26 CFR 1.103-10 - Exemption for certain small issues of industrial development bonds.

§ 1.103-10 Exemption for certain small issues of industrial development bonds.

(a)In general. Section 103(b)(6) applies to certain industrial development bond issues (referred to in this section as “exempt small issues”) and bonds issued to refund certain issues (referred to in this section as “exempt small refunding issues”). If an issue is an exempt small issue or an exempt small refunding issue, then under the requirements of section 103(b)(6) and this section the interest paid on the debt obligations is not includable in gross income, and the obligations are treated as obligations described in section 103(a)(1) and § 1.103-1, even though such obligations are industrial development bonds as defined in section 103(b)(2) and § 1.103-7. However, interest on an obligation of such an issue is includable in gross income if the obligation is held by a substantial user of the financed facilities or a related person (as described in section 103(b)(7) and § 1.103-11). Section 103(b)(6) only becomes applicable where the bond issue meets both the trade or business and the security interest tests so that the obligations are industrial development bonds within the meaning of section 103(b)(2). For bonds issued before January 1, 1979, in taxable years ending before such date, and for capital expenditures made before January 1, 1979, with respect to such bonds, paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section shall be applied by substituting $5 million for $10 million.

(b)Small issue exemption -

(1)$1 million or less. Section 103(b)(6)(A) provides that section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to any debt obligation issued by a State or local governmental unit as part of an issue where -

(i) The aggregate authorized face amount of such issue (determined by aggregating the outstanding face amount of any prior exempt small issues described in paragraph (d) of this section and the face amount of the issue of obligations in question) is $1 million or less; and

(ii) Substantially all of the proceeds of such issue is to be used for the acquisition, construction, reconstruction, or improvement of land or property of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation under section 167. Proceeds which are loaned to a borrower for use as working capital or to finance inventory are not used in the manner described in the preceding sentence. Whether substantially all of the proceeds of an issue of governmental obligations are used in such manner is determined consistently with the rules for exempt facilities in § 1.103-8(a)(1)(i). Any obligation which is an industrial development bond within the meaning of section 103(b)(2) and which satisfies the $1 million small issue exemption requirements is an exempt small issue. See paragraph (c)(1) of this section for the treatment of refunding issues of $1 million or less.

(2)$10 million or less.

(i) Under section 103(b)(6)(D), the issuing State or local governmental unit may elect to have an aggregate authorized face amount of $10 million or less, in lieu of the $1 million exemption otherwise provided for in section 103(b)(6)(A), with respect to issues of obligations that are industrial development bonds (within the meaning of section 103(b)(2)) issued after October 24, 1968. If the election is made in a timely manner, the bonds will be treated as obligations of a State or local governmental unit described in section 103(a)(1) and § 1.103-1 if the sum of -

(a) The aggregate face amount of the issue including the aggregate outstanding face amount of any prior $1 million or $10 million exempt small issues taken into account under section 103(b)(6)(B) and paragraph (d) of this section, and

(b) The aggregate amount of “section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditures” (within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section),

is $10 million or less. In the case of an issue of obligations that qualified for exemption under section 103(b)(6)(A) and this paragraph, if a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure made after the date of issue has the effect of making taxable the interest on the issue, under section 103(b)(6)(G) the loss of tax exemption for the interest shall begin only with the date on which the expenditure that caused the issue to cease to qualify under the $10 million limit was paid or incurred. See paragraph (b)(2)(vi) of this section for the time and manner in which the issuer may elect the $10 million exemption. See section 103(b)(6)(H) and paragraph (c)(2) of this section for the treatment of certain refinancing issues of $10 million of less.

(ii) The term “section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure” is defined in this subdivision. Special rules for applying such definition in the case of certain expenditures paid or incurred by a State or local governmental unit are prescribed in subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph. Except as excluded by subdivision (iv) or (v) of this subparagraph, an expenditure (regardless of how paid, whether in cash, notes, or stock in a taxable or nontaxable transaction) is a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure if -

(a) The capital expenditure was financed other than out of the proceeds of issues to the extent such issues are taken into account under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(a) of this section.

(b) The capital expenditures were paid or incurred during the 6-year period which begins 3 years before the date of issuance of the issue in question and ends 3 years after such date,

(c) The principal user of the facility in connection with which the property resulting from the capital expenditures is used and the principal user of the facility financed by the proceeds of the issue in question is the same person or are two or more related persons (as defined in section 103(b)(6)(C) and paragraph (e) of this section),

(d) Both facilities referred to in (c) of this subdivision were (during the period described in (b) of this subdivision or a part thereof) located in the same incorporated municipality or in the same county outside of the incorporated municipalities in such county), and

(e) The capital expenditures were properly chargeable to the capital account of any person or State or local governmental unit (whether or not such person is the principal user of the facility or a related person) determined, for this purpose, without regard to any rule of the Code which permits expenditures properly chargeable to capital account to be treated as current expenses. With respect to obligations issued on or after August 8, 1972, determinations under the preceding sentence shall be made by including any expenditure which may, under any rule or election under the Code, be treated as a capital expenditure (whether or not such expenditure is so treated). With respect to obligations issued on or after August 8, 1972, for purposes of this subparagraph, capital expenditures made with respect to a contiguous or integrated facility which is located on both sides of a border between two or more political jurisdictions are made with respect to a facility located in all such jurisdictions and, therefore, shall be treated as if they were made in each such political jurisdiction.

(iii) Amounts properly chargeable to capital account under subdivision (ii) (e) of this subparagraph include capital expenditures made by a State or local governmental unit with respect to an exempt facility or an industrial park, within the 6-year period described in subdivision (ii)(b) of this subparagraph, out of the proceeds of bond issues to which section 103(b)(1) did not apply by reason of section 103(b) (4) or (5) (relating to certain exempt activities and industrial parks). Thus, for example, the cost to the lessor of a leased plantsite financed out of the proceeds of an issue for an exempt air pollution control facility under section 103(b)(4)(F) and paragraph (g) of § 1.103-8 would constitute a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure. However, in the case of an industrial park, only the land costs allocated on an area basis to the plantsite and the actual cost of any improvements made on the plantsite, or to be used principally in connection with the actual plantsite occupied by a principal user or a related person, shall be taken into account as capital expenditures. Where the actual amount of capital expenditures made with respect to a facility by a person (including a State or local governmental unit) other than the user of such facility (or a related person) cannot be ascertained, the fair market value of the property with respect to which the capital expenditures were made, at the time of such capital expenditures, shall be deemed to be the amount of such capital expenditures. In the case of a transaction which is not in form a purchase but which is treated as a purchase for Federal income tax purposes, the purchase price for Federal income tax purposes shall constitute a capital expenditure.

(iv) A section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure shall not include any “excluded expenditure” described in (a) through (e) of this subdivision (iv).

(a) A capital expenditure is an excluded expenditure if either it is made by a public utility company which is not the principal user of the facility financed by the proceeds of the issue in question (or a related person) with respect to property of such company, or it is made by a State or local governmental unit with respect to property of such unit, and if in either case it meets all of the following three conditions: Such property of such company or unit (as the case may be) must be used to provide gas, water, sewage disposal services, electric energy, or telephone service. Such property must be installed in, or connected to, the facility but must not consist of property which is such an integral part of the facility that the cost of such property is ordinarily included as part of the acquisition, construction, or reconstruction cost of such facility. Such property must be of a type normally paid for by the user (or a related person) in the form of periodic fees based upon time or use.

(b) A capital expenditure is an excluded expenditure if it is made by a person other than the user, a related person, or a State or local governmental unit and if it is made with respect to tangible personal property (within the meaning of paragraph (c) of § 1.48-1), or intangible personal property, leased to the user (or a related person) of a facility. However, the preceding sentence shall apply only if such personal property is leased by the manufacturer of such tangible or intangible personal property, or by a person in the trade or business of leasing property the same as, or similar to, such personal property, and only if, pursuant to general business practice, property of such type is ordinarily the subject of a lease.

(c) A capital expenditure is an excluded expenditure if it is made to replace property damaged or destroyed by fire, storm, or other casualty, to the extent that these expenditures do not exceed in dollar amount the fair market value (determined immediately before the casualty) of the property replaced.

(d) A capital expenditure is an excluded expenditure if it is required by a change made after the date of issue in a Federal or State law, or a local ordinance which has general application, or if it is required by a change made after such date in rules and regulations of general application issued under such law or ordinance.

(e) A capital expenditure is an excluded expenditure if it is required by or arises out of circumstances which could not reasonably be foreseen on the date of issue or which arise out of a mistake of law or fact. However, the aggregate dollar amount taken into account under this subdivision (e) with respect to any issue may not exceed $1 million. With respect to expenditures incurred prior to December 11, 1971, the dollar amount specified in the preceding sentence shall be $250,000.

(v)(a) If the assets of a corporation are acquired by another corporation in a transaction to which section 381(a) (relating to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions) applies, the exchange of consideration by the acquiring corporation for such assets is not a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure by such acquiring corporation.

(b) However, if an exchange referred to in (a) of this subdivision occurs during the 6-year period beginning 3 years before the date of issuance of an issue of obligations and ending 3 years after such date, the transferor and transferee shall be treated as having been related persons for the portion of such 6-year period preceding the date of the exchange for purposes of determining whether section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditures have been made. For purposes of this subdivision (b), the date of an exchange to which section 381 applies shall be the date of distribution or transfer within the meaning of paragraph (b) of § 1.381(b)-1.

(c) If section 351(a) applies to a transfer of property to a corporation solely in exchange for its stock or securities, the issuance of such stock or securities in such exchange is not a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure by such corporation.

(d) However, if such a transfer referred to in (c) of this subdivision occurs during the 6-year period beginning 3 years before the date of issuance of an issue of obligations and ending 3 years after such date, and if, with respect to the property transferred, expenditures made within such period would have been section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditures if the transferor and transferee had been related persons for such period, then such expenditures shall be considered to be section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditures made by the transferee. In addition, if a transferor and transferee are related persons immediately following such transfer, such transferor and transferee shall also be treated as having been related persons for the portion of such 6-year period preceding the date of such transfer.

(e) For purposes of this subdivision (v), the term “issue of obligations” means an issue being tested for purposes of qualifying or continuing to qualify under an election pursuant to section 103(b)(6)(D) as to which an amount which would be a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure solely by reason of (b) or (d) of this subdivision must be taken into account.

(f) If with respect to an issue of obligations an expenditure would not have been a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure but for the application of (b) or (d) of this subdivision, and if such section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure has the effect of making taxable the interest on an issue of obligations which qualified for exemption under section 103(b)(6)(A) and this paragraph, the loss of tax exemption for such interest shall begin not earlier than the date of such exchange or transfer referred to in this subdivision (v).

(vi) The issuer may make the election provided by section 103(b)(6)(D) and this paragraph (b)(2) (assuming that the bonds otherwise qualify under section 103(b)(6) by noting the election affirmatively at or before the time of issuance of the issue in question on its books or records with respect to the issue. The term “books or records” includes the bond resolution or other similar legislation for the issue in question as well as the bond transcript or other compilation of bond and bond-related documents. If the issuer fails to make an election at the time and in the manner prescribed in this paragraph (b)(2), the issue will not be treated as described in section 103(b)(6)(D), and interest thereon will be includible in gross income.

(c)Refunding or refinancing issue exemption -

(1)$1 million or less refunding issue. Section 103(b)(6)(A) also provides that section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to any debt obligation issued by a State or local governmental unit as part of an issue the aggregate authorized face amount of which is $1 million or less, if substantially all of the proceeds of such issue are to be used -

(i) To redeem part of all of a prior issue substantially all of the proceeds of which were used to acquire, construct, reconstruct, or improve land or property of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation, or

(ii) To redeem part or all of a prior exempt small refunding issue.

(2)10 million or less refinancing issue. Section 103(b)(6)(H) provides that section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to any debt obligation issued by a governmental unit as part of an issue which is $10 million or less if the condition of section 103(b)(6)(H) is met and if substantially all of the proceeds are to be used -

(i) To redeem part or all of one or more prior exempt small issues, or

(ii) To redeem part or all of one or more prior exempt small refunding issues.

The condition of section 103(b)(6)(H) is that an election by the issuer of the $10 million exemption in lieu of the $1 million limit for a refunding issue may be made only if each prior issue being redeemed is an issue which qualified either for the $1 million exemption or, by reason of an election under section 103(b)(6)(D), for the $10 million exemption. In addition, in applying the capital expenditures test under section 103(b)(6)(D)(ii) and paragraph (b)(2)(i)(b) of this section to refinancing issues, section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditures are taken into account only for purposes of determining whether prior issues which were made under the section 103(b)(6)(D) election qualified under section 103(b)(6)(A) and would have continued to qualify under that section but for the redemption.

(d)Certain prior issues taken into account -

(1)In general. Section 103(b)(6)(B) provides, in effect, that if (i) a prior issue specified in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph is an exempt small issue (including for this purpose an exempt small refunding issue) under section 103(b)(6)(A) and this section, and (ii) such prior issue is outstanding at the time of issuance of a subsequent issue, then in determining the aggregate face amount of such subsequent issue (for purposes of determining whether such issue is a $1 million or $10 million exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) and this section) there shall be taken into account the outstanding face amount of such prior exempt small issue. For purposes of this paragraph, the outstanding face amount of a prior exempt small issue does not include the face amount of any obligation which is to be redeemed from the proceeds of such subsequent issue.

(2)Prior issues specified. The face amount of an outstanding prior exempt small issue is taken into account under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph if -

(i) The proceeds of both the prior exempt small issue and of the subsequent issue (whether or not the State or local governmental unit issuing such obligation is the same unit for each such issue) are or will be used primarily with respect to facilities located or to be located in the same incorporated municipality or located or to be located in the same county outside of an incorporated municipality in such county (and, for purposes of this subdivision, on or after August 8, 1972, a contiguous or integrated facility which is located on both sides of a border between two or more political jurisdictions shall be treated as if it is entirely within each such political jurisdiction), and

(ii) The principal user of the financed facilities referred to in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is or will be the same person or two or more related persons (as defined in section 103(b)(6)(C) and paragraph (e) of this section).

(3)Rules of application. The rules of this paragraph shall apply -

(i) Only in the case of outstanding prior exempt small issues which are industrial development bonds to which section 103(b)(1) would have applied but for the provisions of section 103(b)(6). Thus, for example, the provisions of this paragraph do not apply in respect of a prior issue of obligations issued on or before April 30, 1968. In addition, the provisions of this paragraph do not apply in respect of a prior issue for an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4) and § 1.103-8, or for an industrial park under section 103(b)(5) and § 1.103-9, whether or not the issue might also have qualified as an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) and this section.

(ii) To all prior exempt small issues which meet the requirements of this paragraph. Thus, for example, in determining the aggregate face amount of an issue under section 103(b)(6)(A), the outstanding face amount of prior $1 million or $10 million exempt small issues which meet the requirements of this paragraph shall be taken into account in determining the aggregate face amount of a subsequent issue being tested for the $1 million small issue exemption. Similarly, in determining the aggregate face amount of an issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) and (D), the outstanding face amount of prior $1 million or $10 million exempt small issues which meet the requirements of this paragraph shall be taken into account in determining the aggregate face amount of a subsequent issue being tested for the $10 million small issue exemption.

(e)Related persons. For purposes of section 103(b) and §§ 1.103-7 through 1.103-11, the term “related person” means a person who is related to another person if, on the date of issue of an issue of obligations -

(1) The relationship between such persons would result in a disallowance of losses under section 267 (relating to disallowance of losses, etc., between related taxpayers) and section 707(b) (relating to losses disallowed, etc., between partners and controlled partnerships) and the regulations thereunder, or

(2) Such persons are members of the same controlled group of corporations, as defined in section 1563(a), relating to definition of controlled group of corporations (except that “more than 50 percent” shall be substituted for “at least 80 percent” each place it appears in section 1563(a)) and the regulations thereunder.

(f)Disqualification of certain small issues.

(1) Section 103(b)(6) shall not apply to any obligation issued after April 24, 1979, which is part of an issue, a significant portion of the proceeds of which are to be used directly or indirectly to provide residential real property for family units. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “residential real property for family units” means residential rental projects (within the meaning of § 1.103-8(b)) and owner-occupied residences (within the meaning of section 103A).

(2) For purposes of paragraph (f)(1), a significant portion of the proceeds of an issue are used to provide residential real property for family units if 5 percent or more of the proceeds are so used.

(g)Examples. The application of the rules contained in section 103(b)(6) and this section are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
County A and corporation X enter into an arrangement under which the county will provide a factory which X will lease for 25 years. The arrangement provides (1) that A will issue $1 million of bonds on March 1, 1970, (2) that the proceeds of the bond issue will be used to acquire land in County A (but not in an incorporated municipality) and to construct and equip a factory on such land in accordance with X's specifications, (3) that X will rent the facility for 25 years at an annual rental equal to the amount necessary to amortize the principal and pay the interest on the outstanding bonds, and (4) that such payments by X and the facility itself shall be the security for the bonds. Although the bonds issued are industrial development bonds, the bonds are an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) and this section since the aggregate authorized face amount of the bond issue is $1 million or less and all of the proceeds of the bond issue are to be used to acquire and improve land and acquire and construct depreciable property. The result would be the same if the arrangement provided that X would purchase the facility from A.
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in example (1) except that, instead of acquiring land and constructing a new factory, the arrangement provides that A will acquire a vacant existing factory building and rebuild and equip the building in accordance with X's specifications. The bonds are an exempt small issue for the same reasons as in example (1).
Example 3.
The facts are the same as in example (1) or (2) except that the financed facilities are additions to facilities which were financed by an issue of bonds to which section 103(b)(1) does not apply because such bonds were issued prior to May 1, 1968, or were subject to the transitional provisions of § 1.103-12. The bonds are an exempt small issue since neither of the prior bond issues are taken into account under section 103(b)(6)(B) and this section in determining the status of industrial development bonds which are issued after April 30, 1968, and which are not subject to the transitional provisions of § 1.103-12.
Example 4.
The facts are the same as in example (1) except that, subsequently, corporation X proposes to County A that A build a $400,000 warehouse located in Town M (an unincorporated town located in County A) for X under terms similar to the factory arrangement described in example (1). On the proposed issue date of the subsequent bond issue, $600,000 of the first exempt small issue will be outstanding. If A issues $400,000 of bonds for such purposes, the bonds will be an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6) and this section since, under the rules of section 103(b)(6)(B) and paragraph (d) of this section, if the aggregate authorized face amount of the new issue and the outstanding prior exempt small issue will be $1 million or less, the new issue will be an exempt small issue. If, however, the aggregate authorized face amount of the prior issue outstanding on the date of the subsequent issue were in excess of $600,000, the subsequent issue would not qualify as an exempt small issue because (1) the combined aggregate face amount of the outstanding prior issue and the new issue would be in excess of $1 million, (2) the facilities financed by both issues are to be located in unincorporated areas in the same county, (3) the same taxpayer will be the principal user of both facilities, and (4) but for the rules of section 103(b)(6)(B) and paragraph (d) of this section the prior issue would be an exempt small issue.
Example 5.
The facts are the same as in example (1) except that subsequently corporation X proposes to City P and City R (incorporated municipalities located in County A) that P and R each issue bonds and each build $1 million facilities to be located in Cities P and R for the use of X under terms similar to the arrangement in example (1). Each of the $1 million issues will be an exempt small issue because each proposed facility is located within a different incorporated municipality and the proceeds of the prior outstanding exempt small issue were used to construct facilities outside of an incorporated area.
Example 6.
The facts are the same as in example (1) except that $95,000 of the $1 million will be used by the corporation as working capital. The bonds are an exempt small issue for the same reason as in example (1) since substantially all of the proceeds will be used for the acquisition of land and the construction of depreciable property.
Example 7.
The facts are the same as in example (1) except that on November 1, 1969, County A issued $10 million of industrial development bonds, all of the proceeds of which were issued for the acquisition of land as the site for an industrial park within the meaning of section 103(b)(5) and § 1.103-9. The proceeds of the $1 million of bonds issued in 1970 will be used to construct a factory for corporation X to be located in the industrial park. The bonds issued in 1970 are industrial development bonds within the meaning of section 103(b)(2) and § 1.103-7. Since, however, the prior 1969 issue is not an issue to which section 103(b)(6)(A) applied (see paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section), the bonds issued in 1970 are an exempt small issue for the reasons stated in example (1).
Example 8.
County B enters into three separate arrangements with three unrelated corporations whereby the county will provide separate storage facilities for each corporation. The arrangement provides (1) that the county will issue bonds and loan to each corporation $250,000 of the proceeds which will be used to acquire land in the county and to construct the facilities, (2) that the rental payments by the corporations will be equal to the amount necessary to amortize the principal and pay the interest on any outstanding bonds issued by the county, and (3) that the payments by the corporations and the facilities themselves shall be the security for the industrial development bonds. For convenience, the county issues one series of bonds in the face amount of $750,000 rather than three separate series of bonds of $250,000 each. The issue is an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) and paragraph (b)(1) of this section since the aggregate authorized face amount of the bond issue is $1 million or less, and all of the proceeds of the bond issue are to be used to acquire and improve land and acquire and construct depreciable property.
Example 9.
City C and corporation Y enter into an arrangement under which C will provide a factory which Y will lease for 25 years. The arrangement provides (1) that C will issue $4 million of bonds on March 1, 1969, after making the election under section 103(b)(6)(D) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section, (2) that the proceeds of the bond issue will be used to acquire land in the city and to construct and equip a factory on such land in accordance with Y's specifications, (3) that Y will rent the facilities for 25 years at an annual rental equal to the amount necessary to amortize the principal and pay the interest on the outstanding bonds, (4) that such payments by Y and the facility itself shall be the security for the bonds, and (5) that, if corporation Y pays or incurs capital expenditures in excess of $1 million within 3 years from the date of issue which disqualify the bonds as an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(D), it will either furnish funds to C to redeem such bonds at par or at a premium, or increase the rental payments to C in an amount sufficient to pay a premium interest rate. Although the bonds issued are industrial development bonds, they are an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) by reason of the election under section 103(b)(6)(D) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section, since the aggregate authorized face amount of the bond issue is $5 million or less and all of the proceeds of the bond issue are to be used to acquire and improve land and acquire and construct depreciable property. The provisions for redemption of the bonds or an increase in rental if the bonds are disqualified as an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) will not disqualify an otherwise valid election under section 103(b)(6)(D) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
Example 10.
The facts are the same as in example (9) except that corporation Y subsequently proposed to the city that it build a $1 million warehouse next to the plant for the use of Y under terms similar to the factory arrangement. Assume further that the factory building was completed by March 1, 1970, and that on January 15, 1972, the proposed issue date of the subsequent bond issue, $2 million of the first exempt small issue will be outstanding. In determining the aggregate authorized face amount of the new issue, the original face amount of a prior outstanding issue must be reduced by that portion which is to be redeemed before it is added to the face amount of the new issue. Therefore, if the city issues $3 million of bonds to redeem the remaining $2 million of bonds and to construct the warehouse the bonds will be an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) if an election is made under section 103(b)(6)(D) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section since (1) the face amount of the new issue ($3 million), plus (2) the face amount of the prior outstanding exempt small issue minus the amount of such issue to be refunded ($2 million minus $2 million), plus (3) capital expenditures during the preceding 3 years financed other than out of the proceeds of outstanding issues to which section 103(b)(6)(A) and paragraph (b) of this section applied ($2 million), do not exceed $5 million. If, however, the amount of the January 15, 1972, issue were $3 1/2 million, the issue would not qualify as an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
Example 11.
The facts are the same as in example (9), except that on June 15, 1971, Y purchases from an unrelated motor carrier business a warehouse terminal in the same city at a cost of $250,000 and tractor-trailers and other automotive equipment based at the terminal at a cost of $1 million. This subsequent expenditure by Y has the effect of making the interest on the city C bonds includable in the gross income of the holders of such bonds as of June 15, 1971, because the face amount of the March 1, 1969, issue ($4 million) plus the subsequent capital expenditures within 3 years of the date of issue ($1,250,000) exceed $5 million. (See section 103(b)(6)(D) and paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section.)
Example 12.
The facts are the same as in example (9), except that in March, 1970, Y will move $3 million of additional used machinery and equipment into the factory from its factory in another city. The expenditures for such machinery and equipment were incurred by Y more than 3 years prior to the date of issue of the bonds. The transfer of such used equipment into city C does not constitute a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section since the expenditures with respect to such property were incurred more than 3 years prior to the date of issue of the bonds. Had the capital expenditures with respect to such property been incurred during the 6-year period beginning 3 years before the date of issue of the bonds and in the 3 years after such date, they would constitute section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditures.
Example 13.
The facts are the same as in example (9), except that in March 1970, corporation Y enters into an arrangement with respect to machinery and equipment to be used in the facility. The arrangement is labeled by the parties as a lease but is treated as a sale for Federal income tax purposes. The amount treated as the purchase price of the machinery and equipment is a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure.
Example 14.
On February 1, 1970, city D issues $5 million of its bonds to finance construction of an addition to the manufacturing plant of corporation Z. The bonds will be secured by the facility and lease payments to be made by Z which will be sufficient to pay the principal and interest on such bonds. Assume that the bonds qualify as an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) pursuant to an election under section 103(b)(6)(D) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section. On February 1, 1971, D plans to issue $1 million of its bonds to construct a pollution control facility to be leased to Z for use at its manufacturing plant. The rental payments from the lease will be sufficient to pay the principal and interest on the bonds. The bonds will be secured by such facility and the lease payments. Capital expenditures for the pollution control facility will be paid or incurred beginning before February 1, 1973. Although the pollution control facility is an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(F) and paragraph (g) of § 1.103-8, amounts used for the pollution control facility shall be considered to be a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure and the interest on the February 1, 1970, issue will become taxable as of the date such capital expenditure began to be paid or incurred. See section 103(b)(6)(G) and paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section.
Example 15.
On February 1, 1970, City E issues $500,000 of its bonds to acquire and develop an industrial park within the meaning of section 103(b)(5) and paragraph (b) of § 1.103-9. The park consists of 100 acres and is divided into one 50 acre plantsite and 4 smaller sites. The aggregate acquisition cost of the undeveloped land is $150,000 or an average per acre cost of $1,500. Roads, sidewalks, sewers, utilities, sewage, and waste disposal facilities serving the entire industrial park cost $300,000. On September 1, 1970, E leases to corporation Y for 30 years the 50 acre plantsite (with an allocated cost of $75,000) and a railroad spur track from the railroad right of way to Y's plantsite for Y's exclusive use. The spur track was constructed using $50,000 of the proceeds of the industrial park bond issue. E also proposes to issue on September 1, 1970, $4,875,000 of its bonds to construct and equip a building on the leased plantsite to be leased to Y at an additional rental sufficient to pay the principal and interest on this issue of bonds. The September 1, 1970, issue will be an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) pursuant to an election under section 103(b)(6)(D) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section since the sum of the amount of the second issue ($4,875,000) and the capital expenditures allocated to the plantsite ($75,000 for 50 acres of land plus $50,000 for the railroad spur tract, totaling $125,000) does not exceed $5 million. The sum of $300,000 which was spent in development of the industrial park provided facilities which will serve or benefit the users generally and hence under paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section is not considered to have provided facilities as to which Y will be the principal user.
Example 16.
On June 1, 1970, corporation Z simultaneously enters into separate arrangements with City F and City G under which each city will issue a $5 million exempt small issue of bonds the proceeds of which will be used by Z to construct separate facilities in each city. By June 1, 1971, the facilities have been completed in the respective cities. On January 1, 1972, Cities F and G, through a valid legal proceeding, merge into a new City FG. Since in this case F and G were separate cities on June 1, 1970 (the date of the bond issues), the factories are not considered to be located in the same incorporated municipality. Accordingly, each $5 million issue by City F and G will continue to qualify as an exempt small issue.
Example 17.
On June 1, 1973, City H issues an exempt small issue of $4.75 million to finance a facility of corporation S to be located in City H. On October 1, 1974, S and corporation T, previously unrelated to S, consummated a statutory merger which qualifies as a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(A) and thus as a transaction described in section 381(a). In the transaction, T transferred to S assets with a fair market value of $1.5 million in exchange for stock of S, $300,000 of securities of S, and $100,000 cash. On March 23, 1971, T made $400,000 of capital expenditures for an addition to its factory located in City H. For purposes of testing the H issue of June 1, 1973, such expenditures would have been section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditures if T and S had been related persons. Under the provisions of paragraph (b)(2)(v)(a) of this section, the exchange of $1.5 million of stock, securities, and cash by S does not constitute a section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditure. Since, however, S and T are treated as related persons starting 3 years prior to the date of issue of the obligations, the $400,000 of expenditures by T constitute section 103(b)(6)(D) capital expenditures. Thus, the interest on the June 1, 1973, issue of obligations would become taxable (since the $5 million limit would be exceeded) on the date of the merger.
Example 18.
In 1965 City I issues $10 million of industrial development bonds to construct and equip a factory for corporation Z. In 1975 the remaining principal amount of the bonds outstanding is $4.1 million. If I issues $4.5 million of bonds to redeem the balance of the prior issue, and for other purposes, such issue cannot qualify as an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(D) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section even though at the time of issue the interest on the 1965 bonds was tax-exempt since the prior issue must be one which qualified under section 103(b)(6)(A) and this section. Further, the 1975 issue will be an issue of industrial development bonds notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (d)(2) of § 1.103-7 which provides that certain bonds issued to refund an issue of obligations issued on or before April 30, 1968 (or January 1, 1969, in certain cases) will not be so treated. Paragraph (d)(2) of § 1.103-7 is not applicable because the 1975 issue makes funds available for a purpose other than the debt service obligation on the 1965 bonds.
Example 19.
In 1969 City J issues $4 million of industrial development bonds which qualify as an exempt small issue under section 103(b)(6)(A) pursuant to an election under section 103(b)(6)(D) and paragraph (b)(2) of this section. In 1971, by reason of a $2 million addition to the factory built with the proceeds of the issue, the 1969 exempt small issue loses its tax-exempt status. In 1972, the city issues a $5 million issue to redeem the prior 1969 issue. The redemption issue will not qualify as an exempt small issue since the prior 1969 issue did not continue to qualify under section 103(b)(6)(A) and this section.
[T.D. 7199, 37 FR 15494, Aug. 3, 1972; 37 FR 16177, Aug. 11, 1972; 37 FR 17826, Sept. 1, 1972, as amended by T.D. 7511, 42 FR 54285, Oct. 5, 1977; T.D. 7840, 47 FR 46084, Oct. 15, 1982; 51 FR 16299, May 2, 1986]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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