21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.
(a) Use of an added poisonous or deleterious substance, other than a pesticide chemical, that is also a food additive will be controlled by a regulation issued under section 409 of the act when possible. When such a use cannot be approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious substance is not a food additive, a tolerance, regulatory limit, or action level may be established pursuant to the criteria in paragraphs (b), (c), or (d) of this section. Residues resulting from the use of an added poisonous or deleterious substance that is also a pesticide chemical will ordinarily be controlled by a tolerance established in a regulation issued under sections 406, 408, or 409 of the act by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). When such a regulation has not been issued, an action level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance that is also a pesticide chemical may be established by the Food and Drug Administration. The Food and Drug Administration will request EPA to recommend such an action level pursuant to the criteria established in paragraph (d) of this section.
(1) The substance cannot be avoided by good manufacturing practice.
(2) The tolerance established is sufficient for the protection of the public health, taking into account the extent of which the presence of the substance cannot be avoided and the other ways in which the consumer may be affected by the same or related poisonous or deleterious substances.
(3) No technological or other changes are foreseeable in the near future that might affect the appropriateness of the tolerance established. Examples of changes that might affect the appropriateness of the tolerance include anticipated improvements in good manufacturing practice that would change the extent to which use of the substance is unavoidable and anticipated studies expected to provide significant new toxicological or use data.
(1) The substance cannot be avoided by current good manufacturing practices.
(3) There is insufficient information by which a tolerance may be established for the substance under section 406 of the act or technological changes appear reasonably possible that may affect the appropriateness of a tolerance. The regulatory limit established represents the level at which food is adulterated within the meaning of section 402(a)(1) of the act.
(d) An action level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established when the criteria in paragraph (b) of this section are met, except that technological or other changes that might affect the appropriateness of the tolerance are foreseeable in the near future. An action level for an added poisonous or deleterious substance in any food may be established at a level at which the Food and Drug Administration may regard the food as adulterated within the meaning of section 402(a)(1) of the act, without regard to the criteria in paragraph (b) of this section or in section 406 of the act. An action level will be withdrawn when a tolerance or regulatory limit for the same substance and use has been established.
(e) Tolerances will be established under authority appropriate for action levels (sections 306, 402(a), and 701(a) of the act, together with section 408 or 409 of the act, if appropriate) as well as under authority appropriate for tolerances (sections 406 and 701 of the act). In the event the effectiveness of a tolerance is stayed pursuant to section 701(e)(2) of the act by the filing of an objection, the order establishing the tolerance shall be deemed to be an order establishing an action level until final action is taken upon such objection.