26 CFR § 1.1321-1 - Involuntary liquidation of lifo inventories.
(a) Section 22(d)(6)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 provides as follows:
Sec. 22. Gross income. * * *
(d) * * *
(6) Involuntary liquidation and replacement of inventory. * * *
(B) Definition of involuntary liquidation. The term involuntary liquidation, as used in this paragraph, means the sale or other disposition of goods inventoried under the method described in this subsection, either voluntary or involuntary, coupled with a failure on the part of the taxpayer to purchase, manufacture, or otherwise produce and have on hand at the close of the taxable year in which such sale or other disposition occurred such goods as would, if on hand at the close of such taxable year, be subject to the application of the provisions of this subsection, if such failure on the part of the taxpayer is due, directly and exclusively, (i) to enemy capture or control of sources of limited foreign supply; (ii) to shipping or other transportation shortages; (iii) to material shortages resulting from priorities or allocations; (iv) to labor shortages; or (v) to other prevailing war conditions beyond the control of the taxpayer.
(1) If, during any taxable year ending after June 30, 1950, and before January 1, 1955, the disruption of normal trade relations between countries, or one or more of the conditions attributable to a state of national preparedness and beyond the control of the taxpayer, as prescribed by section 22(d)(6)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, as modified by section 1321(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, should render it impossible during such period for a taxpayer using the last-in first-out inventory method to have on hand at the close of the taxable year a stock of merchandise in kind and description like that included in the opening inventory for the year, or in a quantity equal to that of the opening inventory, the resulting inventory decrease for the year will be regarded, at the election of the taxpayer, as reflecting an involuntary liquidation subject to replacement. If the taxpayer notifies the Commissioner within the period prescribed below that he intends to effect a replacement of the liquidated stock, in whole or in part, and that he desires to have applied in his case the involuntary liquidation and replacement provisions of section 1321, and if he establishes to the satisfaction of the Commissioner the involuntary character of the liquidation to which his stock has been subjected, effect shall be given, when replacement has been made, in whole or in part, but only to the extent made in taxable years ending before January 1, 1956, to an adjustment of taxable income for the year of liquidation in the amount of the difference between the replacement costs incurred and the original inventory cost of the liquidated base stock inventory that is replaced. The notification is to be given within 6 months after the filing by the taxpayer of his income tax return for the year of the liquidation. However, if the liquidation occurs in a taxable year ending after December 31, 1953, the notification may be given at any time within 3 months after the promulgation of regulations under section 1321, or prior to the expiration of the 6-month period following the filing of the return, whichever expiration date later occurs.
(2) If the replacement costs exceed such inventory costs, the taxable income of the taxpayer otherwise computed for the year of liquidation shall be reduced by an amount equal to such excess. If the replacement costs are less than the inventory costs, taxable income otherwise computed for the year of liquidation shall be increased to the extent of such difference. Any deficiency in the income or excess profits tax of the taxpayer, or any overpayment of such taxes, attributable to such adjustment shall be assessed and collected or credited or refunded to the taxpayer without interest.
(1) A failure on the part of the taxpayer to have on hand in his closing inventory for the taxable year merchandise of the kind, description, and quantity of that reflected in his opening inventory will be considered as an involuntary liquidation only if it is established to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that such failure is due wholly to his inability to purchase, manufacture, or otherwise produce and procure delivery of such merchandise during the taxable year of liquidation by reason of the disruption of normal trade relations between countries or by reason of certain war conditions, described in section 22(d)(6)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, as modified by section 1321(b). Such war conditions are (i) shortages in the source of foreign supply by reason of capture or control by an enemy; (ii) shipping or other transportation shortages; (iii) material shortages resulting from priorities or allocations; (iv) labor shortages; and (v) similar war conditions beyond the control of the taxpayer. For the purpose of the preceding sentence, the words enemy and war shall be interpreted to apply to circumstances, occurrences, and conditions lacking a state of war, which are similar, by reason of a state of national preparedness, to those which would exist under a state of war.
(2) The various directives, orders, regulations, and allotments issued by the Federal Government in connection with national preparedness are among such circumstances and conditions which might be recognized as effecting an involuntary liquidation under this section. Likewise, a voluntary compliance with a request of an authorized representative of the Federal Government made upon an industry or an important segment thereof, or a voluntary allocation of materials by an industry or important segment thereof sanctioned by the Federal Government, if made in connection with the national preparedness program, might be considered as such a circumstance or condition. Similarly, so much of an inventory decrease as is directly and exclusively attributable to the Federal Government's stockpiling program for periods during which an item is not subject to allotment shall also be considered as subject to the provisions of section 1321. Thus, so much of an inventory decrease as is due wholly to the effect of directives, orders, regulations, or allotments issued pursuant to the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2061 et seq.), or to any other circumstance or condition which is solely dependent upon other action taken by the Federal Government in furtherance of the national preparedness program, ordinarily shall be considered as an involuntary liquidation under section 1321 and this section; however, to the extent that such a decrease is due to the disposition of goods acquired in violation of such directives, orders, regulations, or allotments, such decrease shall not be considered as such an involuntary liquidation. An inventory decrease due directly and exclusively to a disruption of normal trade relations between countries shall be considered as an involuntary liquidation subject to the rules and requirements prescribed in this section, including the requirement that the taxpayer establish to the satisfaction of the Commissioner the cause of the involuntary liquidation. A disruption of normal trade relations between countries may be reflected by unusual export limitations imposed by a foreign government, by unusual exchange restrictions, or by other unusual circumstances or conditions beyond the control of the taxpayer.
(3) A voluntary shift by the taxpayer, in the exercise of business judgment, to merchandise of a different character, description, or use, or to merchandise processed out of a substantially different kind of raw materials while raw materials of the type originally used are still available will not be considered as an involuntary liquidation notwithstanding the fact that such a shift in merchandise stocked was prompted by a shifting market demand attributable to the above conditions. The term involuntary liquidation presupposes a physical inability to maintain a normal inventory as distinguished from a financial or business disinclination on the part of the taxpayer to do so.
(d) If the taxpayer would have the involuntary liquidation and replacement provisions applicable with respect to any inventory decrease, he must so elect within the time prescribed by this section. In making such election, the taxpayer shall attach to his return and make a part thereof, or he shall furnish separately to the Commissioner, a statement setting forth the following matters:
(3) The circumstances relied upon as rendering the taxpayer unable to maintain throughout the taxable year a normal inventory of the items involved, including evidence of the applicable inventory control figures for the beginning and the close of the taxable year submitted to the appropriate Federal agency in control of defense production (or if none, a statement to that effect), allotments applied for, allotments received, and reason for failure to place allotments received;
(4) Detailed proof of such circumstances to the extent that they may not be the subject-matter of common knowledge;
(6) In the case of an election made pursuant to an extension of time granted by the Commissioner, the circumstances relied upon as justifying the election at such time, together with a disclosure of the extent, if any, to which replacements have already been made.
(e) The election of the taxpayer to treat an involuntary decrease of inventory as subject to the replacement adjustments is to be exercised separately for each taxable year reflecting such a decrease and the election, once exercised with respect to a given year, shall be irrevocable with respect to the particular decrease involved and its replacement, and shall be binding for the year of liquidation, the year of replacement, and all prior, intervening, and subsequent years to the extent that such prior, intervening, and subsequent years are affected by the adjustments authorized. The ultimate replacement and the resulting adjustment for the year of liquidation may have consequences, among others, in the earnings and profits of intervening years and the inventory accounts of subsequent years. They may have consequences in the prior years by reason of adjustments in net operating loss or unused excess profits credit carrybacks, and in intervening and subsequent taxable years by reason of adjustments in carryovers. Adjustments are to be made for the several years affected consistent with the adjustments made for the year of liquidation. Detailed records shall be maintained such as will enable the Commissioner, in his examination of the taxpayer's return for the year of replacement, readily to verify the extent of the inventory decrease claimed to be involuntary in character and the facts upon which such claim is based, all subsequent inventory increases and decreases, and all other facts material to the replacement adjustment authorized. For taxable years subject to the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, an election under 26 CFR (1939) 39.22(d)-7(e) (Regulations 118) or 26 CFR (1939) 29.22(d)-7 (Regulations 111) to have the involuntary liquidation and replacement provisions of section 22(d)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 apply with respect to any inventory decrease for taxable years to which such section applies, shall be given the same effect as if such election had been made under this section. (See section 7807(b)(2).)
(f) Notwithstanding the ultimate purchase price or the cost of production ultimately incurred by the taxpayer in effecting replacement of a stock involuntarily liquidated, the merchandise reflecting the replacement shall be taken into purchases and included in the closing inventory for the year of replacement, and shall be included in the inventories of subsequent taxable years, at the inventory cost figure of the merchandise replaced.
(g) The goods reflected in any inventory increase in a year subsequent to a year of involuntary liquidation, to the extent that they constitute items of the kind and description liquidated in prior years, whether or not in a year of involuntary liquidation, shall be deemed, in the order of their acquisition, as having been acquired by the taxpayer in replacement of like goods most recently liquidated and not previously replaced. In a case involving involuntary liquidations of goods of the same class subject to the provisions of both section 22(d)(6)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 and section 1321 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, the involuntary liquidations of such goods subject to the provisions of section 1321 shall, for the purpose of replacements made in taxable years ending before January 1, 1953, be considered as having occurred prior to the involuntary liquidations of such goods subject to the provisions of section 22(d)(6)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939. To the extent that the items of increase are allocated to items liquidated voluntarily, no adjustment will be required or permitted. Such replacement merchandise will be carried in the inventory at its actual cost of acquisition. To the extent that replacements are allocated to items involuntarily liquidated, however, the provisions of this section shall apply, both with respect to adjustments for the year of liquidation and other taxable years affected and with respect to inventory computations for the year of replacement and all subsequent taxable years.
(h) In some cases it may appear that, at the time of the filing of the income tax return for the year of replacement, or within three years thereafter, an adjustment with respect to the income or excess profits taxes for the year of the involuntary liquidation, or for some prior, intervening, or subsequent taxable year, is prevented by the running of the statute of limitations, by the execution of a closing agreement, by virtue of a court decision which has become final, or by reason of some other provision or rule of law other than section 7122 (relating to compromises) and other than the inventory replacement provisions. The adjustments provided for in connection with the involuntary liquidation and replacement of inventory shall nevertheless be made, but only if, within a period of three years after the date of the filing of the income tax return for the year of replacement, a notice of deficiency is mailed or a claim for refund is filed. No credit or refund will be allowed under such circumstances, whether within or without such three-year period, in the absence of a claim for refund duly filed; nor will a resulting deficiency be assessed or collected under section 6213(d) relating to waivers of restrictions. The issuance of the statutory notice of deficiency or the filing of a claim for refund are statutory conditions upon which depend the provisions of section 22(d)(6)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, referred to in section 1321(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. The adjustment authorized by section 22(d)(6)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 is limited further to the tax attributable solely to the replacement adjustments. The amount of the adjustment shall be computed by reference to the amount of the tax previously determined, and without regard to factors affecting the taxable year involved to which no effect was given in such prior determination. The tax previously determined shall be ascertained in accordance with the principles stated in section 452(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939. Any deficiency paid or any overpayment credited or refunded under these circumstances shall not be subject to recovery on a claim for refund or a suit for the recovery of an erroneous refund in any case in which such claim or suit is based upon factors other than those giving rise to the adjustments made.