26 CFR § 1.1061-2 - Applicable partnership interests and applicable trades or businesses.

§ 1.1061-2 Applicable partnership interests and applicable trades or businesses.

(a) API rules and examples -

(1) Rules -

(i) An API remains an API. Once a partnership interest qualifies as an API, the partnership interest remains an API unless and until the requirements of one of the exceptions to qualification of a partnership interest as an API, set forth in § 1.1061-3, are satisfied.

(ii) Application of section 1061 to Unrealized API Gains and Losses. Unrealized API Gains and Losses are API Gains and Losses subject to section 1061 when the gains and losses are realized and recognized. Unrealized API Gains and Losses do not lose their character as such until they are recognized.

(iii) API Gains and Losses retain their character. API Gains and Losses retain their character as API Gains and Losses as they are allocated from one Passthrough Entity to another Passthrough Entity and then to the Owner Taxpayer.

(iv) Substantial services by an Owner Taxpayer, Passthrough Taxpayer, or any Related Person. If an interest in a partnership is transferred to or held by an Owner Taxpayer, Passthrough Taxpayer, or any Related Person in connection with the performance of services, the Owner Taxpayer, the Passthrough Taxpayer, or the Related Person is presumed to have provided substantial services for purposes of section 1061.

(v) Grantor trusts and entities disregarded as separate from their owners. A trust wholly described in subpart E, part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code (that is, a grantor trust), a qualified subchapter S subsidiary described in section 1361(b)(3), and an entity with a single owner that is treated as disregarded as an entity separate from its owner under any provision of the Internal Revenue Code or any part of 26 CFR (including § 301.7701-3 of this chapter) are disregarded for purposes of the Section 1061 Regulations.

(2) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (a).

(i) Example 1: API.

(A) A is the general partner of PRS, a partnership, and provides services to PRS. A is engaged in an ATB as defined in § 1.1061-1(a). PRS transfers a PRS profits interest to A in connection with A's performance of substantial services with respect to PRS's ATB. A's interest in PRS is an API.

(B) After 6 years, A retires and is no longer engaged in an ATB and does not perform any services with respect to its ATB and with respect to PRS. However, A retains the API in PRS. PRS continues to acquire new capital assets and to allocate gain to A from the disposition of those assets. Under paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, A's interest in PRS remains an API after A retires.

(ii) Example 2: Contribution of an API to a partnership. Individuals A, B, and C each directly hold APIs in PRS, a partnership. A and B form a new partnership, GP, and contribute their APIs in PRS to GP. Following the contribution, each of A and B holds an Indirect API because each of A and B now indirectly holds an API in PRS through GP, a Passthrough Entity. Each of A's and B's interests in GP is a Passthrough Interest because each of A's and B's interest in GP represents an Indirect API.

(iii) Example 3: Passthrough Interest, Indirect API, Passthrough Taxpayer. Each of A, B, and C provides services to, and is an equal partner in, GP. GP is engaged in an ATB as defined in § 1.1061-1(a), is the general partner of PRS, and provides substantial management services to PRS. In connection with GP's performance of substantial services in an ATB, PRS issues a profits interest to GP. Because GP's PRS interest was received in connection with GP's providing services in an ATB, GP is a Passthrough Taxpayer and GP's interest in PRS is an API. Because A, B, and C are partners in GP, they each hold a Passthrough Interest in GP and an Indirect API in PRS. Each of A, B, and C is treated as an Owner Taxpayer because each is a partner in GP and because each holds an Indirect API in PRS in connection with the performance of its services to GP's ATB.

(iv) Example 4: S corporation, Passthrough Interest, Indirect API, and Passthrough Taxpayer. A owns all of the stock of S Corp, an S corporation. S Corp is engaged in an ATB, as defined in § 1.1061-1(a). S Corp is the general partner of PRS, a partnership, and provides substantial management services to PRS. A provides substantial services in S Corp's ATB. In connection with S Corp providing substantial services to PRS, PRS issues a profits interest to S Corp. S Corp's interest in PRS is its only asset. Because S Corp's profits interest in PRS was issued to S Corp in connection with substantial services in an ATB, S Corp is a Passthrough Taxpayer and its interest in PRS is an API. Because A is a shareholder in S Corp, A holds a Passthrough Interest in S Corp and an Indirect API in PRS as a result of S Corp's API in PRS. A is treated as an Owner Taxpayer because A holds an interest in S Corp, a Passthrough Taxpayer, and also indirectly holds an API in PRS in connection with A's services in S Corp's ATB.

(v) Example 5: Indirect API, Related Person, and Passthrough Taxpayer. Each of A, B, and C is an equal partner in partnership GP, the general partner of PRS. GP's Specified Actions do not satisfy the ATB Activity Test under § 1.1061-1(a) and as a result, GP's actions do not establish an ATB. Management Company is a Related Person with respect to GP within the meaning of sections 267(b) and 707(b), is engaged in an ATB, and provides substantial management services to PRS that are sufficient to satisfy the ATB Activity Test. Management Company's actions are attributed to GP under paragraphs (a)(1)(iv) and (b)(1)(i)(C) of this section because Management Company is a Related Person to GP. In connection with Management Company's services to PRS, PRS issues a profits interest to GP. Because its PRS profits interest is issued to GP in connection with services provided by Management Company, a Related Person, GP is a Passthrough Taxpayer and its interest in PRS is an API. Unless an exception described in § 1.1061-3 applies, because A, B, and C are partners in GP, they each hold a Passthrough Interest in GP and an Indirect API in PRS. A, B, and C are treated as Owner Taxpayers because they hold an interest in GP, a Passthrough Taxpayer.

(b) Application of the ATB Activity Test -

(1) In general. The ATB Activity Test is satisfied if both Raising and Returning Actions and Investing or Developing Actions are conducted by an Owner Taxpayer, Passthrough Taxpayer, or one or more Related Persons with respect to an Owner Taxpayer or Passthrough Taxpayer, and the total level of activity, including the combined activities of all Related Persons, satisfies the level of activity that would be required to establish a trade or business under section 162.

(i) Rules for applying the ATB Activity Test -

(A) Aggregate Specified Actions taken into account. The determination of whether the ATB Activity Test is satisfied is based on the combined activities conducted that qualify as either Raising or Returning Capital Actions and Investing or Developing Actions. The fact that either Raising or Returning Capital Actions or Investing or Developing Actions are only infrequently taken does not preclude the test from being satisfied if the combined Specified Actions meet the test.

(B) Raising or Returning Capital Actions and Investing or Developing Actions are not both required to be taken in each taxable year. Raising or Returning Capital Actions and Investing or Developing Actions are not both required to be taken in each taxable year in order to satisfy the ATB Activity Test. For example, the ATB Activity Test will be satisfied if Investing or Developing Actions are not taken in the current taxable year, but sufficient Raising or Returning Capital Actions are taken in anticipation of future Investing or Developing Actions. Additionally, the ATB Activity Test will be satisfied if no Raising or Returning Capital Actions are taken in the current taxable year, but have been taken in a prior taxable year (regardless of whether the ATB Activity Test was met in the prior year), and sufficient Investing or Developing Actions are undertaken by the taxpayer in the current taxable year.

(C) Combined conduct by multiple related entities taken into account -

(1) Related Entities. If a Related Person(s) (within the meaning of § 1.1061-1(a)) solely or primarily performs Raising or Returning Capital Actions and one or more other Related Person(s) solely or primarily performs Investing or Developing Actions, the combination of the activities performed by these Related Persons will be taken into account in determining whether the ATB Activity Test is satisfied.

(2) Actions taken by an agent or delegate. Specified Actions taken by an agent or a delegate in its capacity as an agent or a delegate of a principal will be taken into account by the principal in determining whether the ATB Activity Test is satisfied with respect to the principal. These Specified Actions are also taken into account in determining whether the ATB Activity test is satisfied with respect to the agent or the delegate.

(ii) Developing Specified Assets. Developing Specified Assets takes place if it is represented to investors, lenders, regulators, or other interested parties that the value, price, or yield of a portfolio business may be enhanced or increased in connection with choices or actions of a service provider. Merely exercising voting rights with respect to shares owned or similar activities do not amount to developing Specified Assets.

(iii) Partnerships. Investing or Developing Actions directly conducted with respect to Specified Assets held by a partnership are counted towards the ATB Activity Test. Additionally, a portion of the Investing or Developing Actions conducted with respect to the interests in a partnership that holds Specified Assets is counted towards the ATB Activity Test. This portion is the value of the partnership's Specified Assets over the value of all of the partnership's assets. Actions taken to manage a partnership's working capital will not be taken into account in determining the portion of Investing or Developing Actions conducted with respect to the interests in the partnership.

(2) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of the ATB Activity Test described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(i) Example 1: Combined activities of Raising or Returning Capital Actions and Investing or Developing Actions. During the taxable year, B takes a small number of actions to raise capital for new investments. B takes numerous actions to develop Specified Assets. B's actions with respect to raising capital and B's actions with respect to developing Specified Assets are combined for the purpose of determining whether the ATB Activity Test is satisfied. These actions cumulatively rise to the level required to establish a trade or business under section 162. Thus, B satisfies the ATB Activity Test.

(ii) Example 2: Combining Specified Actions in multiple entities. GP, a partnership, conducts Raising or Returning Capital Actions. Management Company, a partnership that is a Related Person to GP, conducts Investing or Developing Actions. When GP's and Management Company's activities are combined, the ATB Activity Test is satisfied. Accordingly, both GP and Management Company are engaged in an ATB, and services performed by either GP or Management Company are performed in an ATB under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(iii) Example 3: Investing or Developing Actions taken after Raising or Returning Capital Actions that do not meet the ATB Activity Test. In year 1, PRS engaged in Raising or Returning Capital Actions to fund PRS's investment in Specified Assets. However, PRS' Specified Actions during year 1 did not satisfy the ATB Activity Test because they did not satisfy the level of activity required to establish a trade or business under section 162. Therefore, PRS was not engaged in an ATB in year 1. In year 2, PRS engaged in significant Investing or Developing Actions but did not engage in any Raising or Returning Capital Actions. In year 2, PRS's Investing or Developing Actions rise to the level required to establish a trade or business under section 162. Because PRS has cumulatively engaged in both Investing or Developing Actions and Raising or Returning Capital Actions and because the Specified Actions rise to the level of activity required to establish a trade or business under section 162, PRS is engaged in an ATB in year 2.

(iv) Example 4: Raising or Returning Capital Actions taken in anticipation of Investing or Developing Actions. In year 1, A only conducted Raising or Returning Capital Actions. A's Raising or Returning Capital Actions were undertaken to raise capital to invest in Specified Assets with the goal of increasing their value through Investing or Developing Actions and rise to the level of activity required to establish a trade or business under section 162. A did not take Investing or Developing Actions during the taxable year. A's Raising or Returning Capital Actions satisfy the ATB Activity Test because they were undertaken in anticipation of also engaging in Investing or Developing Actions. Therefore, the ATB Activity Test is satisfied, and A is engaged in an ATB in year 1.

(v) Example 5: Attribution of delegate's actions. GP is the general partner of PRS. GP is responsible for providing management services to PRS. GP contracts with Management Company to provide management services on GP's behalf to PRS. GP and Management Company are not Related Persons. The Specified Actions taken by Management Company on behalf of GP are attributed to GP for purposes of the ATB Activity Test because the Management Company is operating as a delegate of GP. Additionally, those Specified Actions are taken into account by Management Company for purposes of the ATB Activity Test and whether it is engaged in an ATB.

(vi) Example 6: ATB Activity Test not satisfied. A is the manager of a hardware store. Partnership owns the hardware store, including the building in which the hardware business is conducted. In connection with A's services as the manager of the hardware store, a profits interest in Partnership is transferred to A. Partnership's business involves buying hardware from wholesale suppliers and selling it to customers. The hardware is not a Specified Asset. Although real estate is a Specified Asset if it is held for rental or investment purposes, Partnership holds the building for the purpose of conducting its hardware business and not for rental or investment purposes. Therefore, the building is not a Specified Asset as to Partnership. Partnership also maintains and manages a certain amount of working capital for its business, but actions with respect to working capital are not taken into account for the purpose of determining whether the ATB Activity Test is met. Partnership is not a Related Person with respect to any person who takes Specified Actions. Partnership is not engaged in an ATB because the ATB Activity Test is not satisfied. Although Partnership raises capital, its Raising or Returning Capital Actions alone do not satisfy the ATB Activity Test. Further, Partnership takes no Investing or Developing Actions because it holds no Specified Assets other than working capital. Partnership is not in an ATB and the profits interest transferred to A is not an API.

(c) Applicability date. The provisions of this section apply to taxable years of Owner Taxpayers and Passthrough Entities beginning on or after January 19, 2021. An Owner Taxpayer or Passthrough Entity may choose to apply this section to a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2017, provided that they apply the Section 1061 Regulations in their entirety to that year and all subsequent years.

[T.D. 9945, 86 FR 5480, Jan. 19, 2021]

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