26 CFR § 1.1461-2 - Adjustments for overwithholding or underwithholding of tax.
(a) Adjustments of overwithheld tax -
(1) In general. Except for partnerships or nominees required to withhold under section 1446, a withholding agent that has overwithheld under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code, and made a deposit of the tax as provided in § 1.6302-2(a) may adjust the overwithheld amount either pursuant to the reimbursement procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section or pursuant to the set-off procedure described in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. References in the previous sentence excepting from this section certain partnerships withholding under section 1446 shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after May 18, 2005, or such earlier time as the regulations under §§ 1.1446-1 through 1.1446-5 apply by reason of an election under § 1.1446-7. Adjustments under this paragraph (a) may only be made within the time prescribed under paragraph (a) (2) or (3) of this section. After such time, a refund of the amount overwithheld can only be claimed by the beneficial owner with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) pursuant to the procedures described in chapter 65 of the Code. For purposes of this section, the term overwithholding means any amount actually withheld (determined before application of the adjustment procedures under this section) from an item of income pursuant to chapter 3 of the Code or the regulations thereunder in excess of the actual tax liability due, regardless of whether such overwithholding was in error or appeared correct at the time it occurred.
(2) Reimbursement of tax -
(i) General rule. Under the reimbursement procedure, the withholding agent repays the beneficial owner or payee for the amount of tax overwithheld. In such a case, the withholding agent may reimburse itself by reducing, by the amount of tax actually repaid to the beneficial owner or payee, the amount of any deposit of tax made by the withholding agent under § 1.6302-2(a)(1)(iii) for any subsequent payment period occurring before the end of the calendar year following the calendar year of overwithholding. Any such reduction that occurs for a payment period in the calendar year following the calendar year of overwithholding shall be allowed only if -
(A) The repayment to the beneficial owner or payee occurs before the earlier of the due date (not including extensions) for filing Form 1042-S for the calendar year of overwithholding or the date the Form 1042-S is actually filed with the IRS; and
(B) The withholding agent states on a timely filed (not including extensions) Form 1042 for the calendar year of overwithholding, that the filing of the Form 1042 constitutes a claim for credit in accordance with § 1.6414-1.
(ii) Record maintenance. If the beneficial owner is repaid an amount of withholding tax under the provisions of this paragraph (a)(2), the withholding agent shall keep as part of its records a receipt showing the date and amount of repayment and the withholding agent must provide a copy of such receipt to the beneficial owner. For this purpose, a canceled check or an entry in a statement is sufficient provided that the check or statement contains a specific notation that it is a refund of tax overwithheld.
(3) Set-offs. Under the set-off procedure, the withholding agent may repay the beneficial owner or payee by applying the amount overwithheld against any amount which otherwise would be required under chapter 3 of the Code or the regulations thereunder to be withheld from income paid by the withholding agent to such person before the earlier of the due date (without regard to extensions) for filing the Form 1042-S for the calendar year of overwithholding or the date that the Form 1042-S is actually filed with the IRS. For purposes of making a return on Form 1042 or 1042-S (or an amended form) for the calendar year of overwithholding and for purposes of making a deposit of the amount withheld, the reduced amount shall be considered the amount required to be withheld from such income under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder.
(4) Examples. The principles of this paragraph (a) are illustrated by the following examples:
(ii) During 2001, C makes no other payments upon which tax is required to be withheld under chapter 3 of the Code; accordingly, its return on Form 1042 for such year, which is filed on March 15, 2002, shows total tax withheld of $30, an adjusted total tax withheld of $15, and $30 previously paid for such year. Pursuant to § 1.6414-1(b), C claims a credit for the overpayment of $15 shown on the Form 1042 for 2001. Accordingly, it is permitted to reduce by $15 any deposit required by § 1.6302-2 to be made of tax withheld during the calendar year 2002. The Form 1042-S required to be filed by C with respect to the dividend of $100 paid to N in 2001 is required to show tax withheld under chapter 3 of $30 and tax repaid to N of $15.
(b) Withholding of additional tax when underwithholding occurs. A withholding agent may withhold from future payments (or distributions of effectively connected income under section 1446) made to a beneficial owner the tax that should have been withheld from previous payments (or distributions subject to section 1446) to such beneficial owner under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code. In the alternative, the withholding agent may satisfy the tax from property that it holds in custody for the beneficial owner or property over which it has control. Such additional withholding or satisfaction of the tax owed may only be made before the date that the Form 1042 is required to be filed (not including extensions) for the calendar year in which the underwithholding occurred. See § 1.6302-2 for making deposits of tax or § 1.1461-1(a) for making payment of the balance due for a calendar year. See also §§ 1.1461-1, 1.1461-3, and 1.1446-1 through 1.1446-7 for rules relating to withholding under section 1446. References in this paragraph (b) to withholding under section 1446 shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after May 18, 2005, or such earlier time as the regulations under §§ 1.1446-1 through 1.1446-5 apply by reason of an election under § 1.1446-7.
(c) Definition. For purposes of this section, the term payment period means the period for which the withholding agent is required by § 1.6302-2(a)(1) to make a deposit of tax withheld under chapter 3 of the Code.
(d) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to payments made on or after January 6, 2017. (For payments made after June 30, 2014, and before January 6, 2017, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1, as revised April 1, 2016. For payments made after December 31, 2000, and before July 1, 2014, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1, as revised April 1, 2013.)