24 CFR 81.2 - Definitions.
(a) Statutory terms. All terms defined in FHEFSSA (12 U.S.C. 4502) are used in accordance with their statutory meaning unless otherwise defined in paragraph (b) of this section.
(b) Other terms. As used in this part, the term -
AHAR means the Annual Housing Activities Report that a GSE submits to the Secretary under sections 309(n) of the Fannie Mae Charter Act or 307(f) of the Freddie Mac Act.
AHAR information means data or information contained in the AHAR.
AHS means the American Housing Survey published by HUD and the Department of Commerce.
Balloon mortgage means a mortgage providing for payments at regular intervals, with a final payment (“balloon payment”) that is at least 5 percent more than the periodic payments. The periodic payments may cover some or all of the periodic principal or interest. Typically, the periodic payments are level monthly payments that would fully amortize the mortgage over a stated term and the balloon payment is a single payment due after a specified period (but before the mortgage would fully amortize) and pays off or satisfies the outstanding balance of the mortgage.
Book-entry GSE Security means a GSE Security issued or maintained in the Book-entry System. Book-entry GSE Security also means the separate interest and principal components of a Book-entry GSE Security if such security has been designated by the GSE as eligible for division into such components and the components are maintained separately on the books of one or more Federal Reserve Banks.
Book-entry System means the automated book-entry system operated by the Federal Reserve Banks acting as the fiscal agent for the GSEs, on which Book-entry GSE Securities are issued, recorded, transferred and maintained in book-entry form.
Central city means the underserved areas located in any political subdivision designated as a central city by the Office of Management and Budget of the Executive Office of the President.
Contract rent means the total rent that is, or is anticipated to be, specified in the rental contract as payable by the tenant to the owner for rental of a dwelling unit, including fees or charges for management and maintenance services and those utility charges that are included in the rental contract. In determining contract rent, rent concessions shall not be considered, i.e., contract rent is not decreased by any rent concessions. Contract rent is rent net of rental subsidies.
Conventional mortgage means a mortgage other than a mortgage as to which a GSE has the benefit of any guaranty, insurance or other obligation by the United States or any of its agencies or instrumentalities.
Day means a calendar day.
Definitive GSE Security means a GSE Security in engraved or printed form, or that is otherwise represented by a certificate.
Director means the Director of OFHEO.
Dwelling unit means a room or unified combination of rooms intended for use, in whole or in part, as a dwelling by one or more persons, and includes a dwelling unit in a single-family property, multifamily property, or other residential or mixed-use property.
ECOA means the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (15 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.).
Eligible Book-entry GSE Security means a Book-entry GSE Security issued or maintained in the Book-entry System which by the terms of its Security Documentation is eligible to be converted from book-entry form into definitive form.
Entitlement Holder means a Person or a GSE to whose account an interest in a Book-entry GSE Security is credited on the records of a Securities Intermediary.
Familial status has the same definition as is set forth at 24 CFR 100.20.
Family means one or more individuals who occupy the same dwelling unit.
Fannie Mae means the Federal National Mortgage Association and any affiliate thereof.
Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circular means the publication issued by each Federal Reserve Bank that sets forth the terms and conditions under which the Reserve Bank maintains book-entry Securities accounts (including Book-entry GSE Securities) and transfers book-entry Securities (including Book-entry GSE Securities).
FHEFSSA means the Federal Housing Enterprises Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1992, codified generally at 12 U.S.C. 4501-4651.
FOIA means the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552).
Freddie Mac means the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation and any affiliate thereof.
Freddie Mac Act means the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation Act (12 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.).
Government-sponsored enterprise or GSE means Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac.
GSE Security means any security or obligation of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac issued under its respective Charter Act in the form of a Definitive GSE Security or a Book-entry GSE Security.
Handicap has the same definition as is set forth at 24 CFR 100.201.
HOEPA mortgage” means a mortgage for which the annual percentage rate (as calculated in accordance with the relevant provisions of section 107 of the Home Ownership Equity Protection Act (HOEPA) (15 U.S.C. 1606)) exceeds the threshold described in section 103(aa)(1)(A) of HOEPA (15 U.S.C. 1602(aa)(1)(A)), or for which the total points and fees payable by the borrower exceed the threshold described in section 103(aa)(1)(B) of HOEPA (15 U.S.C. 1602(aa)(1)(B)), as those thresholds may be increased or decreased by the Federal Reserve Board or by Congress, unless the GSEs are otherwise notified in writing by HUD. Notwithstanding the exclusions in section 103(aa)(1) of HOEPA, for purposes of this part, the term “HOEPA mortgage” includes all types of mortgages as defined in this section, including residential mortgage transactions as that term is defined in section 103(w) of HOEPA (15 U.S.C. 1602(w)), but does not include reverse mortgages.
Home Purchase Mortgage means a residential mortgage for the purchase of an owner-occupied single-family property.
HUD means the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Lender means any entity that makes, originates, sells, or services mortgages, and includes the secured creditors named in the debt obligation and document creating the mortgage.
Low-income area means a census tract or block numbering area in which the median income does not exceed 80 percent of the area median income.
Median income means, with respect to an area, the unadjusted median family income for the area as most recently determined and published by HUD. HUD will provide the GSEs annually with information specifying how HUD's published median family income estimates for metropolitan areas are to be applied for the purposes of determining median family income.
Metropolitan area means a metropolitan statistical area (“MSA”), or a portion of such an area for which median family income estimates are published annually by HUD.
Minority means any individual who is included within any one or more of the following racial and ethnic categories:
(1) American Indian or Alaskan Native - a person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment;
(2) Asian - a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam;
(3) Black or African American - a person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa;
(4) Hispanic or Latino - a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race; and
(5) Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander - a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
Mortgage means a member of such classes of liens, including subordinate liens, as are commonly given or are legally effective to secure advances on, or the unpaid purchase price of, real estate under the laws of the State in which the real estate is located, or a manufactured home that is personal property under the laws of the State in which the manufactured home is located, together with the credit instruments, if any, secured thereby, and includes interests in mortgages. “Mortgage” includes a mortgage, lien, including a subordinate lien, or other security interest on the stock or membership certificate issued to a tenant-stockholder or resident-member by a cooperative housing corporation, as defined in section 216 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, and on the proprietary lease, occupancy agreement, or right of tenancy in the dwelling unit of the tenant-stockholder or resident-member in such cooperative housing corporation.
Mortgage data means data obtained by the Secretary from the GSEs under subsection 309(m) of the Fannie Mae Charter Act and subsection 307(e) of the Freddie Mac Act.
Mortgage purchase means a transaction in which a GSE bought or otherwise acquired with cash or other thing of value, a mortgage for its portfolio or for securitization.
Mortgages contrary to good lending practices means a mortgage or a group or category of mortgages entered into by a lender and purchased by a GSE where it can be shown that a lender engaged in a practice of failing to:
(1) Report monthly on borrowers' repayment history to credit repositories on the status of each GSE loan that a lender is servicing;
(2) Offer mortgage applicants products for which they qualify, but rather steer applicants to high cost products that are designed for less credit worthy borrowers. Similarly, for consumers who seek financing through a lender's higher-priced subprime lending channel, lenders should not fail to offer or direct such consumers toward the lender's standard mortgage line if they are able to qualify for one of the standard products;
(3) Comply with fair lending requirements; or
(4) Engage in other good lending practices that are:
(i) Identified in writing by a GSE as good lending practices for inclusion in this definition; and
(ii) Determined by the Secretary to constitute good lending practices.
Mortgages with unacceptable terms or conditions or resulting from unacceptable practices means a mortgage or a group or category of mortgages with one or more of the following terms or conditions:
(1) Excessive fees, where the total points and fees charged to a borrower exceed the greater of 5 percent of the loan amount or a maximum dollar amount of $1000, or an alternative amount requested by a GSE and determined by the Secretary as appropriate for small mortgages.
(i) For purposes of this definition, points and fees include:
(A) Origination fees;
(B) Underwriting fees;
(C) Broker fees;
(D) Finder's fees; and
(E) Charges that the lender imposes as a condition of making the loan, whether they are paid to the lender or a third party.
(ii) For purposes of this definition, points and fees do not include:
(A) Bona fide discount points;
(B) Fees paid for actual services rendered in connection with the origination of the mortgage, such as attorneys' fees, notary's fees, and fees paid for property appraisals, credit reports, surveys, title examinations and extracts, flood and tax certifications, and home inspections;
(C) The cost of mortgage insurance or credit-risk price adjustments;
(D) The costs of title, hazard, and flood insurance policies;
(E) State and local transfer taxes or fees;
(F) Escrow deposits for the future payment of taxes and insurance premiums; and
(G) Other miscellaneous fees and charges that, in total, do not exceed 0.25 percent of the loan amount.
(2) Prepayment penalties, except where:
(i) The mortgage provides some benefits to the borrower (e.g., such as rate or fee reduction for accepting the prepayment premium);
(ii) The borrower is offered the choice of another mortgage that does not contain payment of such a premium;
(iii) The terms of the mortgage provision containing the prepayment penalty are adequately disclosed to the borrower; and
(iv) The prepayment penalty is not charged when the mortgage debit is accelerated as the result of the borrower's default in making his or her mortgage payments.
(3) The sale or financing of prepaid single-premium credit life insurance products in connection with the origination of the mortgage;
(4) Evidence that the lender did not adequately consider the borrower's ability to make payments, i.e., mortgages that are originated with underwriting techniques that focus on the borrower's equity in the home, and do not give full consideration of the borrower's income and other obligations. Ability to repay must be determined and must be based upon relating the borrower's income, assets, and liabilities to the mortgage payments; or
(5) Other terms or conditions that are:
(i) Identified in writing by a GSE as unacceptable terms or conditions or resulting from unacceptable practices for inclusion in this definition; and
(ii) Determined by the Secretary as an unacceptable term or condition of a mortgage for which goals credit should not be received.
Multifamily housing means a residence consisting of more than 4 dwelling units. The term includes cooperative buildings and condominium projects.
New England means Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
OFHEO means the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight.
Ongoing program means a program that is expected to continue for the foreseeable future.
Other underserved area means any underserved area that is in a metropolitan area, but not in a central city.
Owner-occupied unit means a dwelling unit in single-family housing in which a mortgagor of the unit resides.
Participant means a Person or GSE that maintains a Participant's Securities Account with a Federal Reserve Bank.
Participation means a fractional interest in the principal amount of a mortgage.
Person, as used in subpart H, means and includes an individual, corporation, company, governmental entity, association, firm, partnership, trust, estate, representative, and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States, a GSE, or a Federal Reserve Bank.
Portfolio of loans means 10 or more loans.
Proprietary information means all mortgage data and all AHAR information that the GSEs submit to the Secretary in the AHARs that contain trade secrets or privileged or confidential, commercial, or financial information that, if released, would be likely to cause substantial competitive harm.
Public data means all mortgage data and all AHAR information that the GSEs submit to the Secretary in the AHARs, that the Secretary determines are not proprietary and may appropriately be disclosed consistent with other applicable laws and regulations.
Real estate mortgage investment conduit (REMIC) means multi-class mortgage securities issued by a tax-exempt entity.
Refinancing means a transaction in which an existing mortgage is satisfied or replaced by a new mortgage undertaken by the same borrower. The term does not include:
(1) A renewal of a single payment obligation with no change in the original terms;
(2) A reduction in the annual percentage rate of the mortgage as computed under the Truth in Lending Act, with a corresponding change in the payment schedule;
(3) An agreement involving a court proceeding;
(4) A workout agreement, in which a change in the payment schedule or collateral requirements is agreed to as a result of the mortgagor's default or delinquency, unless the rate is increased or the new amount financed exceeds the unpaid balance plus earned finance charges and premiums for the continuation of insurance;
(5) The renewal of optional insurance purchased by the mortgagor and added to an existing mortgage; and
(6) A renegotiated balloon mortgage on a multifamily property where the balloon payment was due within 1 year after the date of the closing of the renegotiated mortgage.
(7) A conversion of a balloon mortgage note on a single family property to a fully amortizing mortgage note where the GSE already owns or has an interest in the balloon note at the time of the conversion
Rent means, for a dwelling unit:
(1) When the contract rent includes all utilities, the contract rent; or
(2) When the contract rent does not include all utilities, the contract rent plus:
(i) The actual cost of utilities not included in the contract rent; or
(ii) A utility allowance.
Rental housing means dwelling units in multifamily housing and dwelling units that are not owner occupied in single-family housing.
Rental unit means a dwelling unit that is not owner-occupied and is rented or available to rent.
Residence means a property where one or more families reside.
Residential mortgage means a mortgage on single-family or multifamily housing.
Revised Article 8 has the same meaning as in 31 CFR 357.2.
Rural area means any underserved area located outside of any metropolitan area.
Seasoned mortgage means a mortgage on which the date of the mortgage note is more than 1 year before the GSE purchased the mortgage.
Second mortgage means any mortgage that has a lien position subordinate only to the lien of the first mortgage.
Secondary residence means a dwelling where the mortgagor maintains (or will maintain) a part-time place of abode and typically spends (or will spend) less than the majority of the calendar year. A person may have more than one secondary residence at a time.
Secretary means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and, where appropriate, any person designated by the Secretary to perform a particular function for the Secretary, including any HUD officer, employee, or agent.
Security means any mortgage participation certificate, note, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, collateral-trust certificate, transferable share, certificate of deposit for a security, or, in general, any interest or instrument commonly known as a “security.”
Securities Documentation means the applicable statement of terms, trust indenture, securities agreement or other documents establishing the terms of a Book-entry GSE Security.
Single-family housing means a residence consisting of one to four dwelling units. Single-family housing includes condominium dwelling units and dwelling units in cooperative housing projects.
Transfer message means an instruction of a Participant to a Federal Reserve Bank to effect a transfer of a Book-entry Security (including a Book-entry GSE Security) maintained in the Book-entry System, as set forth in Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars.
Underserved area means:
(1) For purposes of the definitions of “Central city” and “Other underserved area,” a census tract, a Federal or State American Indian reservation or tribal or individual trust land, or the balance of a census tract excluding the area within any Federal or State American Indian reservation or tribal or individual trust land, having:
(i) A median income at or below 120 percent of the median income of the metropolitan area and a minority population of 30 percent or greater; or
(ii) A median income at or below 90 percent of median income of the metropolitan area.
(2) For purposes of the definition of “Rural area,” a whole census tract, a Federal or State American Indian reservation or tribal or individual trust land, or the balance of a census tract excluding the area within any Federal or State American Indian reservation or tribal or individual trust land, having:
(i) A median income at or below 120 percent of the greater of the State non-metropolitan median income or the nationwide non-metropolitan median income and a minority population of 30 percent or greater; or
(ii) A median income at or below 95 percent of the greater of the State non-metropolitan median income or nationwide non-metropolitan median income.
(3) Any Federal or State American Indian reservation or tribal or individual trust land that includes land that is both within and outside of a metropolitan area and that is designated as an underserved area by HUD. In such cases, HUD will notify the GSEs as to applicability of other definitions and counting conventions.
Utilities means charges for electricity, piped or bottled gas, water, sewage disposal, fuel (oil, coal, kerosene, wood, solar energy, or other), and garbage and trash collection. Utilities do not include charges for telephone service.
Utility allowance means either:
(1) The amount to be added to contract rent when utilities are not included in contract rent (also referred to as the “AHS-derived utility allowance”), as issued annually by the Secretary; or
(2) The utility allowance established under the HUD Section 8 Program (42 U.S.C. 1437f) for the area where the property is located.
Very-low-income has the same definition as “very low-income” has in FHEFSSA.
Wholesale exchange means a transaction in which a GSE buys or otherwise acquires mortgages held in portfolio or securitized by the other GSE, or where both GSEs swap such mortgages.
Working day means a day when HUD is officially open for business.
(c) Subpart H terms. Unless the context requires otherwise, terms used in subpart H of this part that are not defined in this part, have the meanings as set forth in 31 CFR 357.2. Definitions and terms used in 31 CFR part 357 should read as though modified to effectuate their application to the GSEs.