26 CFR § 1.1060-1 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions.

§ 1.1060-1 Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions.

(a) Scope -

(1) In general. This section prescribes rules relating to the requirements of section 1060, which, in the case of an applicable asset acquisition, requires the transferor (the seller) and the transferee (the purchaser) each to allocate the consideration paid or received in the transaction among the assets transferred in the same manner as amounts are allocated under section 338(b)(5) (relating to the allocation of adjusted grossed-up basis among the assets of the target corporation when a section 338 election is made). In the case of an applicable asset acquisition described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, sellers and purchasers must allocate the consideration under the residual method as described in §§ 1.338-6 and 1.338-7 in order to determine, respectively, the amount realized from, and the basis in, each of the transferred assets. For rules relating to distributions of partnership property or transfers of partnership interests which are subject to section 1060(d), see § 1.755-2T.

(2) Effective dates -

(i) In general. The provisions of this section apply to any asset acquisition occurring after March 15, 2001. However, paragraphs (b)(9) and (c)(5) of this section apply only to applicable asset acquisitions occurring on or after April 10, 2006. A purchaser or a seller may make an irrevocable election to apply the rules in §§ 1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§ 1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1, 846 and 1060) to an applicable asset acquisition occurring before April 10, 2006. Paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section describes the time and manner of the election for the purchaser and paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section prescribes the time and manner of the election for the seller. The seller may make the election to apply the regulations retroactively without regard to whether the purchaser also makes the election. For rules applicable to asset acquisitions on or before March 15, 2001, see § 1.1060-1T in effect before March 16, 2001 (see 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2000).

(ii) Time and manner of making the election for the purchaser. The purchaser may make an election described in this paragraph (a)(2) by attaching a statement to its original or amended income tax return for the taxable year that includes the applicable asset sale. The statement must be entitled “Election to Retroactively Apply the Rules in § 1.338-11 (Including the Applicable Provisions in §§ 1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1, 846 and 1060) to an Applicable Asset Acquisition Completed Before April 10, 2006” and must include the following information -

(A) The name and E.I.N. for the purchaser; and

(B) The following declaration (or a substantially similar declaration): The purchaser has amended its income tax returns for the taxable year that includes the applicable asset acquisition and for all affected subsequent years to reflect the rules in § 1.338-11 (Including the Applicable Provisions in §§ 1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1,846 and 1060).

(iii) Time and manner of making the election for the seller. The seller may make an election described in this paragraph (a)(2) by attaching a statement to its original or amended income tax return for the taxable year that includes the applicable asset sale. The statement must be entitled “Election to retroactively apply the rules in § 1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§ 1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1, 846 and 1060) to an applicable asset acquisition completed before April 10, 2006” and must include the following information -

(A) The name and E.I.N. for the seller; and

(B) The following declaration (or a substantially similar declaration): The seller has amended its income tax returns for the taxable year that includes the applicable asset acquisition and for all affected subsequent years to reflect the rules in § 1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§ 1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1, 846 and 1060).

(3) Outline of topics. In order to facilitate the use of this section, this paragraph (a)(3) lists the major paragraphs in this section as follows:

(a) Scope.
(1) In general.
(2) Effective date.
(3) Outline of topics.
(b) Applicable asset acquisition.
(1) In general.
(2) Assets constituting a trade or business.
(i) In general.
(ii) Goodwill or going concern value.
(iii) Factors indicating goodwill or going concern value.
(3) Examples.
(4) Asymmetrical transfers of assets.
(5) Related transactions.
(6) More than a single trade or business.
(7) Covenant entered into by the seller.
(8) Partial non-recognition exchanges.
(9) Insurance business.
(c) Allocation of consideration among assets under the residual method.
(1) Consideration.
(2) Allocation of consideration among assets.
(3) Certain costs.
(4) Effect of agreement between parties.
(5) Insurance business.
(d) Examples.
(e) Reporting requirements.
(1) Applicable asset acquisitions.
(i) In general.
(ii) Time and manner of reporting.
(A) In general.
(B) Additional reporting requirement.
(C) Election described in § 1.338-6(c)(5).
(2) Transfers of interests in partnerships.

(b) Applicable asset acquisition -

(1) In general. An applicable asset acquisition is any transfer, whether direct or indirect, of a group of assets if the assets transferred constitute a trade or business in the hands of either the seller or the purchaser and, except as provided in paragraph (b)(8) of this section, the purchaser's basis in the transferred assets is determined wholly by reference to the purchaser's consideration.

(2) Assets constituting a trade or business -

(i) In general. For purposes of this section, a group of assets constitutes a trade or business if -

(A) The use of such assets would constitute an active trade or business under section 355; or

(B) Its character is such that goodwill or going concern value could under any circumstances attach to such group.

(ii) Goodwill or going concern value. Goodwill is the value of a trade or business attributable to the expectancy of continued customer patronage. This expectancy may be due to the name or reputation of a trade or business or any other factor. Going concern value is the additional value that attaches to property because of its existence as an integral part of an ongoing business activity. Going concern value includes the value attributable to the ability of a trade or business (or a part of a trade or business) to continue functioning or generating income without interruption notwithstanding a change in ownership. It also includes the value that is attributable to the immediate use or availability of an acquired trade or business, such as, for example, the use of the revenues or net earnings that otherwise would not be received during any period if the acquired trade or business were not available or operational.

(iii) Factors indicating goodwill or going concern value. In making the determination in this paragraph (b)(2), all the facts and circumstances surrounding the transaction are taken into account. Whether sufficient consideration is available to allocate to goodwill or going concern value after the residual method is applied is not relevant in determining whether goodwill or going concern value could attach to a group of assets. Factors to be considered include -

(A) The presence of any intangible assets (whether or not those assets are section 197 intangibles), provided, however, that the transfer of such an asset in the absence of other assets will not be a trade or business for purposes of section 1060;

(B) The existence of an excess of the total consideration over the aggregate book value of the tangible and intangible assets purchased (other than goodwill and going concern value) as shown in the financial accounting books and records of the purchaser; and

(C) Related transactions, including lease agreements, licenses, or other similar agreements between the purchaser and seller (or managers, directors, owners, or employees of the seller) in connection with the transfer.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section:

Example 1.
S is a high grade machine shop that manufactures microwave connectors in limited quantities. It is a successful company with a reputation within the industry and among its customers for manufacturing unique, high quality products. Its tangible assets consist primarily of ordinary machinery for working metal and plating. It has no secret formulas or patented drawings of value. P is a company that designs, manufactures, and markets electronic components. It wants to establish an immediate presence in the microwave industry, an area in which it previously has not been engaged. P is acquiring assets of a number of smaller companies and hopes that these assets will collectively allow it to offer a broad product mix. P acquires the assets of S in order to augment its product mix and to promote its presence in the microwave industry. P will not use the assets acquired from S to manufacture microwave connectors. The assets transferred are assets that constitute a trade or business in the hands of the seller. Thus, P's purchase of S's assets is an applicable asset acquisition. The fact that P will not use the assets acquired from S to continue the business of S does not affect this conclusion.
Example 2.
S, a sole proprietor who operates a car wash, both leases the building housing the car wash and sells all of the car wash equipment to P. S's use of the building and the car wash equipment constitute a trade or business. P begins operating a car wash in the building it leases from S. Because the assets transferred together with the asset leased are assets which constitute a trade or business, P's purchase of S's assets is an applicable asset acquisition.
Example 3.
S, a corporation, owns a retail store business in State X and conducts activities in connection with that business enterprise that meet the active trade or business requirement of section 355. P is a minority shareholder of S. S distributes to P all the assets of S used in S's retail business in State X in complete redemption of P's stock in S held by P. The distribution of S's assets in redemption of P's stock is treated as a sale or exchange under sections 302(a) and 302(b)(3), and P's basis in the assets distributed to it is determined wholly by reference to the consideration paid, the S stock. Thus, S's distribution of assets constituting a trade or business to P is an applicable asset acquisition.
Example 4.
S is a manufacturing company with an internal financial bookkeeping department. P is in the business of providing a financial bookkeeping service on a contract basis. As part of an agreement for P to begin providing financial bookkeeping services to S, P agrees to buy all of the assets associated with S's internal bookkeeping operations and provide employment to any of S's bookkeeping department employees who choose to accept a position with P. In addition to selling P the assets associated with its bookkeeping operation, S will enter into a long term contract with P for bookkeeping services. Because assets transferred from S to P, along with the related contract for bookkeeping services, are a trade or business in the hands of P, the sale of the bookkeeping assets from S to P is an applicable asset acquisition.

(4) Asymmetrical transfers of assets. A purchaser is subject to section 1060 if -

(i) Under general principles of tax law, the seller is not treated as transferring the same assets as the purchaser is treated as acquiring;

(ii) The assets acquired by the purchaser constitute a trade or business; and

(iii) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(8) of this section, the purchaser's basis in the transferred assets is determined wholly by reference to the purchaser's consideration.

(5) Related transactions. Whether the assets transferred constitute a trade or business is determined by aggregating all transfers from the seller to the purchaser in a series of related transactions. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(8) of this section, all assets transferred from the seller to the purchaser in a series of related transactions are included in the group of assets among which the consideration paid or received in such series is allocated under the residual method. The principles of § 1.338-1(c) are also applied in determining which assets are included in the group of assets among which the consideration paid or received is allocated under the residual method.

(6) More than a single trade or business. If the assets transferred from a seller to a purchaser include more than one trade or business, then, in applying this section, all of the assets transferred (whether or not transferred in one transaction or a series of related transactions and whether or not part of a trade or business) are treated as a single trade or business.

(7) Covenant entered into by the seller. If, in connection with an applicable asset acquisition, the seller enters into a covenant (e.g., a covenant not to compete) with the purchaser, that covenant is treated as an asset transferred as part of a trade or business.

(8) Partial non-recognition exchanges. A transfer may constitute an applicable asset acquisition notwithstanding the fact that no gain or loss is recognized with respect to a portion of the group of assets transferred. All of the assets transferred, including the non-recognition assets, are taken into account in determining whether the group of assets constitutes a trade or business. The allocation of consideration under paragraph (c) of this section is done without taking into account either the non-recognition assets or the amount of money or other property that is treated as transferred in exchange for the non-recognition assets (together, the non-recognition exchange property). The basis in and gain or loss recognized with respect to the non-recognition exchange property are determined under such rules as would otherwise apply to an exchange of such property. The amount of the money and other property treated as exchanged for non-recognition assets is the amount by which the fair market value of the non-recognition assets transferred by one party exceeds the fair market value of the non-recognition assets transferred by the other (to the extent of the money and the fair market value of property transferred in the exchange). The money and other property that are treated as transferred in exchange for the non-recognition assets (and which are not included among the assets to which section 1060 applies) are considered to come from the following assets in the following order: first from Class I assets, then from Class II assets, then from Class III assets, then from Class IV assets, then from Class V assets, then from Class VI assets, and then from Class VII assets. For this purpose, liabilities assumed (or to which a non-recognition exchange property is subject) are treated as Class I assets. See Example 1 in paragraph (d) of this section for an example of the application of section 1060 to a single transaction which is, in part, a non-recognition exchange.

(9) Insurance business. The mere reinsurance of insurance contracts by an insurance company is not an applicable asset acquisition, even if it enables the reinsurer to establish a customer relationship with the owners of the reinsured contracts. However, a transfer of an insurance business is an applicable asset acquisition if the purchaser acquires significant business assets, in addition to insurance contracts, to which goodwill and going concern value could attach. For rules regarding the treatment of an applicable asset acquisition of an insurance business, see paragraph (c)(5) of this section.

(c) Allocation of consideration among assets under the residual method -

(1) Consideration. The seller's consideration is the amount, in the aggregate, realized from selling the assets in the applicable asset acquisition under section 1001(b). The purchaser's consideration is the amount, in the aggregate, of its cost of purchasing the assets in the applicable asset acquisition that is properly taken into account in basis.

(2) Allocation of consideration among assets. For purposes of determining the seller's amount realized for each of the assets sold in an applicable asset acquisition, the seller allocates consideration to all the assets sold by using the residual method under §§ 1.338-6 and 1.338-7, substituting consideration for ADSP. For purposes of determining the purchaser's basis in each of the assets purchased in an applicable asset acquisition, the purchaser allocates consideration to all the assets purchased by using the residual method under §§ 1.338-6 and 1.338-7, substituting consideration for AGUB. In allocating consideration, the rules set forth in paragraphs (c)(3) and (4) of this section apply in addition to the rules in §§ 1.338-6 and 1.338-7.

(3) Certain costs. The seller and purchaser each adjusts the amount allocated to an individual asset to take into account the specific identifiable costs incurred in transferring that asset in connection with the applicable asset acquisition (e.g., real estate transfer costs or security interest perfection costs). Costs so allocated increase, or decrease, as appropriate, the total consideration that is allocated under the residual method. No adjustment is made to the amount allocated to an individual asset for general costs associated with the applicable asset acquisition as a whole or with groups of assets included therein (e.g., non-specific appraisal fees or accounting fees). These latter amounts are taken into account only indirectly through their effect on the total consideration to be allocated. If an election described in § 1.338-6(c)(5) is made with respect to an applicable asset acquisition, any allocation of costs pursuant to this paragraph (c)(3) shall be made as if such election had not been made. The preceding sentence applies to applicable asset acquisitions occurring on or after September 11, 2007. For applicable asset acquisitions occurring before September 11, 2007, and on or after September 15, 2004, see § 1.1060-1T as contained in 26 CFR Part 1 in effect on April 1, 2007. For applicable asset acquisitions occurring before September 15, 2004, see §§ 1.338-6 and 1.1060-1 as contained in 26 CFR Part 1 in effect on April 1, 2004.

(4) Effect of agreement between parties. If, in connection with an applicable asset acquisition, the seller and purchaser agree in writing as to the allocation of any amount of consideration to, or as to the fair market value of, any of the assets, such agreement is binding on them to the extent provided in this paragraph (c)(4). Nothing in this paragraph (c)(4) restricts the Commissioner's authority to challenge the allocations or values arrived at in an allocation agreement. This paragraph (c)(4) does not apply if the parties are able to refute the allocation or valuation under the standards set forth in Commissioner v. Danielson, 378 F.2d 771 (3d Cir.), cert. denied, 389 U.S. 858 (1967) (a party wishing to challenge the tax consequences of an agreement as construed by the Commissioner must offer proof that, in an action between the parties to the agreement, would be admissible to alter that construction or show its unenforceability because of mistake, undue influence, fraud, duress, etc.).

(5) Insurance business. If the trade or business transferred is an insurance business, the rules of this paragraph (c) are modified by the principles of § 1.338-11(a) through (d). However, in transactions governed by section 1060, such principles apply even if the transfer of the trade or business is effected in whole or in part through indemnity reinsurance rather than assumption reinsurance, and, for the insurer or reinsurer, an insurance contract (including an annuity or reinsurance contract) is a Class VI asset regardless of whether it is a section 197 intangible. In addition, the principles of § 1.338-11(f) through (h) apply if the transfer occurs in connection with the complete liquidation of the transferor.

(d) Examples. The following examples illustrate this section:

Example 1.
(i) On January 1, 2001, A transfers assets X, Y, and Z to B in exchange for assets D, E, and F plus $1,000 cash.

(ii) Assume the exchange of assets constitutes an exchange of like-kind property to which section 1031 applies. Assume also that goodwill or going concern value could under any circumstances attach to each of the DEF and XYZ groups of assets and, therefore, each group constitutes a trade or business under section 1060.

(iii) Assume the fair market values of the assets and the amount of money transferred are as follows:

Asset Fair market value
By A:
X $ 400
Y 400
Z 200
Total 1,000
By B:
D 40
E 30
F 30
Cash (amount) 1,000
Total 1,100
(iv) Under paragraph (b)(8) of this section, for purposes of allocating consideration under paragraph (c) of this section, the like-kind assets exchanged and any money or other property that are treated as transferred in exchange for the like-kind property are excluded from the application of section 1060.

(v) Since assets X, Y, and Z are like-kind property, they are excluded from the application of the section 1060 allocation rules.

(vi) Since assets D, E, and F are like-kind property, they are excluded from the application of the section 1060 allocation rules. Thus, the allocation rules of section 1060 do not apply in determining B's gain or loss with respect to the disposition of assets D, E, and F, and the allocation rules of section 1060 and paragraph (c) of this section are not applied to determine A's bases of assets D, E, and F. In addition, $900 of the $1,000 cash B gave to A for A's like-kind assets (X, Y, and Z) is treated as transferred in exchange for the like-kind property in order to equalize the fair market values of the like-kind assets. Therefore, $900 of the cash is excluded from the application of the section 1060 allocation rules.

(vii) $100 of the cash is allocated under section 1060 and paragraph (c) of this section.

(viii) A received $100 that must be allocated under section 1060 and paragraph (c) of this section. Since A transferred no Class I, II, III, IV, V, or VI assets to which section 1060 applies, in determining its amount realized for the part of the exchange to which section 1031 does not apply, the $100 is allocated to Class VII assets (goodwill and going concern value).

(ix) B gave A $100 that must be allocated under section 1060 and paragraph (c) of this section. Since B received from A no Class I, II, III, IV, V, or VI assets to which section 1060 applies, the $100 consideration is allocated by B to Class VII assets (goodwill and going concern value).

Example 2.
(i) On January 1, 2001, S, a sole proprietor, sells to P, a corporation, a group of assets that constitutes a trade or business under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. S, who plans to retire immediately, also executes in P's favor a covenant not to compete. P pays S $3,000 in cash and assumes $1,000 in liabilities. Thus, the total consideration is $4,000.

(ii) On the purchase date, P and S also execute a separate agreement that states that the fair market values of the Class II, Class III, Class V, and Class VI assets S sold to P are as follows:

Asset
class
Asset Fair
market
value
II Actively traded securities $500
Total Class II 500
III Accounts receivable 200
Total Class III 200
V Furniture and fixtures 800
Building 800
Land 200
Equipment 400
Total Class V 2,200
VI Covenant not to compete 900
Total Class VI 900
(iii) P and S each allocate the consideration in the transaction among the assets transferred under paragraph (c) of this section in accordance with the agreed upon fair market values of the assets, so that $500 is allocated to Class II assets, $200 is allocated to the Class III asset, $2,200 is allocated to Class V assets, $900 is allocated to Class VI assets, and $200 ($4,000 total consideration less $3,800 allocated to assets in Classes II, III, V, and VI) is allocated to the Class VII assets (goodwill and going concern value).

(iv) In connection with the examination of P's return, the Commissioner, in determining the fair market values of the assets transferred, may disregard the parties' agreement. Assume that the Commissioner correctly determines that the fair market value of the covenant not to compete was $500. Since the allocation of consideration among Class II, III, V, and VI assets results in allocation up to the fair market value limitation, the $600 of unallocated consideration resulting from the Commissioner's redetermination of the value of the covenant not to compete is allocated to Class VII assets (goodwill and going concern value).

(e) Reporting requirements -

(1) Applicable asset acquisitions -

(i) In general. Unless otherwise excluded from this requirement by the Commissioner, the seller and the purchaser in an applicable asset acquisition each must report information concerning the amount of consideration in the transaction and its allocation among the assets transferred. They also must report information concerning subsequent adjustments to consideration.

(ii) Time and manner of reporting -

(A) In general. The seller and the purchaser each must file asset acquisition statements on Form 8594, “Asset Allocation Statement,” with their income tax returns or returns of income for the taxable year that includes the first date assets are sold pursuant to an applicable asset acquisition. This reporting requirement applies to all asset acquisitions described in this section. For reporting requirements relating to asset acquisitions occurring before March 16, 2001, as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, see the temporary regulations under section 1060 in effect prior to March 16, 2001 (see 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2000).

(B) Additional reporting requirement. When an increase or decrease in consideration is taken into account after the close of the first taxable year that includes the first date assets are sold in an applicable asset acquisition, the seller and the purchaser each must file a supplemental asset acquisition statement on Form 8594 with the income tax return or return of income for the taxable year in which the increase (or decrease) is properly taken into account.

(C) Election described in § 1.338-6(c)(5) -

(1) Availability. The election described in § 1.338-6(c)(5) is available in respect of an applicable asset acquisition provided that the requirements of that section are satisfied. Such election may be made by the seller, regardless of whether the purchaser also makes the election, and may be made by the purchaser, regardless of whether the seller also makes the election.

(2) Time and manner of making election. The election described in § 1.338-6(c)(5) is made by taking a position on a timely filed original tax return for the taxable year of the applicable asset acquisition that is consistent with having made the election.

(3) Irrevocability of election. The election described in § 1.338-6(c)(5) is irrevocable.

(4) Effective/applicability date. This paragraph (e)(1)(ii)(C) applies to applicable asset acquisitions occurring on or after September 11, 2007. For applicable asset acquisitions occurring before September 11, 2007 and on or after September 15, 2004, see § 1.1060-1T as contained in 26 CFR Part 1 in effect on April 1, 2007. For applicable asset acquisitions occurring before September 15, 2004, see §§ 1.338-6 and 1.1060-1 as contained in 26 CFR Part 1 in effect on April 1, 2004.

(2) Transfers of interests in partnerships. For reporting requirements relating to the transfer of a partnership interest, see § 1.755-1(d).

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9954, Feb. 13, 2001, as amended by T.D. 9059, 68 FR 34299, June 9, 2003; T.D. 9158, 69 FR 55742, Sept. 16, 2004; T.D. 9257, 71 FR 18006, Apr. 10, 2006; T.D. 9358, 72 FR 51706, Sept. 11, 2007; T.D. 9377, 73 FR 3874, Jan. 23, 2008; T.D. 9377, 73 FR 14386, Mar. 18, 2008]

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