22 CFR 505.12 - Civil remedies and criminal penalties.
(a) Grounds for court action. You will have a remedy in the Federal District Court under the following circumstances:
(1) Denial of access. You may challenge our decision to deny you access to records to which you consider yourself entitled.
(2) Refusal to amend a record. Under the conditions of 5 U.S.C. 552a(g), you may seek judicial review of the Agency's refusal to amend a record.
(3) Failure to maintain a record accurately. You may bring suit against the Agency for any alleged intentional and willful failure to maintain a record accurately, if it can be shown that you were subjected to an adverse action resulting in the denial of aright, benefit, entitlement or employment you could reasonably have been expected to be granted if the record had not been deficient.
(4) Other failures to comply with the Act. You may bring an action for any alleged failure by the Agency to comply with the requirements of the Act or failure to comply with any rule published by the Agency to implement the Act provided it can be shown that:
(i) The action was intentional or willful;
(ii) The Agency's action adversely affected you; and
(iii) The adverse action was caused by the Agency's actions.
(b) Jurisdiction and time limits.
(1) Action may be brought in the district court for the jurisdiction in which you reside or have a place of residence or business, or in which the Agency records are situated, or in the District of Columbia.
(2) The statute of limitations is two years from the date upon which the cause of action arises, except for cases in which the Agency has materially and willfully misrepresented any information requested to be disclosed and when such misrepresentation is material to the liability of the Agency. In such cases the statute of limitations is two years from the date of discovery of the misrepresentation by you.
(3) A suit may not be brought on the basis of injury, which may have occurred as a result of the Agency's disclosure of a record prior to September 27, 1975.
(c) Criminal penalties -
(1) Unauthorized disclosure. It is a criminal violation of the provisions of the Act for any officer or employee of the Agency to knowingly and willfully disclose a record in any manner to any person or agency not entitled to receive it, for failure to meet the conditions of disclosure listed in S U.S.C. 552a(b), or without the written consent or at the request of the individual to whom the record pertains. Any officer or employee of the Agency found guilty of such misconduct shall be fined not more than $5,000.
(2) Failure to publish a public notice. It is a criminal violation of the Act to willfully maintain a system of records and not publish the prescribed public notice. Any officer or employee of the Agency found guilty of such misconduct shall be fined not more than $5,000.
(3) Obtaining records under false pretenses. The Act makes it a criminal offense to knowingly and willfully request or gain access to a record about an individual under false pretenses. Any person found guilty of such an offense may be fined not more than $5,000.