b. Costs of part-time education, at an undergraduate or post-graduate college level, including that provided at the organization's own facilities, are allowable only when the course or degree pursued is relative to the field in which the employee is now working or may reasonably be expected to work, and are limited to:
(1) Training materials.
(3) Fees charges by the educational institution.
(4) Tuition charged by the educational institution or, in lieu of tuition, instructors' salaries and the related share of indirect costs of the educational institution to the extent that the sum thereof is not in excess of the tuition which would have been paid to the participating educational institution.
(5) Salaries and related costs of instructors who are employees of the organization.
(6) Straight-time compensation of each employee for time spent attending classes during working hours not in excess of 156 hours per year and only to the extent that circumstances do not permit the operation of classes or attendance at classes after regular working hours; otherwise, such compensation is unallowable.
c. Costs of tuition, fees, training materials, and textbooks (but not subsistence, salary, or any other emoluments) in connection with full-time education, including that provided at the organization's own facilities, at a post-graduate (but not undergraduate) college level, are allowable only when the course or degree pursued is related to the field in which the employee is now working or may reasonably be expected to work, and only where the costs receive the prior approval of the awarding agency. Such costs are limited to the costs attributable to a total period not to exceed one school year for each employee so trained. In unusual cases the period may be extended.
d. Costs of attendance of up to 16 weeks per employee per year at specialized programs specifically designed to enhance the effectiveness of executives or managers or to prepare employees for such positions are allowable. Such costs include enrollment fees, training materials, textbooks and related charges, employees' salaries, subsistence, and travel. Costs allowable under this paragraph do not include those for courses that are part of a degree-oriented curriculum, which are allowable only to the extent set forth in subparagraphs b and c.
e. Maintenance expense, and normal depreciation or fair rental, on facilities owned or leased by the organization for training purposes are allowable to the extent set forth in paragraphs 11, 27, and 50 of this appendix.
f. Contributions or donations to educational or training institutions, including the donation of facilities or other properties, and scholarships or fellowships, are unallowable.
g. Training and education costs in excess of those otherwise allowable under subparagraphs 49.b and c of this appendix may be allowed with prior approval of the awarding agency. To be considered for approval, the organization must demonstrate that such costs are consistently incurred pursuant to an established training and education program, and that the course or degree pursued is relative to the field in which the employee is now working or may reasonably be expected to work.
50. Transportation costs. Transportation costs include freight, express, cartage, and postage charges relating either to goods purchased, in process, or delivered. These costs are allowable. When such costs can readily be identified with the items involved, they may be directly charged as transportation costs or added to the cost of such items (see paragraph 28 of this appendix). Where identification with the materials received cannot readily be made, transportation costs may be charged to the appropriate indirect cost accounts if the organization follows a consistent, equitable procedure in this respect.
51. Travel costs.
a. General. Travel costs are the expenses for transportation, lodging, subsistence, and related items incurred by employees who are in travel status on official business of the non-profit organization. Such costs may be charged on an actual cost basis, on a per diem or mileage basis in lieu of actual costs incurred, or on a combination of the two, provided the method used is applied to an entire trip and not to selected days of the trip, and results in charges consistent with those normally allowed in like circumstances in the non-profit organization's non-federally-sponsored activities.
b. Lodging and subsistence. Costs incurred by employees and officers for travel, including costs of lodging, other subsistence, and incidental expenses, shall be considered reasonable and allowable only to the extent such costs do not exceed charges normally allowed by the non-profit organization in its regular operations as the result of the non-profit organization's written travel policy. In the absence of an acceptable, written non-profit organization policy regarding travel costs, the rates and amounts established under subchapter I of Chapter 57, Title 5, United States Code (“Travel and Subsistence Expenses; Mileage Allowances”), or by the Administrator of General Services, or by the President (or his or her designee) pursuant to any provisions of such subchapter shall apply to travel under Federal awards (48 CFR 31.205-46(a)).
c. Commercial air travel. (1) Airfare costs in excess of the customary standard commercial airfare (coach or equivalent), Federal Government contract airfare (where authorized and available), or the lowest commercial discount airfare are unallowable except when such accommodations would: require circuitous routing; require travel during unreasonable hours; excessively prolong travel; result in additional costs that would offset the transportation savings; or offer accommodations not reasonably adequate for the traveler's medical needs. The non-profit organization must justify and document these conditions on a case-by-case basis in order for the use of first-class airfare to be allowable in such cases.
(2) Unless a pattern of avoidance is detected, the Federal Government will generally not question a non-profit organization's determinations that customary standard airfare or other discount airfare is unavailable for specific trips if the non-profit organization can demonstrate either of the following: that such airfare was not available in the specific case; or that it is the non-profit organization's overall practice to make routine use of such airfare.
d. Air travel by other than commercial carrier. Costs of travel by non-profit organization-owned, -leased, or -chartered aircraft include the cost of lease, charter, operation (including personnel costs), maintenance, depreciation, insurance, and other related costs. The portion of such costs that exceeds the cost of allowable commercial air travel, as provided for in subparagraph] c., is unallowable.
e. Foreign travel. Direct charges for foreign travel costs are allowable only when the travel has received prior approval of the awarding agency. Each separate foreign trip must receive such approval. For purposes of this provision, “foreign travel” includes any travel outside Canada, Mexico, the United States, and any United States territories and possessions. However, the term “foreign travel” for a non-profit organization located in a foreign country means travel outside that country.
52. Trustees. Travel and subsistence costs of trustees (or directors) are allowable. The costs are subject to restrictions regarding lodging, subsistence and air travel costs provided in paragraph 51 of this appendix.
Title 2 published on 2015-01-01.
No entries appear in the Federal Register after this date, for 2 CFR Part 230.