21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.
The food additive combustion product gas may be safely used in the processing and packaging of the foods designated in paragraph (c) of this section for the purpose of removing and displacing oxygen in accordance with the following prescribed conditions:
(a) The food additive is manufactured by the controlled combustion in air of butane, propane, or natural gas. The combustion equipment shall be provided with an absorption-type filter capable of removing possible toxic impurities, through which all gas used in the treatment of food shall pass; and with suitable controls to insure that any combustion products failing to meet the specifications provided in this section will be prevented from reaching the food being treated.
(b) The food additive meets the following specifications:
(1) Carbon monoxide content not to exceed 4.5 percent by volume.
(2) The ultraviolet absorbance in isooctane solution in the range 255 millimicrons to 310 millimicrons not to exceed one-third of the standard reference absorbance when tested as described in paragraph (e) of this section.
(c) It is used or intended for use to displace or remove oxygen in the processing, storage, or packaging of beverage products and other food, except fresh meats.
(d) To assure safe use of the additive in addition to the other information required by the act, the label or labeling of the combustion device shall bear adequate directions for use to provide a combustion product gas that complies with the limitations prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section, including instructions to assure proper filtration.
Spectrophotometric measurements. All measurements are made in an ultraviolet spectrophotometer in optical cells of 5 centimeters in length, and in the range of 255 millimicrons to 310 millimicrons, under the same instrumental conditions. The standard reference absorbance is the absorbance at 275 millimicrons of a standard reference solution of naphthalene (National Bureau of Standards Material No. 577 or equivalent in purity) containing a concentration of 1.4 milligrams per liter in purified isooctane, measured against isooctane of the same spectral purity in 5-centimeter cells. (This absorbance will be approximately 0.30.)
Solvent. The solvent used is pure grade isooctane having an ultraviolet absorbance not to exceed 0.05 measured against distilled water as a reference. Upon passage of purified inert gas through some isooctane under the identical conditions of the test, a lowering of the absorbance value has been observed. The absorbance of isooctane to be used in this procedure shall not be more than 0.02 lower in the range 255 millimicrons to 310 millimicrons, inclusive, than that of the untreated solvent as measured in a 5-centimeter cell. If necessary to obtain the prescribed purities, the isooctane may be passed through activated silica gel.
Apparatus. To assure reproducible results, the additive is passed into the isooctane solution through a gas-absorption train consisting of the following components and necessary connections:
1. A gas flow meter with a range up to 30 liters per hour provided with a constant differential relay or other device to maintain a constant flow rate independent of the input pressure.
2. An absorption apparatus consisting of an inlet gas dispersion tube inserted to the bottom of a covered cylindrical vessel with a suitable outlet on the vessel for effluent gas. The dimensions and arrangement of tube and vessel are such that the inlet tube introduces the gas at a point not above 5 1/4 inches below the surface of the solvent through a sintered glass outlet. The dimensions of the vessel are such, and both inlet and vessel are so designed, that the gas can be bubbled through 60 milliliters of isooctane solvent at a rate up to 30 liters per hour without mechanical loss of solvent. The level corresponding to 60 milliliters should be marked on the vessel.
3. A cooling bath containing crushed ice and water to permit immersion of the absorption vessel at least to the solvent level mark.
Caution. The various parts of the absorption train must be connected by gas-tight tubing and joints composed of materials which will neither remove components from nor add components to the gas stream. The gas source is connected in series to the flow-rate device, the flow meter, and the absorption apparatus in that order. Ventilation should be provided for the effluent gases which may contain carbon monoxide.
Sampling procedure. Immerse the gas-absorption apparatus containing 60 milliliters of isooctane in the coolant bath so that the solvent is completely immersed. Cool for at least 15 minutes and then pass 120 liters of the test gas through the absorption train at a rate of 30 liters per hour or less. Maintain the coolant bath at 0 °C throughout. Remove the absorption vessel from the bath, disconnect, and warm to room temperature. Add isooctane to bring the contents of the absorption vessel to 60 milliliters, and mix. Determine the absorbance of the solution in the 5-centimeter cell in the range 255 millimicrons to 310 millimicrons, inclusive, compared to isooctane. The absorbance of the solution of combustion product gas shall not exceed that of the isooctane solvent at any wavelength in the specified range by more than one-third of the standard reference absorbance.