26 CFR 1.103-8 - Interest on bonds to finance certain exempt facilities.

§ 1.103-8 Interest on bonds to finance certain exempt facilities.

(a)In general -

(1)General rule.

(i) Under section 103(b)(4), interest paid on an issue of obligations issued by a State or local governmental unit (as defined in § 1.103-1) is not includable in gross income if substantially all of the proceeds of such issue is to be used to provide one or more of the exempt facilities listed in subparagraphs (A) through (J) of section 103(b)(4) and in this section. However, interest on an obligation of such issue is includable in gross income if the obligation is held by a substantial user or a related person (as described in section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11). If substantially all of the proceeds of a bond issue is to be used to provide such exempt facilities, the debt obligations are treated as obligations described in section 103(a)(1) and § 1.103-1 even though such obligations are industrial development bonds as defined in section 103(b)(2) and § 1.103-7. Substantially all of the proceeds of an issue of governmental obligations are used to provide an exempt facility if 90 percent or more of such proceeds are so used. For purposes of this “substantially all” test, two rules apply. First, proceeds are reduced by amounts properly allocable on a pro rata basis between providing the exempt facility and other uses of the proceeds. Second, amounts used to provide an exempt facility include amounts paid or incurred which are chargeable to the facility's capital account or would be so chargeable either with a proper election by a taxpayer (for example, under section 266) or but for a proper election by a taxpayer to deduct such amounts. In the event the amount payable with respect to an issue during each annual period over its term is less than the amount of interest accruing thereon in such period, e.g., in the case of an issue sold by the issuer for less than its face amount, see paragraph (a)(6) of this section to determine the amount of proceeds of the issue.

(ii) The provisions of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall also apply to an issue of obligations substantially all of the proceeds of which is to be used to provide exempt facilities described in this section and for either or both of the following purposes: (a) To acquire or develop land as the site for an industrial park described in section 103(b)(5) and § 1.103-9, (b) to provide facilities to be used by an exempt person.

(iii) Section 103(b)(4) only becomes applicable where the bond issue meets both the trade or business and the security interest tests so that obligations are industrial development bonds within the meaning of section 103(b)(2). For rules as to exempt facilities including property functionally related and subordinate to such facilities, see subparagraph (3) of this paragraph. For rules with respect to the ultimate use of proceeds of obligations, see subparagraph (4) of this paragraph. For rules which limit the application of the provisions of this section see subparagraph (5) of this paragraph. For the interrelationship of the rules provided in this section and the exemption for certain small issues provided in section 103(b)(6), see § 1.103-10.

(2)Public use requirement. To qualify under section 103(b)(4) and this section as an exempt facility, a facility must serve or be available on a regular basis for general public use, or be a part of a facility so used, as contrasted with similar types of facilities which are constructed for the exclusive use of a limited number of nonexempt persons in their trades or businesses. For example, a private dock or wharf owned by or leased to, and serving only a single manufacturing plant would not qualify as a facility for general public use, but a hangar or repair facility at a municipal airport, or a dock or a wharf, would qualify even if it is owned by, or leased or permanently assigned to, a nonexempt person provided that such nonexempt person directly serves the general public, such as a common passenger carrier or freight carrier. Similarly, an airport owned or operated by a nonexempt person for general public use is a facility for public use, as is a dock or wharf which is a part of a public port. However, a landing strip which, by reason of a formal or informal agreement or by reason of geographic location, will not be available for general public use does not satisfy the public use requirement. Sewage or solid waste disposal facilities and air or water pollution control facilities, described in sections 103(b)(4) (E) and (F) and paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section, will be treated in all events as serving a general public use although they may be part of a nonpublic facility such as a manufacturing facility used in the trade or business of a nonexempt user.

(3)Functionally related and subordinate. An exempt facility includes any land, building, or other property functionally related and subordinate to such facility. Property is not functionally related and subordinate to a facility if it is not of a character and size commensurate with the character and size of such facility. Since substantially all of the proceeds of a bond issue must be used for the exempt facility (or for any combination of exempt facilities, industrial parks, and facilities to be used by exempt persons), including property functionally related and subordinate thereto, an insubstantial amount of the proceeds of a bond issue may be used for facilities which are neither exempt facilities (or a combination of exempt facilities, industrial parks and facilities to be used by exempt persons) nor functionally related and subordinate to exempt facilities. Thus, for example, where substantially all of the proceeds of an urban redevelopment bond issue are to be used by a State urban redevelopment agency for residential real property for family units within the meaning of section 103(b)(4)(A) and paragraph (b) of this section, an insubstantial amount may be used for an industrial or commercial project or for any other purpose that is not functionally related and subordinate to the residential real property for family units.

(4)Ultimate use of proceeds. The question whether substantially all of the proceeds of an issue of obligations are to be used to provide one or more of the exempt facilities listed in subparagraphs (A) through (J) of section 103(b)(4) and in this section is to be resolved by reference to the ultimate use of such proceeds. For example, such proceeds will be treated as used to provide residential rental property whether the State or local governmental unit (i) constructs such property and leases or sells it to any person who is not an exempt person for use in such person's trade or business of leasing such property; (ii) lends the proceeds to any such person for such purpose; or (iii) lends the proceeds to banks or other financial institutions in order to increase the supply of funds for mortgage lending under conditions requiring such banks or other financial institutions to use such proceeds only for further lending for residential rental property.

(5)Limitation.

(i) A facility qualifies under this section only to the extent that there is a valid reimbursement allocation under § 1.150-2 with respect to expenditures that are incurred before the issue date of the bonds to provide the facility and that are to be paid with the proceeds of the issue. In addition, if the original use of the facility begins before the issue date of the bonds, the facility does not qualify under this section if any person that was a substantial user of the facility at any time during the 5-year period before the issue date or any related person to that user receives (directly or indirectly) 5 percent or more of the proceeds of the issue for the user's interest in the facility and is a substantial user of the facility at any time during the 5-year period after the issue date, unless -

(A) An official intent for the facility is adopted under § 1.150-2 within 60 days after the date on which acquisition, construction, or reconstruction of that facility commenced; and

(B) For an acquisition, no person that is a substantial user or related person after the acquisition date was also a substantial user more than 60 days before the date on which the official intent was adopted.

(ii) A facility, the original use of which commences (or the acquisition of which occurs) on or after the issue date of bonds to provide that facility, qualifies under this section only to the extent that an official intent for the facility is adopted under § 1.150-2 by the issuer of the bonds within 60 days after the commencement of the construction, reconstruction, or acquisition of that facility. Temporary construction or other financing of a facility prior to the issuance of the bonds to provide that facility will not cause that facility to be one that does not qualify under this paragraph (a)(5)(ii).

(iii) For purposes of paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section, substantial user has the meaning used in section 147(a)(1), related person has the meaning used in section 144(a)(3), and a user that is a governmental unit within the meaning of § 1.103-1 is disregarded.

(iv) Except to the extent provided in §§ 1.142-4(d), 1.148-11A(i), and 1.150-2(j), this paragraph (a)(5) applies to bonds issued after June 30, 1993, and sold before July 8, 1997. See § 1.142-4(d) for rules relating to bonds sold on or after July 8, 1997.

(6)Deep discount obligations.

(i) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section, the proceeds of any issue of obligations sold by the issuer after June 4, 1982, shall include any imputed proceeds of the issue. The imputed proceeds of an issue equal the sum of the amounts of imputed proceeds for each annual period (hereinafter, bond year) over the term of the issue.

(ii) The amount of imputed proceeds for a bond year equals -

(a) The sum of the amounts of interest that will accrue with respect to each obligation that is part of the issue in such year, reduced (but not below zero) by

(b) The sum of the amounts of principal and interest that become payable with respect to the issue in that bond year.

(iii) Interest will be deemed to accrue with respect to an obligation on an amount that, as of the commencement of that year, is equal to the sum of -

(a) The purchase price (as defined in § 1.103-13(d)(2)) allocable to the obligation and

(b) The aggregate of the amounts of interest accruing in each prior bond year with respect to the obligation, reduced by all amounts that became payable with respect to the obligation in prior bond years. Any amount that becomes payable during the 30 day period following any bond year will be deemed to have become payable in such bond year. Thus, to the extent interest on an obligation accruing during a bond year does not become payable within 30 days from the end of such year, it is treated as reinvested under the same terms as the obligation. For purposes of this subparagraph (6), the rate at which such interest accrues is equal to the yield of the obligation. Yield is computed in the same manner as set forth in § 1.103-13(c)(1)(ii) for computing yield on governmental obligations (assuming annual compounding of interest). Such computations shall be made without regard to optional call dates.

(7)Deep discount obligations; special rules.

(i) There are no imputed proceeds with respect to an obligation if -

(a) The obligation does not have a stated interest rate (determinable at the date of issue) that increases over the term of the obligation, and

(b) The purchase price of the obligation is at least 95 percent of its face amount.

At the option of the issuer, any obligation described in the preceding sentence may be disregarded in computing the imputed proceeds of the issue. Payments with respect to such obligations are also disregarded in determining the amount payable with respect to the issue in that bond year. If each obligation which is part of an issue is described in this subdivision (i), there are no imputed proceeds with respect to the issue.

(ii) If the actual rate at which interest is to accrue over the term of an obligation is indeterminable at the date of issue then, in computing the yield of the obligation for purposes of this paragraph, such rate shall be determined as if the conditions as of the date of issue will not change over the term of the obligation. Thus, for example, if interest on an obligation is to be paid semiannually at a rate equal to 80 percent of the yield on six month Treasury bills at the most recent public sale immediately prior to the corresponding interest payment date and the yield on six month Treasury bills sold immediately preceding the issue date is 10 percent, then the six month Treasury bill rate is deemed to be a constant 10 percent for purposes of determining the amount of imputed proceeds of the issue. Therefore, all interest payments on the obligation would be deemed to be made at a rate of 8 percent.

(8)Examples. The principles of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
State A issues its bonds and plans to use substantially all of the proceeds from such bond issue to purchase land and build a facility which will be used for one of the purposes described in section 103(b)(4) and this section. The arrangement provides that (1) A will issue bonds with a face amount of $21 million and with all accrued interest payable annually, the proceeds of which (after deducting bond election costs, costs of publishing notices, attorneys' fees, printing costs, trustees' fees for fiscal agents, and similar expenses) will be $20 million; (2) $18 million of the proceeds of the bond issue will be used to purchase land and to construct such facility; (3) $2 million of the proceeds will be used for an unrelated facility which will be used by X, a nonexempt person, in a separate trade or business and for a purpose not described in section 103(b) (4) or (5); (4) X will rent both facilities for 20 years at an annual rental equal to the amount necessary to amortize the principal and pay the interest annually on the outstanding bonds; and (5) such payments by X and the facilities will be the security for the bonds. On these facts, substantially all of the proceeds will be used in connection with an exempt facility described in section 103(b)(4) and this section. Accordingly, section 103(b)(1) does not apply to the bonds unless such bonds are thereafter held by a person who is a substantial user of the facilities or a related person within the meaning of section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11.
Example 2.
On July 1, 1982, State B sells an issue of its obligations to an underwriter in anticipation of a public offering. The initial offering price is $18,627,639.69 of which $17,000,000 is to be used to construct a pollution control facility described in section 103(b)(4)(F). X Corporation, a nonexempt person, is to use the facility and, in exchange, is obligated to pay an amount equal to the face amount of the issue when it becomes due. The obligations are issued on August 1, 1982. The face amount of the issue is $30,000,000. The issue is a term issue with all obligations maturing on August 1, 1987. The issue bears no stated rate of interest; there are no interest coupons on the obligations. The bonds are industrial development bonds with a yield (based upon annual compounding) of ten percent. Based on these facts, the amount of imputed proceeds with respect to the issue is determined as follows:
Date Purchase price plus accumulated interest Interest Imputed proceeds
Aug. 1, 1983 $18,627,639.69 $1,862,763.97 $1,862,763.97
Aug. 1, 1984 20,490,403.68 2,049,040.37 2,049,040.37
Aug. 1, 1985 22,539,444.03 2,253,944.40 2,253,944.40
Aug. 1, 1986 24,793,388.43 2,479,338.84 2,479,338.84
Aug. 1, 1987 27,272,727.27 2,727,272.73 0
Total imputed proceeds 8,645,087.58
Therefore, proceeds of the issue equal $27,272,727.27 less issuance costs. Substantially all of the bond proceeds are not used to provide an exempt facility, and section 103(b)(1) applies to the issue.
Example 3.
The facts are the same as example (2) except that the issue has a face amount and purchase price of $18,500,000. The issue also provides for one payment in addition to the redemption payment, in the amount of $10,267,668 payable on or after August 1, 1986, one year before maturity. Section 103(b)(1) applies to the issue.
Example 4.
On July 1, 1982, City E sells an issue of industrial development bonds to provide for a convention facility, as described in section 103(b)(4)(C). Assume that the bonds are issued on that date as well. The issue has a face amount of $15,240,000 and a purchase price of $11,929,382.53. The estimated cost of the facility is $11,000,000. The bonds are “zero coupon” bonds, i.e., there are no interest coupons. Each series is initially offered for less than 95 percent of its face amount. The issue matures serially over a five year period, with each series being allocated a part of the purchase price of the issue. The following chart indicates the purchase price and yield for each series and debt service for the issue:

[Amount allocable to each series]

Date 1983 series at 8 percent 1984 series at 8.5 percent 1985 series at 8.75 percent 1986 series at 9.25 percent 1987 series at 9.75 percent Interest accruing on issue* Amount due Imputed proceeds
July 1, 1983 2,939,814.82 2,697,020.54 2,468,629.60 2,228.732.51 1,595,185.06 0
235,185.18 229,246.75 216,005.09 206,157.76 155,530.54 1,042,125.32 3,175,000
July 1, 1984 2,926,267.29 2,684,634.69 2,434,890.27 1,750,715.60 0
248,732.71 234,905.54 225,227.35 170,694.77 879,560.37 3,175,000
July 1, 1985 2,919,540.23 2,660,117.62 1,921,410.37 0
255,459.77 246,060.88 187,337.51 688,858.16 3,175,000
July 1, 1986 2,906,178.50 2,108,747.88 0
268,821.50 205,602.92 474,424.42 3,175,000
July 1, 1987 2,314,350.80 0
225,649.20 225,649.20 2,540,000
Total 15,240,000

*This column (interest accruing on the issue) contains the sums of the interest that accrues on each series in each bond year. The amount of interest accruing on the issue is computed by adding the amount of interest accruing on each series outstanding for that bond year (the bottom number in the line for each bond year). The amount of interest annually accruing on each series also is added to the purchase price of the series to determine the amount of interest accruing in subsequent years, inasmuch as there are no payments with respect to the outstanding series prior to maturity. Thus, the “principal” amount, of the top of the two numbers given in such line for each bond year, is the purchase price allocable to that series plus the amount of interest that accrued on that series in prior years.

There are no imputed proceeds because the amount payable on the issue in each bond year exceeds the total amount of interest accruing on the issue during such bond year. Section 103(b)(1) does not apply to the bonds unless such bonds are held by a person who is a substantial user of the facility or a related person within the meaning of section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11.
Example 5.
On July 1, 1982, City C issues industrial development bonds in the face amount of $30 million to construct a sports facility described in section 103(b)(4)(B) to be leased to D, a nonexempt person, with payments on the bonds secured by the lease. C receives $30 million in exchange for the bonds which will be used to provide the facility. The bonds mature on July 1, 2002. Each bond provides for an annual interest payment equal to ten percent of the face amount of the bond, with the last payment thereon (on July 1, 2002) including a return of the principal amount of the bond. The proceeds of the issue are $30 million. Section 103(b)(1) does not apply to the bonds unless such bonds are held by a person who is a substantial user of the facility or a related person within the meaning of section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11.
Example 6.
The facts are the same as example (5) except that each bond provides for an annual interest payment equal to nine percent of its face amount and is sold with the option to tender the bond to D for purchase at par 5 years after the sale date of July 1, 1982 (i.e., the bonds are sold with a “put” option). Such bonds also provide a put option annually thereafter. There are no imputed proceeds (without regard to § 1.103-8(a)(7)), and the result is the same as example (5).
Example 7.
On July 1, 1982, City F sells an issue of industrial development bonds in the face amount of $20 million to acquire a parking facility as described in section 103(b)(4)(D). The estimated cost of the facility is $17,800,000. The issue is issued on the same date and will mature serially over the following ten years. Each bond that is part of the issue bears annual interest coupons, each of which is in an amount equal to ten percent of the face amount of the bond. Each maturity has a face amount of $2,000,000. The issue is initially offered to the public for $19,700,000, allocable to each maturity as follows:
Maturity Purchase price
July 1, 1983 $1,990,000
July 1, 1984 $1,980,000
July 1, 1985 $1,980,000
July 1, 1986 $1,970,000
July 1, 1987 $1,970,000
July 1, 1988 $1,970,000
July 1, 1989 $1,960,000
July 1, 1990 $1,960,000
July 1, 1991 $1,960,000
July 1, 1992 $1,960,000
Based on the foregoing issue proceeds equal $19,700,000 less issuance costs. There are no imputed proceeds with respect to this issue inasmuch as each bond pays interest at a constant rate in each bond year and the purchase price of each bond is at least 95 percent of its face amount. Substantially all of the proceeds are to be used to provide the exempt facility. Accordingly, section 103(b)(1) does not apply to the bonds unless such bonds are thereafter held by a person who is a substantial user of the facility or a related person within the meaning of section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11.

(b)Residential rental property -

(1)General rule for obligations issued after April 24, 1979. Section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to any obligation which is issued after April 24, 1979, and is part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide a residential rental project in which 20 percent or more of the units are to be occupied by individuals or families of low or moderate income (as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(v) of this section). In the case of a targeted area project, the minimum percentage of units which are to be occupied by individuals of low or moderate income is 15 percent. See generally § 1.103-7 for rules relating to refunding issues.

(2)Registration requirement. Any obligation (including any refunding obligation) issued after December 31, 1981, to provide a residential rental project must be issued as part of an issue, each obligation of which is in registered form (as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(ii) of this section).

(3)Transitional rule. For purposes of this section, obligations issued after April 24, 1979, may be treated as issued before April 25, 1979, if the transitional requirements of section 1104 of the Mortgage Subsidy Bond Tax Act of 1980 ( 94 Stat. 2670) are satisfied.

(4)Residential rental project.

(i)In general. A residential rental project is a building or structure, together with any functionally related and subordinate facilities, containing one or more similarly constructed units -

(a) Which are used on other than a transient basis, and

(b) Which satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section and are available to members of the general public in accordance with the requirement of paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

Substantially all of each project must contain such units and functionally related and subordinate facilities. Hotels, motels, dormitories, fraternity and sorority houses, rooming houses, hospitals, nursing homes, sanitariums, rest homes, and trailer parks and courts for use on a transient basis are not residential rental projects.

(ii)Multiple buildings.

(a) Proximate buildings or structures (hereinafter “ buildings”) which have similarly constructed units are treated as part of the same project if they are owned for Federal tax purposes by the same person and if the buildings are financed pursuant to a common plan.

(b) Buildings are proximate if they are located on a single tract of land. The term “tract” means any parcel or parcels of land which are contiguous except for the interposition of a road, street, stream or similar property. Otherwise, parcels are contiguous if their boundaries meet at one or more points.

(c) A common plan of financing exists if, for example, all such buildings are provided by the same issue or several issues subject to a common indenture.

(iii)Functionally related and subordinate facilities. Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, facilities that are functionally related and subordinate to residential rental projects include facilities for use by the tenants, for example, swimming pools, other recreational facilities, parking areas, and other facilities which are reasonably required for the project, for example, heating and cooling equipment, trash disposal equipment or units for resident managers or maintenance personnel.

(iv)Owner-occupied residences. For purposes of section 103 (b)(4)(A) and this paragraph (b), the term “residential rental project” does not include any building or structure which contains fewer than five units, one unit of which is occupied by an owner of the units.

(5)Requirement must be continuously satisfied -

(i)Rental requirement. Once available for occupancy, each unit (as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(i) of this section) in a residential rental project must be rented or available for rental on a continuous basis during the longer of -

(a) The remaining term of the obligation, or

(b) The qualified project period (as defined in paragraph (b)(7) of this section).

(ii)Low or moderate income occupancy requirement. Individuals or families of low or moderate income must occupy that percentage of completed units in such project applicable to the project under paragraph (b)(1) of this section continuously during the qualified project period. For this purpose, a unit occupied by an individual or family who at the commencement of the occupancy is of low or moderate income is treated as occupied by such an individual or family during their tenancy in such unit, even though they subsequently cease to be of low or moderate income. Moreover, such unit is treated as occupied by an individual or family of low or moderate income until reoccupied, other than for a temporary period, at which time the character of the unit shall be redetermined. In no event shall such temporary period exceed 31 days.

(6)Effect of post-issuance noncompliance -

(i)In general. Unless corrected within a reasonable period, noncompliance with the requirements of this paragraph (b) shall cause the project to be treated as other than a project described in section 103 (b)(4)(A) and this paragraph (b) as of the date of issue. After an issue to provide such project ceases to qualify, subsequent conformity with the requirements will not alter the taxable status of such issue.

(ii)Correction of noncompliance. If the issuer corrects any noncompliance arising from events occurring after the issuance of the obligation within a reasonable period, such noncompliance (e.g., an unauthorized sublease) shall not cause the project to be a project not described in this paragraph (b). A reasonable period is at least 60 days after such error is first discovered or would have been discovered by the exercise of reasonable diligence.

(iii)Involuntary loss.

(a) The requirements of paragraph (b) shall cease to apply to a project in the event of involuntary noncompliance caused by fire, seizure, requisition, foreclosure, transfer of title by deed in lieu of foreclosure, change in a Federal law or an action of a Federal agency after the date of issue which prevents an issuer from enforcing the requirements of this paragraph, or condemnation or similar event but only if, within a reasonable period, either the obligation used to provide such project is retired or amounts received as a consequence of such event are used to provide a project which meets the requirement of section 103 (b)(4)(A) and this paragraph (b).

(b) The provisions of paragraph (b)(6)(iii)(a) of this section shall cease to apply to a project subject to foreclosure, transfer of title by deed in lieu of foreclosure or similar event if, at anytime during that part of the qualified project period subsequent to such event, the obligor on the acquired purpose obligation (as defined in § 1.103-13(b)(4)(iv)(a)) or a related person (as defined in § 1.103-10(e)) obtains an ownership interest in such project for tax purposes.

(7)Qualified project period. The term “qualified project period” means -

(i) For obligations issued after April 24, 1979, and prior to September 4, 1982, a period of 20 years commencing on the later of the date that the project becomes available for occupancy or the date of issue of the obligations. The requirement of paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section shall be deemed met if the owner of the project contracts with a Federal or state agency to maintain at least 20 percent (or 15 percent in the case of targeted areas) of the units for low or moderate income individuals or families (as defined in paragraph (b)(8)(v) of this section) for 20 years in consideration for rent subsidies for such individuals or families for such period.

(ii) For obligations issued after September 3, 1982, a period beginning on the later of the first day on which at least 10 percent of the units in the project are first occupied or the date of issue of an obligation described in section 103(b)(4)(A) and this paragraph and ending on the later of the date -

(a) Which is 10 years after the date on which at least 50 percent of the units in the project are first occupied,

(b) Which is a qualified number of days after the date on which any of the units in the project is first occupied, or

(c) On which any assistance provided with respect to the project under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 terminates.

For purposes of this paragraph (b)(7)(ii), the term “qualified number of days” means 50 percent of the total number of days comprising the term of the obligation with the longest maturity in the issue used to provide the project. In the case of a refunding of such an issue, the longest maturity is equal to the sum of the period the prior issue was outstanding and the longest term of any refunding obligations.

(8)Other definitions. For purposes of this paragraph -

(i)Unit. The term “unit” means any accommodation containing separate and complete facilities for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation. Such accommodations may be served by centrally located equipment, such as air conditioning or heating. Thus, for example, an apartment containing a living area, a sleeping area, bathing and sanitation facilities, and cooking facilities equipped with a cooking range, refrigerator, and sink, all of which are separate and distinct from other apartments, would constitute a unit.

(ii)In registered form. The term “in registered form” has the same meaning as in section 6049. With respect to obligations issued after December 31, 1982, such term shall have the same meaning as prescribed in section 103(j) (including the regulations thereunder).

(iii)Targeted area project. The term “targeted area project” means a project located in a qualified census tract (as defined in § 6a.103A-2(b)(4)) or an area of chronic economic distress (as defined in § 6a.103A-2(b)(5)).

(iv)Building or structure. The term “building or structure” generally means a discrete edifice or other man-made construction consisting of an independent foundation, outer walls, and roof. A single unit which is not an entire building but is merely a part of a building is not a building or structure within the meaning of this section. As such, while single townhouses are not buildings if their foundation, outer walls, and roof are not independent, detached houses and rowhouses are buildings.

(v)Low or moderate income. Individuals and families of low or moderate income shall be determined in a manner consistent with determinations of lower income families under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, except that the percentage of median gross income which qualifies as low or moderate income shall be 80 percent. Therefore, occupants of a unit are considered individuals or families of low or moderate income only if their adjusted income (computed in the manner prescribed with § 1.167(k)-3(b)(3)) does not exceed 80 percent of the median gross income for the area. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the occupants of a unit shall not be considered to be of low or moderate income if all the occupants are students (as defined in section 151(e)(4)), no one of whom is entitled to file a joint return under section 6013. The method of determining low or moderate income in effect on the date of issue will be determinative for such issue, even if such method is subsequently changed. In the event programs under section 8(f) of the Housing Act of 1937, as amended, are terminated prior to the date of issue, the applicable method shall be that in effect immediately prior to the date of such termination.

(9)Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (b).

Example 1.
In August 1982, City X issues $10 million of registered bonds with a term of 20 years to be used to finance the construction of an apartment building to be available to members of the general public. X loans the proceeds of the bonds to Corporation M, the tax owner of the project. The loan is secured by a promissory note from M and a mortgage on the project. The mortgage requires annual payments sufficient to amortize the principal and interest on the bonds. Corporation M maintains 20 percent of the units in the project for low or moderate income individuals and meets all of the requirements of this section until 2002, at which time M converts the project to offices. The bonds are industrial development bonds, but because the proceeds are used for construction of residential rental property, which is an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(A) and paragraph (b) of this section, section 103(b)(1) does not apply.
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in example (1), except that the building is constructed adjacent to a factory, and the factory employees are to be given preference in selecting tenants. The bonds are industrial development bonds and the facility is not an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(A) and paragraph (b) of this section because it is not a facility constructed for use by the general public.
Example 3.
The facts are the same as in example (1), except that the proceeds of the obligation are provided to N, a cooperative housing corporation, to finance the construction of a cooperative housing project. N sells stock in such cooperative to shareholders, some of whom occupy the units in the cooperative and some of whom rent the units to other persons. Such project is not a residential rental project within the meaning of section 103(b)(4)(A) and § 1.103-8(b) because less than all of the units in the building are used for rental. Further, the bonds are mortgage subsidy bonds under section 103A because more than a significant portion of the proceeds are used to provide financing for residences, some of which are owner-occupied and some of which are used in the trade or business of rental.
Example 4.
On February 1, 1984, County Z issues registered obligations with a term of 3 years and loans the proceeds to Corporation V to construct a garden apartment project for tenants who are 65 years or older. The mortgage on the project secures the loan. At the end of 3 years, V obtains permanent financing for the project from a commercial lender. The project is not a targeted area project. V has not contracted with any Federal or State agency to provide rental assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937. As a condition for providing financing for construction, Z requires that the deed to the project contain a covenant that requires the project be used for elderly tenants and restricts occupancy of 20 percent of the units in the project to individuals or families of low or moderate income. Further, the deed provides that “Such covenant shall run with and bind the land, from the date that ten percent of the units in the project are first occupied until ten years after the date that at least half the units are first occupied. The right to enforce these restrictions is vested in County Z.” In 1990, however, less than 20 percent of the units are occupied by families or individuals of low or moderate incomes, and three months after learning of this condition County Z had not commenced enforcement of the covenant. Although on the date of issue the proceeds of the obligation were used to provide a residential rental project, the obligation will not be treated as providing a residential rental project within the meaning of section 103(b)(4)(A) as of February 1, 1984, because the project did not meet the requirements of this paragraph for at least 10 years after at least 50 percent of the units are first occupied.
Example 5.
On January 15, 1983, State X issues registered obligations with a term of 15 years, the proceeds of which are loaned to Corporation P to construct an apartment building. The project will be a “targeted area project”, within the meaning of § 1.103-8(b)(8)(iii). Corporation P intends to rent all the units to individuals for their residences, maintaining 15 percent of the units in the project for individuals having low or moderate incomes, for 15 years. In 1988, however, Corporation P converts 80 percent of the units to condominiums. Corporation P repays the loan to State X which, in turn, redeems the obligations. The obligations are not used to provide a residential rental project within the meaning of section 103(b)(4)(A), and all the interest paid or to be paid on such obligations will be includable in gross income.
Example 6.
On January 15, 1984, State Z issues registered obligations with a term of 15 years the proceeds of which will be used to acquire and renovate a residential apartment building. Z sells the project to Corporation U and receives a 30-year mortgage. On June 1, 1985, the first occupants of the project commence their tenancies. At least 50 percent of the units in the project are occupied on July 1, 1985. On January 15, 1988, Z issues 35-year refunding bonds the proceeds of which are used to retire the obligations issued in 1984. The prior issue will be discharged by March 15, 1988. In order to meet the requirement of § 1.103-8(b)(5)(ii), at least 20 percent of such units must be occupied by individuals of low or moderate income until January 1, 2005.
Example 7.
The facts are the same as in example (6) except that in 1987, the apartment building is substantially destroyed by fire. The building was insured at its fair market value. U does not intend to reconstruct the building but uses a portion of the insurance proceeds to repay the unpaid balance of the mortgage. Z uses this amount to redeem the outstanding bonds at the first available call date. Since the project was substantially destroyed by fire and the outstanding bonds are retired at the first available call date, the requirements of section 103(b)(4)(A) and this paragraph (b) are satisfied with respect to the obligations.
Example 8.
The facts are the same as in example (6) except that in 1987 U defaults on the mortgage, and Z obtains title to the project without instituting foreclosure proceedings. Z sells the project to S and uses the proceeds to retire the outstanding bonds. Since S did not obtain the project with obligations described in section 103(b)(4), S is not required to meet the requirements of section 103(b)(4)(A) and this paragraph. Further, the 1984 obligations are obligations described in section 103(b)(4)(A).
Example 9.
In September 1983, State W issues $10 million of registered bonds with a term of 3 years, the proceeds of which are to be loaned to Corporation V to finance the construction of an apartment building in a rural community. At the end of 3 years, V obtains permanent financing from Federal Agency T. Agency T will not allow the deed to contain any restrictive covenant relating to the use of the project. Under Federal law, however, T requires that V maintain all of the units in the project for rental to low-income farmworkers for the term of the mortgage, which is 20 years. Further, the mortgage between T and V provides that if T determines that low-income housing is no longer required in the community in which the project is constructed then the repayment of the mortgage may be accelerated. T determines as of the date of issue that low-income housing will be needed in the community for at least 20 years. In 1987, the project fails to meet the requirements of section 1.103-8(b)(5)(ii), relating to occupancy by individuals or families of low or moderate income. Further, T does not require V to correct the failure. Based on the foregoing, the bonds issued by W will be treated as described in section 103(b)(4)(A).
Example 10.
The facts are the same as in example (9) except that in 1987, the Federal law is amended to provide that Agency T may not enforce its low-income occupancy requirement. The result is the same.
Example 11.
The facts are the same as in example (9) except that in 1987 Agency T determines that due to a change in circumstances in the community in which the project is located low-income rental housing is no longer required. As such, T requires V to repay the mortgage. Since the obligations have been repaid, W has no legal right to enforce the requirements of paragraph (b) with respect to the project. Subsequent nonconformity of the project with the requirements of § 1.103-8(b) under these circumstances will not cause the obligations issued by W to be industrial development bonds within the meaning of section 103(b)(1).

(10)Obligations issued before April 25, 1979 -

(i)General rules. Section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to obligations issued before April 25, 1979, which are part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide residential real property for family units. In order to qualify under this paragraph (b) as an exempt facility, the facility must satisfy the public use requirement of paragraph (a)(2) of this section by being available for use by members of the general public.

(ii)Family units defined. For purposes of this paragraph (b) the term “family unit” means a building or any portion thereof which contains complete living facilities which are to be used on other than a transient basis by one or more persons, and facilities functionally related and subordinate thereto. Thus, an apartment which is to be used on other than a transient basis as a residence by a single person or by a family and which contains complete facilities for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation, constitutes a family unit. Such a unit may be served by centrally located machinery and equipment as in a typical apartment building. To qualify as a family unit, the living facilities must be a separate, self-contained building or constitute one unit in a building substantially all of which consists of similar units, together with functionally related and subordinate facilities and areas. Hotels, motels, dormitories, fraternity and sorority houses, rooming houses, hospitals, sanitariums, rest homes, and trailer parks and courts for use on a transient basis do not constitute residential real property for family units.

(iii)Functionally related and subordinate facilities. Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, facilities which are functionally related and subordinate to residential real property actually used for family units include, for example, facilities for use by the occupants such as a swimming pool, a parking area, and recreational facilities.

(c)Sports facilities -

(1)General rule. Section 103(b)(4)(B) provides that section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to obligations issued by a State or local governmental unit which are part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide sports facilities. In order to qualify as an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(B) and this paragraph, the facility must satisfy the public use requirement of paragraph (a)(2) of this section by being available for use by members of the general public either as participants or as spectators.

(2)Sports facility defined.

(i) For purposes of section 103(b)(4)(B) and this paragraph, the term “sports facilities” includes both outdoor and indoor facilities. The facility may be designed either as a spectator or as a participation facility. For example, the term includes both indoor and outdoor stadiums for baseball, football, ice hockey, or other sports events, as well as facilities for the participation of the general public in sports activities, such as golf courses, ski slopes, swimming pools, tennis courts, and gymnasiums. The term does not include, however, facilities such as a golf course, swimming pool, or tennis court, which are constructed for use by members of a private club or as integral or subordinate parts of a hotel or motel, or the use of which will be restricted to a special class or group or to guests of a particular hotel or motel, since they are not facilities for the use of the general public as required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, facilities which are functionally related and subordinate to a sports facility, such as a parking lot, clubhouse, ski slope warming house, bath house, or ski tow, are considered to be part of a sports facility. A ski lodge which consists primarily of overnight accommodations is not functionally related and subordinate to a sports facility.

(d)Convention or trade show facilities -

(1)General rule. Section 103(b)(4)(C) provides that section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to obligations issued by a State or local governmental unit which are a part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide convention or trade show facilities. In order to qualify under section 103(b)(4)(C) and this paragraph as an exempt facility, the facility must satisfy the public use requirement of paragraph (a)(2) of this section by being available for an appropriate charge or rental, on a rate scale basis, for use by members of the general public. The public use requirement is not satisfied if the use of a convention or trade show facility is limited by long-term leases to a single user or group of users.

(2)Convention or trade show facilities defined. For purposes of section 103(b)(4)(C) and this paragraph, the term “convention or trade show facilities” means special-purpose buildings or structures, such as meeting halls and display areas, which are generally used to house a convention or trade show, including, under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, facilities functionally related and subordinate to such facilities such as parking lots or railroad sidings. A hotel or motel which is available to the general public, whether or not it is intended primarily to house persons attending or participating in a convention or trade show, is neither a convention or trade show facility nor functionally related and subordinate thereto.

(e)Certain transportation facilities -

(1)General rule. Section 103(b)(4)(D) provides that section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to obligations issued by a State or local governmental unit which are part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide (i) airports, docks, wharves, mass commuting facilities, or public parking facilities, or (ii) storage or training facilities directly related to any such facility. In order to qualify under section 103(b)(4)(D) and this paragraph as an exempt facility, the facility must satisfy the public use requirement of paragraph (a)(2) of this section by being available for use by members of the general public or for use by common carriers or charter carriers which serve members of the general public. A dock or wharf which is part of a public port (or a public port to be constructed in accordance with a plan which has been finally adopted on the date the obligations in question are issued) satisfies the public use test. A parking lot will be available for use by the general public unless more than an insubstantial portion thereof will be used exclusively by or for the benefit of a nonexempt person by reason of a formal or informal agreement or by reason of the remote geographic location of the facility.

(2)Definitions. For purposes of section 103(b)(4)(D) and this paragraph -

(i) With respect to bonds sold at or before 5:00 p.m. EST on December 29, 1978, an airport includes service accommodations for the public such as terminals, retail stores in such terminals, runways, hangars, loading facilities, repair shops, parking areas, and facilities which, under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, are functionally related and subordinate to the airport, such as facilities for the preparation of in-flight meals, restaurants, and accommodations for temporary or overnight use by passengers, and other facilities functionally related to the needs or convenience of passengers, shipping companies, and airlines. The term “airport” does not include a landing strip which, by reason of a formal or informal agreement, or by reason of geographic location, will not be available for general public use.

(ii) With respect to bonds sold after 5:00 p.m. EST on December 29, 1978 -

(a) An airport includes facilities which are directly related and essential to -

(1) Servicing aircraft or enabling aircraft to take off and land, or

(2) Transferring passengers or cargo to or from aircraft.

A facility does not satisfy either of the foregoing requirements if the facility need not be located at, or in close proximity to, the take-off and landing area in order to perform its function. Examples of facilities which satisfy those requirements are terminals, runways, hangars, loading facilities, repair shops, and land-based navigation aids such as radar installation.

(b) Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, an airport includes facilities other than those described in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(a) only if they are functionally related and subordinate to an airport (as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(a)). A facility (or part thereof) is not functionally related and subordinate to an airport if the facility (or part thereof) -

(1) Is not of a character and size commensurate with the character and size of the airport at or adjacent to which the facility is located, or

(2) Is not located at or adjacent to that airport.

A facility may satisfy the character and size requirement although it provides minimal benefits to other airports. For example, a facility for the preparation of in-flight meals which has capacity sufficient to prepare all in-flight meals for aircraft departing the airport where the facility is located qualifies although some meals may be consumed in transit between other airports. Other examples of facilities functionally related and subordinate to an airport are restaurants and retail stores located in terminals, ground transportation parking areas, and accommodations for temporary or overnight use by passengers. Unimproved land (including agricultural land) that is adjacent to an airport and that is impaired by a significant level of airport noise is functionally related and subordinate to the airport if after its acquisition that land will not be converted to a use that is incompatible with the level of airport noise. Adjacent land with existing improvements also may be functionally related and subordinate to an airport by reason of impairment by a significant level of airport noise but only if the use of such land before its acquisition is incompatible with the airport noise level, its use after acquisition is to be compatible, and the post-acquisition use will be essentially different from the pre-acquisition use. Notwithstanding the foregoing, an interest in such improved land acquired solely to mitigate damages attributable to airport noise is treated as functionally related and subordinate to the airport. Thus, for example, amounts allocated to imposing a servitude on improved land adjacent to an airport restricting its future use to uses compatible with airport noise are treated as amounts allocated to property functionally related and subordinate to an airport. For the purpose of determining whether land is impaired by a significant level of airport noise, any generally accepted noise estimating methodology may be used. For example, a Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF), a method for composite noise rating recommended by the Federal Aviation Administration to measure the impact of airport noise, may be used for this purpose. Compatibility may be determined by reference to regulations or general guidelines published by the Federal Aviation Administration under section 102 of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979 ( 49 U.S.C. 2102), or sections 11(3)(C) and 18(a)(4) of the Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970, as amended ( 49 U.S.C. 1711(3)(C) and 1718(a)(4)), concerning uses of land impaired by a significant level of airport noise, or, where available, by reference to the airport compatibility plan specifically addressing what constitutes a compatible use of that land.

(c) As an illustration of the rules of this paragraph (e)(2)(ii), an office building (or office space within a building) or a computer facility, either of which serves a system-wide or regional function of an airline, is not considered part of an airport since that facility is not described in either paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(a) or (b). However, a maintenance or overhaul facility which services aircraft is considered part of an airport under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(a) since that facility is directly related and essential to servicing aircraft and must be located where aircraft take off and land in order to perform its function.

(d) A hotel located at or adjacent to an airport satisfies the requirements of paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(b), that is, it is of a character and size commensurate with the character and size of the airport at or adjacent to which it is located, if the number of guest rooms in the hotel is reasonable for the size of the airport, taking into account the current and projected passenger usage of the terminal facility. If the hotel contains meeting rooms, the number and size of these rooms must be in reasonable proportion to the number of guest rooms in the hotel. Limited recreational facilities will not prevent the hotel from being of a character and size commensurate with the character and size of the airport.

(iii) A dock or wharf includes property which, under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, is functionally related and subordinate to a dock or wharf such as the structure alongside which a vessel docks, the equipment needed to receive and to discharge cargo and passengers from the vessel, such as cranes and conveyors, related storage, handling, office, and passenger areas, and similar facilities.

(iv) A mass commuting facility includes real property together with improvements and personal property used therein, such as machinery, equipment, and furniture, serving the general public commuting on a day-to-day basis by bus, subway, rail, ferry, or other conveyance which moves over prescribed routes. Such property also includes terminals and facilities which, under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, are functionally related and subordinate to the mass commuting facility, such as parking garages, car barns, and repair shops. Use of mass commuting facilities by noncommuters in common with commuters is immaterial. Thus, a terminal leased to a common carrier bus line which serves both commuters and long distance travelers would qualify as an exempt facility.

(3)Related storage or training facility. Section 103 (b)(4)(D) includes only those storage and training facilities which are both (i) directly related to a facility to which subparagraph (1)(i) or (ii) of this paragraph applies and (ii) physically located on or adjacent to such a facility. For example, a storage facility would include a grain elevator, silo, warehouse, or oil and gas storage tank used in connection with a dock or wharf and located on or adjacent to such dock or wharf. Similarly, a training facility would include a building located at or adjacent to an airport for the training of flight personnel or a paved area immediately adjoining a bus garage used to train bus drivers.

(4)Examples. The principles of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
B Airport Authority, a political subdivision of State A, owns and operates B Airport. B Airport Authority adds several runways. In view of the expanded area impaired by significant levels of airport noise, the Authority proposes to issue bonds the proceeds of which are to be used to acquire a hospital located adjacent to the airport. The noise level on the acquired property is 40 NEF. By reference to a noise exposure map setting forth noncompatible land uses and by reference to guidelines published by the Federal Aviation Administration, it is established that continued use of the land for a hospital is not compatible with the noise level. Prior to issuing the bonds, B contracts to lease the property to Corporation C to be used for warehouse space. Within 18 months of the bonds' issuance C will remodel the hospital (previously owned by D, who is unrelated to C) with its own funds and rent the facility as a warehouse. Use as a warehouse is determined to be compatible with the level of airport noise impairing the land. The improved land and prospective revenues from the facility's rental are security for the proposed issuance. Based on the foregoing, the acquired land satisfies the public use test. Furthermore, it is functionally related and subordinate to the airport because the improvements are to be used in an essentially different manner than prior to the land's acquisition. The bonds are industrial development bonds. However, section 103(b)(1) does not apply unless the provisions of section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11 apply.
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in Example (1) except that a substantial portion of the proceeds of the bond issue is allocated to the acquisition of a limited interest in an additional tract of land (also impaired by airport noise measured at 40 NEF) on which an office building stands. The limited interest holds B harmless for damages caused by airport noise and restricts uses of the tract after the building is retired to those compatible with noise levels caused by the airport. Based on the foregoing, such interest satisfies the public use test. Furthermore, the interest is functionally related and subordinate to the airport because it is solely to mitigate damage attributable to airport noise, in part by restricting future land uses. The bonds are industrial development bonds. However, section 103(b)(1) does not apply unless the provisions of section 103(b)(13) or § 1.103-11 apply.
Example 3.
On June 1, 1982, M Airport Authority, a political subdivision of State O, issues obligations, the proceeds of which are loaned to X Corporation, a nonexempt person. X uses the proceeds to construct a hotel adjacent to the main terminal building at M Airport. X will be unconditionally liable for repayment of the proposed obligations. The hotel will be used to provide temporary and overnight accommodations for airline passengers using M Airport. The number of rooms in the hotel is reasonable for an airport of M's size, taking into account the current and projected passenger usage of the terminal facility. In addition to guest rooms, the hotel will contain a restaurant, small retail stores (such as a gift shop and newstand), and limited recreation facilities (such as a swimming pool). The hotel will also contain several multipurpose rooms suitable for use as meeting rooms. The number and size of these rooms will be in reasonable proportion to the number and size of the guest rooms in the hotel. Use of the guest rooms, restaurant and stores, recreational facilities, and meeting rooms by air passengers arriving at or departing from M Airport will be incidental to the use of the hotel by air passengers for temporary and overnight accommodations. The hotel is of a character and size commensurate with the character and size of M Airport. Consequently, applying the provisions of § 1.103-8(e)(2), the hotel is functionally related and subordinate to M Airport. The obligations are industrial development bonds. Section 103(b)(1) does not apply to the obligations, however, unless the provisions of section 103(b)(10) and § 1.103-11 apply.
Example 4.
On June 1, 1982, N Airport Authority, a political subdivision of State P, issues obligations the proceeds of which are loaned to Y Corporation, a nonexempt person. Y uses the proceeds to construct a hotel adjacent to the main terminal building at N Airport. Y Corporation will be unconditionally liable for repayment of the proposed obligations. The hotel will contain extensive recreational facilities, including a large roof-top swimming pool, tennis courts, and a health club. In addition, facilities for conferences consisting of a ballroom-sized meeting room capable of being partitioned by movable panels and several smaller meeting rooms will be constructed. The number of rooms in the hotel will substantially exceed the number which is reasonably based on the current and projected passenger usage of the terminal facility. Because of the presence of extensive recreational and conference facilities, as well as the presence of on excessive number of rooms at the hotel, the hotel fails to be of a character and size commensurate with the character and size of N Airport. The result would be the same if the hotel did not have extensive recreational facilities. Consequently, the hotel is not functionally related and subordinate to N Airport under § 1.103-8(e)(2). The obligations are industrial development bonds and interest thereon is not excluded from gross income by reason of subsection (a)(1) or (b)(4) of section 103.

(f)Certain public utility facilities -

(1)General rule.

(i) Section 103(b)(4)(E) provides that section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to obligations issued by a State or local governmental unit which are part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide sewage disposal facilities, solid waste disposal facilities, or facilities for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas. In order to qualify under section 103(b)(4)(E) as an exempt facility, the facility must satisfy the public use requirement of paragraph (a)(2) of this section. A public utility facility described in this subparagraph (with the exception of sewage and solid waste disposal facilities which will be treated in all events as serving the general public) will satisfy the public use requirement only if such facility, or the output thereof, is available for use by members of the general public.

(ii) A facility for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas is, for purposes of applying the public use test in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, available for use by members of the general public if (a) the owner or operator of the facility is obligated, by a legislative enactment, local ordinance, regulation, or the equivalent thereof, to furnish electric energy or gas to all persons who desire such services and who are within the service area of the owner or operator of such facility, and (b) it is reasonably expected that such facility will serve or be available to a large segment of the general public in such service area. For rules with respect to facilities for the furnishing of water, see paragraph (h) of this section.

(2)Definitions. For purposes of section 103(b)(4)(E) and this paragraph -

(i) The term “sewage disposal facilities” means any property used for the collection, storage, treatment, utilization, processing, or final disposal of sewage.

(ii) The term “facilities for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas” means property which -

(a) Is either property of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation provided in section 167 or land,

(b) Is used to produce, collect, generate, transmit, store, distribute, or convey electric energy or gas.

(c) Is used in the trade or business of furnishing electric energy or gas, and

(d) Is a part of a system providing service to the general populace of one or more communities or municipalities, but in no event more than 2 contiguous counties (or a political equivalent) whether or not such counties are located in one State.

For purposes of this subdivision, a city which is not within, or does not consist of, one or more counties (or a political equivalent) shall be treated as a county (or a political equivalent). A facility for the generation of electric energy otherwise qualifying under this subdivision will not be disqualified because it is connected to a system for interconnection with other public utility systems for the emergency transfer of electric energy. The facilities need not be located in the area served by them. Also, the term “facilities for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas” does not include coal, oil, gas, nuclear cores, or other materials performing a similar function.

(g)Air or water pollution control facilities -

(1)General rule. Section 103(b)(4)(F) provides that section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to obligations issued by a State or local governmental unit which are part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide air or water pollution control facilities. Such facilities are in all events treated as serving the general public and, thus, satisfy the public use requirement of paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2)Definitions.

(i) For purposes of section 103(b)(4)(F) and this paragraph, property is a pollution control facility to the extent that the test of either subdivision (iii) or (iv) of this subparagraph is satisfied, but only if -

(a) It is property which is described in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph and is either of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation provided in section 167 or land, and

(b) Either (1) a Federal, State, or local agency exercising jurisdiction has certified that the facility, as designed, is in furtherance of the purpose of abating or controlling atmospheric pollutants or contaminants, or water pollution, as the case may be, or (2) the facility is designed to meet or exceed applicable Federal, State, and local requirements for the control of atmospheric pollutants or contaminants, or water pollution, as the case may be, in effect at the time the obligations, the proceeds of which are to be used to provide such facilities, are issued.

(ii) Property is described in this subdivision if it is property to be used, in whole or in part, to abate or control water or atmospheric pollution or contamination by removing, altering, disposing, or storing pollutants, contaminants, wastes, or heat. In the case of property to be used to control water pollution, such property includes the necessary intercepting sewers, pumping, power, and other equipment, and their appurtenances. For rules relating to facilities which remove pollutants from fuel or certain other items, see subdivision (vi) of this subparagraph.

(iii) In the case of an expenditure for property which is designed for no significant purpose other than the control of pollution, the total expenditure for such property satisfies the test of this subdivision. Thus, where property which is to serve no function other than the control of pollution is to be added to an existing manufacturing or production facility, the total expenditure for such property satisfies the test of this subdivision. Also, if an expenditure for property would not be made but for the purpose of controlling pollution, and if the expenditure has no significant purpose other than the purpose of pollution control, the total expenditure for such property satisfies the test of this subdivision even though such property serves one or more functions in addition to its function as a pollution control facility.

(iv) In the case of property to be placed in service for the purpose of controlling pollution and for a significant purpose other than controlling pollution, only the incremental cost of such facility satisfies the test of this subdivision. The “incremental cost” of property is the excess of its total cost over that portion of its cost expended for a purpose other than the control of pollution.

(v) An expenditure has a significant purpose other than the control of pollution if it results in an increase in production or capacity, or in a material extension of the useful life of a manufacturing or production facility or a part thereof.

(h)Water facilities -

(1)General rule. Section 103(b)(4)(G) provides that section 103(b)(1) shall not apply to obligations issued by a State or local governmental unit which are part of an issue substantially all of the proceeds of which are to be used to provide facilities for the furnishing of water which are available, on reasonable demand, to members of the general public. A water facility will satisfy the public use test of paragraph (a)(2) of this section if it will provide water, on reasonable demand, to any member of the general public within the service area of the water system of which such facility is a part.

(2)Definition. For purposes of section 103(b)(4)(G) and this paragraph, the “water facilities” include artesian wells, reservoirs, dams, related equipment and pipelines, and other facilities used to furnish water for domestic, industrial, irrigation, or other purposes.

(3)Effective date. The provisions of this paragraph apply in the case of facilities provided by obligations issued after January 1, 1969. In the case of facilities provided by obligations issued on or before such date to which section 103(b) is applicable, the provisions of paragraph (f) of this section shall apply. For such purposes, wherever the term “local furnishing of electric energy or gas” appears in paragraph (f) of this section, such term shall be deemed to read “local furnishing of electric energy, gas, or water.”

(i)Examples. The application of section 103(b)(4) and this section are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
City B plans to issue $10 million of bonds to be used to construct a sports stadium. The revenues from the facility and the facility itself will be the security for the bonds. A professional football team rents the facility on a long-term leasee for part of the year and a professional baseball team rents the sports facility for the remainder of the year. Tickets are sold by the teams to the general public. The bonds are industrial development bonds, but since the proceeds are used for a spectator facility for general public use, which is an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(B) and paragraph (c) of this section, section 103(b)(1) does not apply unless the provisions of section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11 apply.
Example 2.
City C plans to issue $10 million of bonds to be used to construct a convention hall which it will own. City C plans to lease the convention hall for 25 years to corporation Y, a nonexempt person, which will operate and maintain it. The terms of the lease obligate Y to make the convention hall generally available for civic, business, and recreational shows, meetings, performances, and similar activities serving or benefiting the community. Lease payments from Y and the facility will be security for the bonds. The bonds are industrial development bonds, but since the proceeds are to be used for a facility for general public use, which is an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(C) and paragraph (d) of this section, section 103(b)(1) does not apply unless the provisions of section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11 apply.
Example 3.
City D issues $100 million of its bonds and uses the proceeds to finance construction of an airport for the use of the general public. D will own and operate the airport. A major portion of the rentable space in the terminal building is leased on a long-term basis to common carrier and non-scheduled airlines. The bonds will be secured by the airport landing and runway charges and by payments with respect to such long-term leases from such commercial airlines. Such commercial airline payments are expected to constitute more than 50 percent of the total revenues from the airport. The bonds are industrial development bonds, but since the proceeds are to be used for an airport for use by the general public and by carriers serving the general public, which is an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(D) and paragraph (e) of this section, section 103(b)(1) does not apply unless the provisions of section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11 apply. The result would be the same if D hired an airport management firm to operate the airport.
Example 4.
City E issues $6 million of its bonds and uses the proceeds to finance construction of a landing strip for airplanes to be located adjacent to the factories of corporations Y and Z. The landing strip will be used in the trades or businesses of Y and Z and by any member of the general public wishing to use it. However, due to its location, general public use will be negligible. The lease payments by Y and Z for the use of the facility are the security for the bonds. The bonds are industrial development bonds and the facility is not an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(D) and paragraph (c) of this section because it is not a facility constructed for general public use.
Example 5.
State F and corporation Z enter into an arrangement which provides that F will issue $10 million of its bonds and use the proceeds to construct a facility for Z the only purpose of which is to control air and water pollution at Z's plant. The principal and interest on the bonds will be secured by the charges which F will impose on Z. The bonds are industrial development bonds, but since the proceeds are to be used for air and water pollution facilities designed to abate pollution by private persons, such facilities are for the benefit of the general public and are exempt facilities under section 103(b)(4)(F) and paragraph (g) of this section. Accordingly, section 103(b)(1) does not apply unless the provisions of section 103(b)(13) and § 1.103-11 apply.
Example 6.
City G issues $20 million of its bonds and will use $6 million to finance residential rental property which qualifies as an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(A) and paragraph (b) of this section, $9 million to finance construction of a stadium which qualifies as an exempt facility under section 103(b)(4)(B) and paragraph (c) of this section, and $5 million for convention facilities which qualify as exempt facilities under section 103(b)(4)(C) and paragraph (d) of this section. The facilities will be used in the trades or businesses of nonexempt persons and rental payments with respect to such facilities and the facilities themselves will be the security for the bonds. The bonds are industrial development bonds, but since all the proceeds are to be used for facilities which are exempt facilities under section 103(b)(4), section 103(b)(1) does not apply unless the provisions of section 103(b)(10) and § 1.103-11 apply. The result would be the same, if; instead of using $9 million to finance construction of a stadium, the $9 million were used to finance construction of a capitol building. [Reg. § 1.103-8].
[T.D. 7199, 37 FR 15490, Aug. 3, 1972]
Editorial Note:
For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.103-8, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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