21 CFR 12.87 - Purpose; oral and written testimony; burden of proof.
(a) The objective of a formal evidentiary hearing is the fair determination of relevant facts consistent with the right of all interested persons to participate and the public interest in promptly settling controversial matters affecting the public health and welfare.
(b) Accordingly, the evidence at a hearing is to be developed to the maximum extent through written submissions, including written direct testimony, which may be in narrative or in question-and-answer form.
(1) In a hearing, the issues may have general applicability and depend on general facts that do not concern particular action of a specific party, e.g., the safety or effectiveness of a class of drug products, the safety of a food or color additive, or a definition and standard of identity for a food; or the issues may have specific applicability to past action and depend upon particular facts concerning only that party, e.g., the applicability of a grandfather clause to a particular brand of a drug or the failure of a particular manufacturer to meet required manufacturing and processing specifications or other general standards.
(i) If the proceeding involves general issues, direct testimony will be submitted in writing, except on a showing that written direct testimony is insufficient for a full and true disclosure of relevant facts and that the participant will be prejudiced if unable to present oral direct testimony. If the proceeding involves particular issues, each party may determine whether, and the extent to which, each wishes to present direct testimony orally or in writing.
(ii) Oral cross-examination of witnesses will be permitted if it appears that alternative means of developing the evidence are insufficient for a full and true disclosure of the facts and that the party requesting oral cross-examination will be prejudiced by denial of the request or that oral cross-examination is the most effective and efficient means to clarify the matters at issue.
(2) Witnesses shall give testimony under oath.
(c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, in a hearing involving issuing, amending, or revoking a regulation or order, the originator of the proposal or petition or of any significant modification will be, within the meaning of 5 U.S.C. 556(d), the proponent of the regulation or order, and will have the burden of proof. A participant who proposes to substitute a new provision for a provision objected to has the burden of proof in relation to the new provision.
(d) At a hearing involving issuing, amending, or revoking a regulation or order relating to the safety or effectiveness of a drug, device, food additive, or color additive, the participant who is contending that the product is safe or effective or both and who is requesting approval or contesting withdrawal of approval has the burden of proof in establishing safety or effectiveness or both and thus the right to approval. The burden of proof remains on that participant in an amendment or revocation proceeding.