26 CFR 1.1001-3 - Modifications of debt instruments.

(a)Scope -

(1)In general. This section provides rules for determining whether a modification of the terms of a debt instrument results in an exchange for purposes of § 1.1001-1(a). This section applies to any modification of a debt instrument, regardless of the form of the modification. For example, this section applies to an exchange of a new instrument for an existing debt instrument, or to an amendment of an existing debt instrument. This section also applies to a modification of a debt instrument that the issuer and holder accomplish indirectly through one or more transactions with third parties. This section, however, does not apply to exchanges of debt instruments between holders.

(2)Qualified tender bonds. This section does not apply for purposes of determining whether tax-exempt bonds that are qualified tender bonds are reissued for purposes of sections 103 and 141 through 150.

(b)General rule. For purposes of § 1.1001-1(a), a significant modification of a debt instrument, within the meaning of this section, results in an exchange of the original debt instrument for a modified instrument that differs materially either in kind or in extent. A modification that is not a significant modification is not an exchange for purposes of § 1.1001-1(a). Paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section define the term modification and contain examples illustrating the application of the rule. Paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section provide rules for determining when a modification is a significant modification. Paragraph (f) of this section also provides rules for determining whether the modified instrument received in an exchange will be classified as an instrument or property right that is not debt for federal income tax purposes. Paragraph (g) of this section contains examples illustrating the application of the rules in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section.

(c)Modification defined -

(1)In general -

(i)Alteration of terms. A modification means any alteration, including any deletion or addition, in whole or in part, of a legal right or obligation of the issuer or a holder of a debt instrument, whether the alteration is evidenced by an express agreement (oral or written), conduct of the parties, or otherwise.

(ii)Alterations occurring by operation of the terms of a debt instrument. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, an alteration of a legal right or obligation that occurs by operation of the terms of a debt instrument is not a modification. An alteration that occurs by operation of the terms may occur automatically (for example, an annual resetting of the interest rate based on the value of an index or a specified increase in the interest rate if the value of the collateral declines from a specified level) or may occur as a result of the exercise of an option provided to an issuer or a holder to change a term of a debt instrument.

(2)Exceptions. The alterations described in this paragraph (c)(2) are modifications, even if the alterations occur by operation of the terms of a debt instrument.

(i)Change in obligor or nature of instrument. An alteration that results in the substitution of a new obligor, the addition or deletion of a co-obligor, or a change (in whole or in part) in the recourse nature of the instrument (from recourse to nonrecourse or from nonrecourse to recourse) is a modification.

(ii)Property that is not debt. An alteration that results in an instrument or property right that is not debt for Federal income tax purposes is a modification unless the alteration occurs pursuant to a holder's option under the terms of the instrument to convert the instrument into equity of the issuer (notwithstanding paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section). The rules of paragraph (f)(7) of this section apply to determine whether an alteration or modification results in an instrument or property right that is not debt.

(iii)Certain alterations resulting from the exercise of an option. An alteration that results from the exercise of an option provided to an issuer or a holder to change a term of a debt instrument is a modification unless -

(A) The option is unilateral (as defined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section); and

(B) In the case of an option exercisable by a holder, the exercise of the option does not result in (or, in the case of a variable or contingent payment, is not reasonably expected to result in) a deferral of, or a reduction in, any scheduled payment of interest or principal.

(3)Unilateral option. For purposes of this section, an option is unilateral only if, under the terms of an instrument or under applicable law -

(i) There does not exist at the time the option is exercised, or as a result of the exercise, a right of the other party to alter or terminate the instrument or put the instrument to a person who is related (within the meaning of section 267(b) or section 707(b)(1)) to the issuer;

(ii) The exercise of the option does not require the consent or approval of -

(A) The other party;

(B) A person who is related to that party (within the meaning of section 267(b) or section 707(b)(1)), whether or not that person is a party to the instrument; or

(C) A court or arbitrator; and

(iii) The exercise of the option does not require consideration (other than incidental costs and expenses relating to the exercise of the option), unless, on the issue date of the instrument, the consideration is a de minimis amount, a specified amount, or an amount that is based on a formula that uses objective financial information (as defined in § 1.446-3(c)(4)(ii)).

(4)Failure to perform -

(i)In general. The failure of an issuer to perform its obligations under a debt instrument is not itself an alteration of a legal right or obligation and is not a modification.

(ii)Holder's temporary forbearance. Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1) of this section, absent a written or oral agreement to alter other terms of the debt instrument, an agreement by the holder to stay collection or temporarily waive an acceleration clause or similar default right (including such a waiver following the exercise of a right to demand payment in full) is not a modification unless and until the forbearance remains in effect for a period that exceeds -

(A) Two years following the issuer's initial failure to perform; and

(B) Any additional period during which the parties conduct good faith negotiations or during which the issuer is in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368(a)(3)(A)).

(5)Failure to exercise an option. If a party to a debt instrument has an option to change a term of an instrument, the failure of the party to exercise that option is not a modification.

(6)Time of modification -

(i)In general. Except as provided in this paragraph (c)(6), an agreement to change a term of a debt instrument is a modification at the time the issuer and holder enter into the agreement, even if the change in the term is not immediately effective.

(ii)Closing conditions. If the parties condition a change in a term of a debt instrument on reasonable closing conditions (for example, shareholder, regulatory, or senior creditor approval, or additional financing), a modification occurs on the closing date of the agreement. Thus, if the reasonable closing conditions do not occur so that the change in the term does not become effective, a modification does not occur.

(iii)Bankruptcy proceedings. If a change in a term of a debt instrument occurs pursuant to a plan of reorganization in a title 11 or similar case (within the meaning of section 368(a)(3)(A)), a modification occurs upon the effective date of the plan. Thus, unless the plan becomes effective, a modification does not occur.

(d)Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of paragraph (c) of this section:

Example 1. Reset bond.
A bond provides for the interest rate to be reset every 49 days through an auction by a remarketing agent. The reset of the interest rate occurs by operation of the terms of the bond and is not an alteration described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Thus, the reset of the interest rate is not a modification.
Example 2. Obligation to maintain collateral.
The original terms of a bond provide that the bond must be secured by a certain type of collateral having a specified value. The terms also require the issuer to substitute collateral if the value of the original collateral decreases. Any substitution of collateral that is required to maintain the value of the collateral occurs by operation of the terms of the bond and is not an alteration described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Thus, such a substitution of collateral is not a modification.
Example 3. Alteration contingent on an act of a party.
The original terms of a bond provide that the interest rate is 9 percent. The terms also provide that, if the issuer files an effective registration statement covering the bonds with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the interest rate will decrease to 8 percent. If the issuer registers the bond, the resulting decrease in the interest rate occurs by operation of the terms of the bond and is not an alteration described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Thus, such a decrease in the interest rate is not a modification.
Example 4. Substitution of a new obligor occurring by operation of the terms of the debt instrument.
Under the original terms of a bond issued by a corporation, an acquirer of substantially all of the corporation's assets may assume the corporation's obligations under the bond. Substantially all of the corporation's assets are acquired by another corporation and the acquiring corporation becomes the new obligor on the bond. Under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, the substitution of a new obligor, even though it occurs by operation of the terms of the bond, is a modification.
Example 5. Defeasance with release of covenants.
(i) A corporation issues a 30-year, recourse bond. Under the terms of the bond, the corporation may secure a release of the financial and restrictive covenants by placing in trust government securities as collateral that will provide interest and principal payments sufficient to satisfy all scheduled payments on the bond. The corporation remains obligated for all payments, including the contribution of additional securities to the trust if necessary to provide sufficient amounts to satisfy the payment obligations. Under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the option to defease the bond is a unilateral option.

(ii) The alterations occur by operation of the terms of the debt instrument and are not described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Thus, such a release of the covenants is not a modification.

Example 6. Legal defeasance.
Under the terms of a recourse bond, the issuer may secure a release of the financial and restrictive covenants by placing in trust government securities that will provide interest and principal payments sufficient to satisfy all scheduled payments on the bond. Upon the creation of the trust, the issuer is released from any recourse liability on the bond and has no obligation to contribute additional securities to the trust if the trust funds are not sufficient to satisfy the scheduled payments on the bond. The release of the issuer is an alteration described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, and thus is a modification.
Example 7. Exercise of an option by a holder that reduces amounts payable.
(i) A financial institution holds a residential mortgage. Under the original terms of the mortgage, the financial institution has an option to decrease the interest rate. The financial institution anticipates that, if market interest rates decline, it may exercise this option in lieu of the mortgagor refinancing with another lender.

(ii) The financial institution exercises the option to reduce the interest rate. The exercise of the option results in a reduction in scheduled payments and is an alteration described in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section. Thus, the change in interest rate is a modification.

Example 8. Conversion of adjustable rate to fixed rate mortgage.
(i) The original terms of a mortgage provide for a variable interest rate, reset annually based on the value of an objective index. Under the terms of the mortgage, the mortgagor may, upon the payment of a fee equal to a specified percentage of the outstanding principal amount of the mortgage, convert to a fixed rate of interest as determined based on the value of a second objective index. The exercise of the option does not require the consent or approval of any person or create a right of the holder to alter the terms of, or to put, the instrument.

(ii) Because the required consideration to exercise the option is a specified amount fixed on the issue date, the exercise of the option is unilateral as defined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. The conversion to a fixed rate of interest is not an alteration described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Thus, the change in the type of interest rate occurs by operation of the terms of the instrument and is not a modification.

Example 9. Holder's option to increase interest rate.
(i) A corporation issues an 8-year note to a bank in exchange for cash. Under the terms of the note, the bank has the option to increase the rate of interest by a specified amount if certain covenants in the note are breached. The bank's right to increase the interest rate is a unilateral option as described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(ii) A covenant in the note is breached. The bank exercises its option to increase the rate of interest. The increase in the rate of interest occurs by operation of the terms of the note and does not result in a deferral or a reduction in the scheduled payments or any other alteration described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Thus, the change in interest rate is not a modification.

(iii)Applicability date. This Example 9 applies to modifications occurring on or after July 6, 2011.

Example 10. Issuer's right to defer payment of interest.
A corporation issues a 5-year note. Under the terms of the note, interest is payable annually at the rate of 10 percent. The corporation, however, has an option to defer any payment of interest until maturity. For any payments that are deferred, interest will compound at a rate of 12 percent. The exercise of the option, which results in the deferral of payments, does not result from the exercise of an option by the holder. The exercise of the option occurs by operation of the terms of the debt instrument and is not a modification.
Example 11. Holder's option to grant deferral of payment.
(i) A corporation issues a 10-year note to a bank in exchange for cash. Interest on the note is payable semi-annually. Under the terms of the note, the bank may grant the corporation the right to defer all or part of the interest payments. For any payments that are deferred, interest will compound at a rate 150 basis points greater than the stated rate of interest.

(ii) The corporation encounters financial difficulty and is unable to satisfy its obligations under the note. The bank exercises its option under the note and grants the corporation the right to defer payments. The exercise of the option results in a right of the corporation to defer scheduled payments and, under paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section, is not a unilateral option. Thus, the alteration is described in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section and is a modification.

Example 12. Alteration requiring consent.
The original terms of a bond include a provision that the issuer may extend the maturity of the bond with the consent of the holder. Because any extension pursuant to this term requires the consent of both parties, such an extension does not occur by the exercise of a unilateral option (as defined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section) and is a modification.
Example 13. Waiver of an acceleration clause.
Under the terms of a bond, if the issuer fails to make a scheduled payment, the full principal amount of the bond is due and payable immediately. Following the issuer's failure to make a scheduled payment, the holder temporarily waives its right to receive the full principal for a period ending one year from the date of the issuer's default to allow the issuer to obtain additional financial resources. Under paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section, the temporary waiver in this situation is not a modification. The result would be the same if the terms provided the holder with the right to demand the full principal amount upon the failure of the issuer to make a scheduled payment and, upon such a failure, the holder exercised that right and then waived the right to receive the payment for one year.

(e)Significant modifications. Whether the modification of a debt instrument is a significant modification is determined under the rules of this paragraph (e). Paragraph (e)(1) of this section provides a general rule for determining the significance of modifications not otherwise addressed in this paragraph (e). Paragraphs (e) (2) through (6) of this section provide specific rules for determining the significance of certain types of modifications. Paragraph (f) of this section provides rules of application, including rules for modifications that are effective on a deferred basis or upon the occurrence of a contingency.

(1)General rule. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (e)(2) through (e)(6) of this section, a modification is a significant modification only if, based on all facts and circumstances, the legal rights or obligations that are altered and the degree to which they are altered are economically significant. In making a determination under this paragraph (e)(1), all modifications to the debt instrument (other than modifications subject to paragraphs (e) (2) through (6) of this section) are considered collectively, so that a series of such modifications may be significant when considered together although each modification, if considered alone, would not be significant.

(2)Change in yield -

(i)Scope of rule. This paragraph (e)(2) applies to debt instruments that provide for only fixed payments, debt instruments with alternative payment schedules subject to § 1.1272-1(c), debt instruments that provide for a fixed yield subject to § 1.1272-1(d) (such as certain demand loans), and variable rate debt instruments. Whether a change in the yield of other debt instruments (for example, a contingent payment debt instrument) is a significant modification is determined under paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(ii)In general. A change in the yield of a debt instrument is a significant modification if the yield computed under paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section varies from the annual yield on the unmodified instrument (determined as of the date of the modification) by more than the greater of -

(A)1/4 of one percent (25 basis points); or

(B) 5 percent of the annual yield of the unmodified instrument (.05 × annual yield).

(iii)Yield of the modified instrument -

(A)In general. The yield computed under this paragraph (e)(2)(iii) is the annual yield of a debt instrument with -

(1) An issue price equal to the adjusted issue price of the unmodified instrument on the date of the modification (increased by any accrued but unpaid interest and decreased by any accrued bond issuance premium not yet taken into account, and increased or decreased, respectively, to reflect payments made to the issuer or to the holder as consideration for the modification); and

(2) Payments equal to the payments on the modified debt instrument from the date of the modification.

(B)Prepayment penalty. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(2)(iii), a commercially reasonable prepayment penalty for a pro rata prepayment (as defined in § 1.1275-2(f)) is not consideration for a modification of a debt instrument and is not taken into account in determining the yield of the modified instrument.

(iv)Variable rate debt instruments. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(2), the annual yield of a variable rate debt instrument is the annual yield of the equivalent fixed rate debt instrument (as defined in § 1.1275-5(e)) which is constructed based on the terms of the instrument (either modified or unmodified, whichever is applicable) as of the date of the modification.

(3)Changes in timing of payments -

(i)In general. A modification that changes the timing of payments (including any resulting change in the amount of payments) due under a debt instrument is a significant modification if it results in the material deferral of scheduled payments. The deferral may occur either through an extension of the final maturity date of an instrument or through a deferral of payments due prior to maturity. The materiality of the deferral depends on all the facts and circumstances, including the length of the deferral, the original term of the instrument, the amounts of the payments that are deferred, and the time period between the modification and the actual deferral of payments.

(ii)Safe-harbor period. The deferral of one or more scheduled payments within the safe-harbor period is not a material deferral if the deferred payments are unconditionally payable no later than at the end of the safe-harbor period. The safe-harbor period begins on the original due date of the first scheduled payment that is deferred and extends for a period equal to the lesser of five years or 50 percent of the original term of the instrument. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(3)(ii), the term of an instrument is determined without regard to any option to extend the original maturity and deferrals of de minimis payments are ignored. If the period during which payments are deferred is less than the full safe-harbor period, the unused portion of the period remains a safe-harbor period for any subsequent deferral of payments on the instrument.

(4)Change in obligor or security -

(i)Substitution of a new obligor on recourse debt instruments -

(A)In general. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(i) (B), (C), or (D) of this section, the substitution of a new obligor on a recourse debt instrument is a significant modification.

(B)Section 381(a) transaction. The substitution of a new obligor is not a significant modification if the acquiring corporation (within the meaning of section 381) becomes the new obligor pursuant to a transaction to which section 381(a) applies, the transaction does not result in a change in payment expectations, and the transaction (other than a reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(F)) does not result in a significant alteration.

(C)Certain asset acquisitions. The substitution of a new obligor is not a significant modification if the new obligor acquires substantially all of the assets of the original obligor, the transaction does not result in a change in payment expectations, and the transaction does not result in a significant alteration.

(D)Tax-exempt bonds. The substitution of a new obligor on a tax-exempt bond is not a significant modification if the new obligor is a related entity to the original obligor as defined in section 168(h)(4)(A) and the collateral securing the instrument continues to include the original collateral.

(E)Significant alteration. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(4), a significant alteration is an alteration that would be a significant modification but for the fact that the alteration occurs by operation of the terms of the instrument.

(F)Section 338 election. For purposes of this section, an election under section 338 following a qualified stock purchase of an issuer's stock does not result in the substitution of a new obligor.

(G)Bankruptcy proceedings. For purposes of this section, the filing of a petition in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368(a)(3)(A)) by itself does not result in the substitution of a new obligor.

(ii)Substitution of a new obligor on nonrecourse debt instruments. The substitution of a new obligor on a nonrecourse debt instrument is not a significant modification.

(iii)Addition or deletion of co-obligor. The addition or deletion of a co-obligor on a debt instrument is a significant modification if the addition or deletion of the co-obligor results in a change in payment expectations. If the addition or deletion of a co-obligor is part of a transaction or series of related transactions that results in the substitution of a new obligor, however, the transaction is treated as a substitution of a new obligor (and is tested under paragraph (e)(4)(i)) of this section rather than as an addition or deletion of a co-obligor.

(iv)Change in security or credit enhancement -

(A)Recourse debt instruments. A modification that releases, substitutes, adds or otherwise alters the collateral for, a guarantee on, or other form of credit enhancement for a recourse debt instrument is a significant modification if the modification results in a change in payment expectations.

(B)Nonrecourse debt instruments.

(1) A modification that releases, substitutes, adds or otherwise alters a substantial amount of the collateral for, a guarantee on, or other form of credit enhancement for a nonrecourse debt instrument is a significant modification. A substitution of collateral is not a significant modification, however, if the collateral is fungible or otherwise of a type where the particular units pledged are unimportant (for example, government securities or financial instruments of a particular type and credit quality). In addition, the substitution of a similar commercially available credit enhancement contract is not a significant modification, and an improvement to the property securing a nonrecourse debt instrument does not result in a significant modification.

(2)Applicability date. Paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(B)(1) of this section applies to modifications occurring on or after July 6, 2011.

(v)Change in priority of debt. A change in the priority of a debt instrument relative to other debt of the issuer is a significant modification if it results in a change in payment expectations.

(vi)Change in payment expectations -

(A)In general. For purposes of this section, a change in payment expectations occurs if, as a result of a transaction -

(1) There is a substantial enhancement of the obligor's capacity to meet the payment obligations under a debt instrument and that capacity was primarily speculative prior to the modification and is adequate after the modification; or

(2) There is a substantial impairment of the obligor's capacity to meet the payment obligations under a debt instrument and that capacity was adequate prior to the modification and is primarily speculative after the modification.

(B)Obligor's capacity. The obligor's capacity includes any source for payment, including collateral, guarantees, or other credit enhancement.

(5)Changes in the nature of a debt instrument -

(i)Property that is not debt. A modification of a debt instrument that results in an instrument or property right that is not debt for Federal income tax purposes is a significant modification. The rules of paragraph (f)(7) of this section apply to determine whether a modification results in an instrument or property right that is not debt.

(ii)Change in recourse nature -

(A)In general. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(5)(ii)(B) of this section, a change in the nature of a debt instrument from recourse (or substantially all recourse) to nonrecourse (or substantially all nonrecourse) is a significant modification. Thus, for example, a legal defeasance of a debt instrument in which the issuer is released from all liability to make payments on the debt instrument (including an obligation to contribute additional securities to a trust if necessary to provide sufficient funds to meet all scheduled payments on the instrument) is a significant modification. Similarly, a change in the nature of the debt instrument from nonrecourse (or substantially all nonrecourse) to recourse (or substantially all recourse) is a significant modification. If an instrument is not substantially all recourse or not substantially all nonrecourse either before or after a modification, the significance of the modification is determined under paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(B)Exceptions -

(1)Defeasance of tax-exempt bonds. A defeasance of a tax-exempt bond is not a significant modification even if the issuer is released from any liability to make payments under the instrument if the defeasance occurs by operation of the terms of the original bond and the issuer places in trust government securities or tax-exempt government bonds that are reasonably expected to provide interest and principal payments sufficient to satisfy the payment obligations under the bond.

(2)Original collateral.

(i) A modification that changes a recourse debt instrument to a nonrecourse debt instrument is not a significant modification if the instrument continues to be secured only by the original collateral and the modification does not result in a change in payment expectations. For this purpose, if the original collateral is fungible or otherwise of a type where the particular units pledged are unimportant (for example, government securities or financial instruments of a particular type and credit quality), replacement of some or all units of the original collateral with other units of the same or similar type and aggregate value is not considered a change in the original collateral.

(ii)Applicability date. Paragraph (e)(5)(ii)(B)(2)(i) of this section applies to modifications occurring on or after July 6, 2011.

(6)Accounting or financial covenants. A modification that adds, deletes, or alters customary accounting or financial covenants is not a significant modification.

(f)Rules of application -

(1)Testing for significance -

(i)In general. Whether a modification of any term is a significant modification is determined under each applicable rule in paragraphs (e) (2) through (6) of this section and, if not specifically addressed in those rules, under the general rule in paragraph (e)(1) of this section. For example, a deferral of payments that changes the yield of a fixed rate debt instrument must be tested under both paragraphs (e) (2) and (3) of this section.

(ii)Contingent modifications. If a modification described in paragraphs (e) (2) through (5) of this section is effective only upon the occurrence of a substantial contingency, whether or not the change is a significant modification is determined under paragraph (e)(1) of this section rather than under paragraphs (e) (2) through (5) of this section.

(iii)Deferred modifications. If a modification described in paragraphs (e) (4) and (5) of this section is effective on a substantially deferred basis, whether or not the change is a significant modification is determined under paragraph (e)(1) of this section rather than under paragraphs (e) (4) and (5) of this section.

(2)Modifications that are not significant. If a rule in paragraphs (e) (2) through (4) of this section prescribes a degree of change in a term of a debt instrument that is a significant modification, a change of the same type but of a lesser degree is not a significant modification under that rule. For example, a 20 basis point change in the yield of a fixed rate debt instrument is not a significant modification under paragraph (e)(2) of this section. Likewise, if a rule in paragraph (e)(4) of this section requires a change in payment expectations for a modification to be significant, a modification of the same type that does not result in a change in payment expectations is not a significant modification under that rule.

(3)Cumulative effect of modifications. Two or more modifications of a debt instrument over any period of time constitute a significant modification if, had they been done as a single change, the change would have resulted in a significant modification under paragraph (e) of this section. Thus, for example, a series of changes in the maturity of a debt instrument constitutes a significant modification if, combined as a single change, the change would have resulted in a significant modification. The significant modification occurs at the time that the cumulative modification would be significant under paragraph (e) of this section. In testing for a change of yield under paragraph (e)(2) of this section, however, any prior modification occurring more than 5 years before the date of the modification being tested is disregarded.

(4)Modifications of different terms. Modifications of different terms of a debt instrument, none of which separately would be a significant modification under paragraphs (e) (2) through (6) of this section, do not collectively constitute a significant modification. For example, a change in yield that is not a significant modification under paragraph (e)(2) of this section and a substitution of collateral that is not a significant modification under paragraph (e)(4)(iv) of this section do not together result in a significant modification. Although the significance of each modification is determined independently, in testing a particular modification it is assumed that all other simultaneous modifications have already occurred.

(5)Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(i)Issuer and obligor are used interchangeably and mean the issuer of a debt instrument or a successor obligor.

(ii)Variable rate debt instrument and contingent payment debt instrument have the meanings given those terms in section 1275 and the regulations thereunder.

(iii)Tax-exempt bond means a state or local bond that satisfies the requirements of section 103(a).

(iv)Conduit loan and conduit borrower have the same meanings as in § 1.150-1(b).

(6)Certain rules for tax-exempt bonds -

(i)Conduit loans. For purposes of this section, the obligor of a tax-exempt bond is the entity that actually issues the bond and not a conduit borrower of bond proceeds. In determining whether there is a significant modification of a tax-exempt bond, however, transactions between holders of the tax-exempt bond and a borrower of a conduit loan may be an indirect modification under paragraph (a)(1) of this section. For example, a payment by the holder of a tax-exempt bond to a conduit borrower to waive a call right may result in an indirect modification of the tax-exempt bond by changing the yield on that bond.

(ii)Recourse nature -

(A)In general. For purposes of this section, a tax-exempt bond that does not finance a conduit loan is a recourse debt instrument.

(B)Proceeds used for conduit loans. For purposes of this section, a tax-exempt bond that finances a conduit loan is a recourse debt instrument unless both the bond and the conduit loan are nonrecourse instruments.

(C)Government securities as collateral. Notwithstanding paragraphs (f)(6)(ii) (A) and (B) of this section, for purposes of this section a tax-exempt bond that is secured only by a trust holding government securities or tax-exempt government bonds that are reasonably expected to provide interest and principal payments sufficient to satisfy the payment obligations under the bond is a nonrecourse instrument.

(7)Rules for determining whether an alteration or modification results in an instrument or property right that is not debt -

(i)In general. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(7)(ii) of this section, the determination of whether an instrument resulting from an alteration or modification of a debt instrument will be recharacterized as an instrument or property right that is not debt for Federal income tax purposes shall take into account all of the factors relevant to such a determination.

(ii)Financial condition of the obligor -

(A)Deterioration in financial condition of the obligor generally disregarded. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(7)(ii)(B) of this section, in making a determination as to whether an instrument resulting from an alteration or modification of a debt instrument will be recharacterized as an instrument or property right that is not debt, any deterioration in the financial condition of the obligor between the issue date of the debt instrument and the date of the alteration or modification (as it relates to the obligor's ability to repay the debt instrument) is not taken into account. For example, any decrease in the fair market value of a debt instrument (whether or not the debt instrument is publicly traded) between the issue date of the debt instrument and the date of the alteration or modification is not taken into account to the extent that the decrease in fair market value is attributable to the deterioration in the financial condition of the obligor and not to a modification of the terms of the instrument.

(B)Substitution of a new obligor; addition or deletion of co-obligor. If there is a substitution of a new obligor or the addition or deletion of a co-obligor, the rules in paragraph (f)(7)(ii)(A) of this section do not apply.

(g)Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section:

Example 1. Modification of call right.
(i) Under the terms of a 30-year, fixed-rate bond, the issuer can call the bond for 102 percent of par at the end of ten years or for 101 percent of par at the end of 20 years. At the end of the eighth year, the holder of the bond pays the issuer to waive the issuer's right to call the bond at the end of the tenth year. On the date of the modification, the issuer's credit quality is approximately the same as when the bond was issued, but market rates of interest have declined from that date.

(ii) The holder's payment to the issuer changes the yield on the bond. Whether the change in yield is a significant modification depends on whether the yield on the modified bond varies from the yield on the original bond by more than the change in yield as described in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section.

(iii) If the change in yield is not a significant modification, the elimination of the issuer's call right must also be tested for significance. Because the specific rules of paragraphs (e)(2) through (e)(6) of this section do not address this modification, the significance of the modification must be determined under the general rule of paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(iv)Applicability date. This Example 1 applies to modifications occurring on or after July 6, 2011.

Example 2. Extension of maturity and change in yield.
(i) A zero-coupon bond has an original maturity of ten years. At the end of the fifth year, the parties agree to extend the maturity for a period of two years without increasing the stated redemption price at maturity (i.e., there are no additional payments due between the original and extended maturity dates, and the amount due at the extended maturity date is equal to the amount due at the original maturity date).

(ii) The deferral of the scheduled payment at maturity is tested under paragraph (e)(3) of this section. The safe-harbor period under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section starts with the date the payment that is being deferred is due. For this modification, the safe-harbor period starts on the original maturity date, and ends five years from this date. All payments deferred within this period are unconditionally payable before the end of the safe-harbor period. Thus, the deferral of the payment at maturity for a period of two years is not a material deferral under the safe-harbor rule of paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section and thus is not a significant modification.

(iii) Even though the extension of maturity is not a significant modification under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, the modification also decreases the yield of the bond. The change in yield must be tested under paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

Example 3. Change in yield resulting from reduction of principal.
(i) A debt instrument issued at par has an original maturity of ten years and provides for the payment of $100,000 at maturity with interest payments at the rate of 10 percent payable at the end of each year. At the end of the fifth year, and after the annual payment of interest, the issuer and holder agree to reduce the amount payable at maturity to $80,000. The annual interest rate remains at 10 percent but is payable on the reduced principal.

(ii) In applying the change in yield rule of paragraph (e)(2) of this section, the yield of the instrument after the modification (measured from the date that the parties agree to the modification to its final maturity date) is computed using the adjusted issue price of $100,000. With four annual payments of $8,000, and a payment of $88,000 at maturity, the yield on the instrument after the modification for purposes of determining if there has been a significant modification under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section is 4.332 percent. Thus, the reduction in principal is a significant modification.

Example 4. Deferral of scheduled interest payments.
(i) A 20-year debt instrument issued at par provides for the payment of $100,000 at maturity with annual interest payments at the rate of 10 percent. At the beginning of the eleventh year, the issuer and holder agree to defer all remaining interest payments until maturity with compounding. The yield of the modified instrument remains at 10 percent.

(ii) The safe-harbor period of paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section begins at the end of the eleventh year, when the interest payment for that year is deferred, and ends at the end of the sixteenth year. However, the payments deferred during this period are not unconditionally payable by the end of that 5-year period. Thus, the deferral of the interest payments is not within the safe-harbor period.

(iii) This modification materially defers the payments due under the instrument and is a significant modification under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section.

Example 5. Assumption of mortgage with increase in interest rate.
(i) A recourse debt instrument with a 9 percent annual yield is secured by an office building. Under the terms of the instrument, a purchaser of the building may assume the debt and be substituted for the original obligor if the purchaser is equally or more creditworthy than the original obligor and if the interest rate on the instrument is increased by one-half percent (50 basis points). The building is sold, the purchaser assumes the debt, and the interest rate increases by 50 basis points.

(ii) If the purchaser's acquisition of the building does not satisfy the requirements of paragraph (e)(4)(i)(B) or paragraph (e)(4)(i)(C) of this section, the substitution of the purchaser as the obligor is a significant modification under paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A) of this section.

(iii) If the purchaser acquires substantially all of the assets of the original obligor, the assumption of the debt instrument will not result in a significant modification if there is not a change in payment expectations and the assumption does not result in a significant alteration.

(iv) The change in the interest rate, if tested under the rules of paragraph (e)(2) of this section, would result in a significant modification. The change in interest rate that results from the transaction is a significant alteration. Thus, the transaction does not meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(4)(i)(C) of this section and is a significant modification under paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A) of this section.

(v)Applicability date. This Example 5 applies to modifications occurring on or after July 6, 2011.

Example 6. Assumption of mortgage.
(i) A recourse debt instrument is secured by a building. In connection with the sale of the building, the purchaser of the building assumes the debt and is substituted as the new obligor on the debt instrument. The purchaser does not acquire substantially all of the assets of the original obligor.

(ii) The transaction does not satisfy any of the exceptions set forth in paragraph (e)(4)(i) (B) or (C) of this section. Thus, the substitution of the purchaser as the obligor is a significant modification under paragraph (e)(4)(i)(A) of this section.

(iii) Section 1274(c)(4), however, provides that if a debt instrument is assumed in connection with the sale or exchange of property, the assumption is not taken into account in determining if section 1274 applies to the debt instrument unless the terms and conditions of the debt instrument are modified in connection with the sale or exchange. Because the purchaser assumed the debt instrument in connection with the sale of property and the debt instrument was not otherwise modified, the debt instrument is not retested to determine whether it provides for adequate stated interest.

Example 7. Substitution of a new obligor in section 381(a) transaction.
(i) The interest rate on a 30-year debt instrument issued by a corporation provides for a variable rate of interest that is reset annually on June 1st based on an objective index.

(ii) In the tenth year, the issuer merges (in a transaction to which section 381(a) applies) into another corporation that becomes the new obligor on the debt instrument. The merger occurs on June 1st, at which time the interest rate is also reset by operation of the terms of the instrument. The new interest rate varies from the previous interest rate by more than the greater of 25 basis points and 5 percent of the annual yield of the unmodified instrument. The substitution of a new obligor does not result in a change in payment expectations.

(iii) The substitution of the new obligor occurs in a section 381(a) transaction and does not result in a change in payment expectations. Although the interest rate changed by more than the greater of 25 basis points and 5 percent of the annual yield of the unmodified instrument, this alteration did not occur as a result of the transaction and is not a significant alteration under paragraph (e)(4)(i)(E) of this section. Thus, the substitution meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(4)(i)(B) of this section and is not a significant modification.

Example 8. Substitution of credit enhancement contract.
(i) Under the terms of a recourse debt instrument, the issuer's obligations are secured by a letter of credit from a specified bank. The debt instrument does not contain any provision allowing a substitution of a letter of credit from a different bank. The specified bank, however, encounters financial difficulty. The issuer and holder agree that the issuer will substitute a letter of credit from another bank.

(ii) Under paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(A) of this section, the substitution of a different credit enhancement contract is not a significant modification of a recourse debt instrument unless the substitution results in a change in payment expectations. While the substitution of a new letter of credit by a different bank does not itself result in a change in payment expectations, such a substitution may result in a change in payment expectations under certain circumstances (for example, if the obligor's capacity to meet payment obligations is dependent on the letter of credit and the substitution substantially enhances that capacity from primarily speculative to adequate).

(iii)Applicability date. This Example 8 applies to modifications occurring on or after July 6, 2011.

Example 9. Improvement to collateral securing nonrecourse debt.
A parcel of land and its improvements, a shopping center, secure a nonrecourse debt instrument. The obligor expands the shopping center with the construction of an additional building on the same parcel of land. After the construction, the improvements that secure the nonrecourse debt include the new building. The building is an improvement to the property securing the nonrecourse debt instrument and its inclusion in the collateral securing the debt is not a significant modification under paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(B) of this section.

(h)Effective/applicability date -

(1)In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (h)(2) of this section, this section applies to alterations of the terms of a debt instrument on or after September 24, 1996. Taxpayers, however, may rely on this section for alterations of the terms of a debt instrument after December 2, 1992, and before September 24, 1996.

(2)Exception. Paragraph (f)(7) of this section applies to an alteration of the terms of a debt instrument on or after January 7, 2011. A taxpayer, however, may rely on paragraph (f)(7) of this section for alterations of the terms of a debt instrument occurring before that date.

[T.D. 8675, 61 FR 32930, June 26, 1996; 61 FR 47822, Sept. 11, 1996; 76 FR 1064, Jan. 7, 2011; T.D. 9533, 76 FR 39282, July 6, 2011; T.D. 9637, 78 FR 54760, Sept. 6, 2013]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4