26 CFR 1.1471-3 - Identification of payee.

§ 1.1471-3 Identification of payee.

(a)Payee defined -

(1)In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (a), for purposes of chapter 4 a payee is the person to whom a payment is made, regardless of whether such person is the beneficial owner of the amount.

(2)Payee with respect to a financial account. For purposes of payments made to a financial account and except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the payee is the holder of the financial account.

(3)Exceptions -

(i)Certain foreign agents or intermediaries - (A) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (a)(3)(iv) and (vi) of this section (applicable to territory financial institutions and certain U.S. branches), a foreign person that is acting as an agent or intermediary with respect to a payment in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section is not the payee if such foreign person is -

(1) An NFFE, unless the NFFE is a QI that has assumed primary withholding responsibility; or

(2) In the case of a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, a participating FFI, deemed-compliant FFI, or restricted distributor, unless the participating FFI, deemed-compliant FFI, or restricted distributor is a QI that has assumed primary withholding responsibility.

(B) In the case of an agent or intermediary described in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section, the payee is the person or persons for whom the agent or intermediary collects the payment. Thus, for example, the payee of a payment of U.S. source FDAP income that the withholding agent can reliably associate with a withholding certificate from a QI that does not assume primary withholding responsibility with respect to the payment under chapter 3, or a payment to a participating FFI that is an NQI, is the person or persons for whom the QI or NQI acts.

(ii)Foreign flow-through entity - (A) A foreign entity that is a flow-through entity is a payee with respect to a payment only if the flow-through entity is -

(1) An FFI that is not a participating FFI or deemed-compliant FFI, or restricted distributor receiving a payment of U.S. source FDAP income;

(2) An excepted NFFE that is not acting as an agent or intermediary with respect to the payment;

(3) A WP or WT that is not acting as an agent or intermediary with respect to the payment; or

(4) Receiving income that is (or is deemed to be) effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, or receiving a payment of gross proceeds from the sale of property that can produce income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States and that is excluded from the definition of a withholdable payment under § 1.1473-1(a)(4).

(B) A withholding agent that makes a withholdable payment to a flow-through entity that is not described in paragraphs (a)(3)(ii)(A)(1) through (3) of this section will be required to treat the partner, beneficiary, or owner (as applicable) as the payee (looking through partners, beneficiaries, and owners that are themselves flow-through entities that are not described in paragraphs (a)(3)(ii)(A)(1) through (3)).

(iii)U.S. intermediary or agent of a foreign person. A withholding agent that makes a withholdable payment to a U.S. person and has actual knowledge that the person receiving the payment is acting as an intermediary or agent of a foreign person with respect to the payment must treat such foreign person, and not the intermediary or agent, as the payee of such payment. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, a withholding agent that makes a withholdable payment to a U.S. financial institution or a U.S. insurance broker (to the extent such withholdable payment is a payment of premiums) that is acting as an intermediary or agent with respect to the payment on behalf of one or more foreign persons may treat the U.S. financial institution or U.S. insurance broker as the payee if the withholding agent does not have reason to know that the U.S. financial institution or U.S. insurance broker will not comply with its obligations to withhold under sections 1471 and 1472.

(iv)Territory financial institution. A withholding agent that makes a withholdable payment to a territory financial institution that is a flow-through entity or is acting as an intermediary or agent with respect to the payment may treat the territory financial institution as the payee only if the territory financial institution has agreed (as evidenced by a withholding certificate described in paragraphs (c)(3)(iii)(A) and (F) of this section) to be treated as a U.S. person with respect to the payment for purposes of both chapters 3 and 4. In all other cases, the withholding agent must treat as the payee the partner, beneficiary, or owner (as applicable) of the territory financial institution that is a flow-through entity (looking through partners, beneficiaries, and owners that are themselves flow-through entities that are not described in paragraphs (a)(3)(ii)(A)(1) through (3)) or the person on whose behalf the territory financial institution is acting.

(v)Disregarded entity or limited branch. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(3)(v) through (vii) of this section, a withholding agent that makes a withholdable payment to an entity that is disregarded for U.S. federal tax purposes under § 301.7701-2(c)(2)(i) of this chapter as an entity separate from its single owner must treat the single owner as the payee. The rules under § 1.1471-3(d)(4) and (e)(3) apply to determine the circumstances under which a withholding agent may treat a payment made to a disregarded entity owned by an FFI as made to a payee that is a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI, and not as a payment made to a payee that is a nonparticipating FFI. A withholding agent that makes a payment to a limited branch (including an entity disregarded as a separate entity from its owner if such owner is an FFI and the disregarded entity is unable to comply with the terms of an FFI agreement with respect to accounts that it maintains) will be required to treat the payment as being made to a nonparticipating FFI.

(vi)U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person. A withholdable payment to a U.S. branch is a payment to a U.S. person if the U.S. branch is treated as a U.S. person (as defined in § 1.1471-1(b)(135)). In such case, the U.S. branch is treated as the payee. A U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person, however, is not treated as a U.S. person for purposes of the withholding certificate it may provide to a withholding agent for purposes of chapter 4. Accordingly, a U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person must furnish a withholding certificate on a Form W-8 to certify its chapter 4 status (and not a Form W-9, “Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification”). See also paragraph (f)(6) of this section for the rules under which a withholding agent can presume a payment to a U.S. branch constitutes income that is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. A U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person may not make an election to be withheld upon, as described in section 1471(b)(3) and § 1.1471-2(a)(2)(iii), for purposes of chapter 4. See § 1.1471-4(c)(2)(v) for the rule requiring a U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person to apply the due diligence rules applicable to a U.S. withholding agent. See also § 1.1474-1(i)(1) and (2) for the requirement of a U.S. branch to report information regarding certain U.S. owners of owner documented FFIs and passive NFFEs. See § 1.1471-4(d) for rules for when a U.S. branch reports as a U.S. person.

(vii)Foreign branch of a U.S. person. A payment to a foreign branch of a U.S. person is generally a payment to a U.S. payee. However, a payment to a foreign branch of a U.S. financial institution will be treated as a payment to an FFI if the foreign branch is a QI that is acting as an intermediary with respect to the payment. Therefore, a foreign branch that is a QI will provide the withholding agent with an intermediary withholding certificate and the withholding agent will report the payment as having been made to the foreign branch on a Form 1042-S.

(b)Determination of payee's status. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a withholding agent must base its determination of the chapter 4 status of a payee on documentation that the withholding agent can reliably associate with such payment. If a withholding agent makes a payment to a person that is not the payee, the withholding agent will be required to determine the chapter 4 status of each intermediary or flow-through entity in the payment chain until the withholding agent is able to identify the payee. Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules for when a withholding agent can reliably associate a payment with appropriate documentation. Paragraph (d) of this section provides documentation requirements applicable to each class of payees, including exceptions for payments made with respect to offshore obligations or preexisting obligations. Paragraph (e) provides standards for determining when a withholding agent will be considered to have reason to know that a claim of exemption from withholding is unreliable or incorrect. Paragraph (f) of this section provides presumptions that apply for purposes of determining a payee's chapter 4 status in the absence of documentation or if the documentation provided is unreliable or incorrect.

(1)Determining whether a payment is received by an intermediary. A withholding agent must treat the person who receives a payment as an intermediary if it can reliably associate the payment with a valid intermediary withholding certificate on which the person who receives the payment claims to be a QI or NQI. A U.S. person's foreign branch that is acting in its capacity as a QI is treated as a foreign intermediary. A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation must also treat the person who receives the payment as an intermediary if the person has provided written notification, whether or not such notification is signed, that it accepts the payment on behalf of another person or persons. A withholding agent may rely on the type of certificate furnished as determinative of whether the person who receives the payment is an intermediary, unless the withholding agent knows or has reason to know that the certificate is incorrect. For example, a withholding agent that receives a beneficial owner withholding certificate from an FFI may treat the FFI as the beneficial owner unless it has information in its records that would indicate otherwise or the certificate contains information that is not consistent with beneficial owner status (for example, sub-account numbers that do not correspond to accounts maintained by the withholding agent for such person or names of one or more persons other than the person submitting the withholding certificate). If the FFI receives a payment in part as a beneficial owner and in part as an intermediary, the withholding agent may request that the FFI furnish two certificates, that is, a beneficial owner certificate for the amounts it receives as a beneficial owner, and an intermediary withholding certificate for the amounts it receives as an intermediary. A withholding agent that cannot reliably associate a payment with documentation sufficient to treat the person who receives the payment as an intermediary or as other than an intermediary pursuant to this paragraph (b)(1) must follow the presumption rules set forth in paragraph (f)(5) of this section to determine whether it must treat the person who receives the payment as an intermediary. A determination that a payment is made to an intermediary under this paragraph (b)(1) is not a determination that the payment can be reliably associated with documentation. See paragraph (c)(2) of this section for rules on reliably associating a payment with documentation if such payment is made through an intermediary.

(2)Determination of entity type. A person's entity classification for purposes of chapter 4 is the person's entity classification for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Thus, for example, an entity that is disregarded as a legal entity in its country of organization or an arrangement that does not have a legal personality and is not a juridical person in the country in which it was organized will be treated as an entity for purposes of chapter 4 if it is an entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A withholding agent may rely upon a person's entity classification contained in a valid Form W-8 or W-9 if the withholding agent has no reason to know that the entity classification is incorrect. A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation may also rely upon a written notification provided by the person who receives the payment, regardless of whether such notification is signed, that indicates the person's entity classification (other than as a QI, WP, or WT) unless the withholding agent knows or has reason to know that the entity classification indicated by the person who receives the payment is incorrect. A withholding agent may not rely on a person's claim of classification other than as a corporation if the person's name indicates that the person is a per se corporation described in § 301.7701-2(b)(8) of this chapter unless the certificate or written statement contains a statement that the person is a grandfathered per se corporation described in § 301.7701-2(b)(8) and that its grandfathered status has not been terminated.

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see § 1.1471-3T(b)(3).

(4)Determination of whether the payee is receiving effectively connected income. A withholding agent may treat a payment as being made to a payee that is receiving income that is effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States, or gross proceeds from the sale of property that can produce income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, if it can reliably associate the payment with a valid Form W-8ECI described in paragraph (c)(3)(v) of this section or if it can do so under the presumption rule in paragraph (f)(6) of this section.

(c)Rules for reliably associating a payment with a withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation - (1) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.1471-3T(c)(1).

(2)Reliably associating a payment with documentation if a payment is made through an intermediary or flow-through entity that is not the payee -

(i)In general. A withholding agent that makes a payment to a foreign intermediary or foreign flow-through entity that is not the payee under paragraph (a) of this section can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation if, in addition to the documentation described in paragraph (d) of this section that is relevant to each payee, the withholding agent also has obtained a valid Form W-8IMY, described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section, from the intermediary or flow-through entity (and, with respect to a payment made through a chain of intermediaries or flow-through entities, has received a valid Form W-8IMY from each intermediary or flow-through entity in that chain). An intermediary or flow-through entity that is a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI receiving a payment of U.S. source FDAP income may, in lieu of providing the withholding agent with documentation for each payee, provide pooled allocation information to the extent and in the manner permitted by paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(B)(2) of this section. With respect to the documentation provided for the owners of a foreign flow-through entity, the foreign flow-through entity is permitted to provide the documentary evidence described in paragraph (d) of this section applicable to each payee in lieu of a withholding certificate, regardless of whether the payment is made with respect to an offshore obligation.

(ii)Exception to entity account documentation rules for an offshore account of an intermediary or flow-through entity. In the case of an offshore account held by an intermediary or flow-through entity not receiving a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, an FFI may, in lieu of obtaining a withholding certificate, reliably associate such account with valid documentation if the FFI has obtained a written statement certifying as to the account holder's chapter 4 status and stating that the account holder is a flow-through entity or is acting as an intermediary with respect to the payment. In such case, the intermediary or flow-through entity will also be required to provide the withholding statement that generally accompanies the Form W-8IMY, designating the payees and the appropriate amount that should be allocated to each payee, and valid documentation for each payee. If no such withholding statement or underlying documentation is provided, the payment will be treated as made to a nonparticipating FFI.

(3)Requirements for validity of certificates -

(i)Form W-9. A valid Form W-9, or a substitute form, must meet the requirements prescribed in § 31.3406(h)-3 of this chapter, including the requirement that the form contain the payee's name and TIN, and be signed and dated under penalties of perjury by the payee or a person authorized to sign for the payee pursuant to sections 6061 through 6063 and the regulations thereunder. A foreign person, including a U.S. branch of a foreign person that is treated as a U.S. person under § 1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv), or a foreign branch of a U.S. financial institution that is a QI, may not provide a Form W-9.

(ii)Beneficial owner withholding certificate (Form W-8BEN). A beneficial owner withholding certificate includes a Form W-8BEN (or a substitute form) and such other form as the IRS may prescribe. A beneficial owner withholding certificate is valid only if its validity period has not expired, it is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to sign for the person whose name is on the form, and it contains -

(A) The person's name, permanent residence address, and TIN (if required);

(B) A certification that the person is not a U.S. citizen (if the person is an individual) or a certification of the country under the laws of which the person is created, incorporated, or governed (for a person other than an individual);

(C) The person's entity classification for U.S. tax purposes;

(D) The person's chapter 4 status; and

(E) Such other information required under paragraph (d) of this section applicable to the chapter 4 status selected or otherwise required by the regulations under section 1471 or 1472, or by the form or its accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information described in this paragraph (c)(3)(ii).

(iii)Withholding certificate of an intermediary, qualified intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch (Form W-8IMY) -

(A)In general. A withholding certificate of an intermediary, qualified intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch of such entity (whether or not such branch is treated as a U.S. person) is valid for purposes of chapter 4 only if it is furnished on a Form W-8IMY, an acceptable substitute form, or such other form as the IRS may prescribe, it is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to sign for the person named on the form, its validity period has not expired, and it contains the following information, statements, and certifications -

(1) The name and permanent residence address of the person.

(2) The country under the laws of which the person is created, incorporated, or governed.

(3) The person's entity classification for U.S. tax purposes.

(4) The person's chapter 4 status.

(5) A GIIN, in the case of a participating FFI or a registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a QI, WP, or WT that is a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI), and an EIN in the case of a QI, WP, or WT. Additionally, if a branch (other than a U.S. branch) of a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI outside of its country of residence acts as an intermediary, a GIIN of such branch must be provided on the withholding certificate. In the case of a U.S. branch, see the rules in paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(H) of this section.

(6) In the case of an intermediary certificate, a certification that, with respect to accounts listed on the withholding statement, the intermediary is not acting for its own account.

(7) With respect to a withholding certificate of a QI, a certification that it is acting as a QI with respect to the accounts listed on the withholding statement.

(8) In the case of a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a U.S. branch of either such entities that is not treated as a U.S. person) that is an NQI, NWP, NWT, or a QI that makes an election to be withheld upon, an FFI withholding statement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (c)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2) of this section.

(9) In the case of a territory financial institution that does not agree to be treated as a U.S. person or a U.S. branch that is not a U.S. branch of a participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, or nonparticipating FFI, a chapter 4 withholding statement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (c)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (3) of this section.

(10) In the case of an NFFE or certified deemed-compliant FFI that is an NQI, NWP, or NWT and is not the payee, a chapter 4 withholding statement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (c)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (3) of this section.

(11) In the case of a nonparticipating FFI receiving a payment on behalf of one or more exempt beneficial owners, an exempt beneficial owner withholding statement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (c)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (4) of this section.

(12) Any other information, certifications, or statements as may be required by the form or its accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information and certifications described in this paragraph.

(B)Withholding statement -

(1)In general. A withholding statement forms an integral part of the withholding certificate and the penalties of perjury statement provided on the withholding certificate applies to the withholding statement as well. The withholding statement may be provided in any manner, and in any form, to which the person submitting the form and the withholding agent mutually agree, including electronically. A withholding statement may be provided electronically only if it meets the requirements of § 1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv)(B). The withholding statement must be updated as often as necessary for the withholding agent to meet its reporting and withholding obligations under chapter 4. A withholding agent will be liable for tax, interest, and penalties under § 1.1474-1(a) to the extent it does not follow the presumption rules of paragraph (f) of this section for any payment, or portion thereof, for which a withholding statement is required and the withholding agent does not have a valid withholding statement prior to making a payment. A withholding agent that is making a withholdable payment for which a withholding statement is also required for purposes of chapter 3 may only rely upon the withholding statement if, in addition to providing the information required by paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(B) of this section, the withholding statement also includes all of the information required for purposes of chapter 3 and specifies the chapter 4 status of each payee or pool of payees identified on the withholding statement for purposes of chapter 3.

(2)Special requirements for an FFI withholding statement -

(i) An FFI withholding statement may include either payee-specific information or pooled information that indicates the portion of the payment allocable to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees, each class of recalcitrant account holders described in § 1.1471-1(b)(20)(i), or a class of nonparticipating FFIs. In addition, an FFI withholding statement may include an allocation of a portion of the payment to a pool of account holders (other than nonqualified intermediaries and flow-through entities) for whom no reporting is required on any of Forms 1042-S, 1099, and 8966, provided that the FFI provides to the withholding agent for each account holder payee-specific information (including the payee's chapter 4 status (using the applicable status code used for filing Form 1042-S)) and any other information required for purposes of chapter 3 or 61 on the withholding statement, and the FFI provides documentation for each account holder in the pool (an exempt payee pool). For example, a participating FFI may provide on its withholding statement an exempt payee pool for a payment of U.S. source interest on a bank deposit not subject to withholding or reporting under chapter 4 that is allocable to a pool of foreign account holders (that is, a withholdable payment that is not reported on any of Forms 1042-S, 1099, and 8966) and provide to the withholding agent documentation for each account holder included in the pool. If payee-specific information is provided for purposes of chapter 4 it must indicate both the portion of the payment allocated to each payee and each payee's chapter 4 status (using the applicable status code used for filing Form 1042-S). A participating FFI that applies the escrow procedures described in § 1.1471-4(b)(6) for dormant accounts must also indicate the portion of the payment allocated to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of recalcitrant account holders that hold dormant accounts for which the participating FFI (and not the withholding agent) will withhold in escrow. The withholding statement provided by a participating FFI that applies the election to backup withhold under § 1.1471-4(b)(3)(iii) must also indicate the portion of the reportable payment that is a withholdable payment allocated to each recalcitrant account holder subject to backup withholding under section 3406. See section 3406 for when backup withholding is required, including the exception to backup withholding under § 31.3406(g)-1(e). Regardless of whether the FFI withholding statement provides information on a pooled or payee-specific basis, a withholding statement provided by an FFI other than an FFI acting as a WP, WT, or QI with respect to the account must also identify each intermediary or flow-through entity that receives the payment and such entity's chapter 4 status (using the applicable status code used for filing Form 1042-S) and GIIN (when required under paragraph (d) of this section), when applicable. An FFI withholding statement must also include any other information that the withholding agent or payor reasonably requests in order to fulfill its obligations under chapter 4, and chapters 3 and 61, if applicable.

(ii) An FFI withholding statement provided by a reporting Model 2 FFI or a reporting Model 1 FFI may indicate, with respect to a withholdable payment, that the payment is allocable to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees, which is comprised of account holders receiving a payment that is not subject to withholding under chapter 3 or 4 or to backup withholding under section 3406 and that are, with respect to a reporting Model 2 FFI, the holders of non-consenting U.S. accounts as described in an applicable IGA when the FFI reports the accounts in one of the pools described in § 1.1471-4(d)(6) for the year in which the payment is made; or with respect to a reporting Model 1 FFI, the holders of accounts that have U.S. indicia for which appropriate documentation sufficient to treat the accounts as held by other than specified U.S. persons has not been provided pursuant to an applicable Model 1 IGA and the reporting Model 1 FFI reports the accounts as U.S. reportable accounts pursuant to the applicable Model 1 IGA for the year in which the payment is made.

(iii) An FFI withholding statement provided by a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI that is a non-U.S. payor (a payor other than a U.S. payor as defined in § 1.6049-5(c)(5)) may indicate, with respect to a withholdable payment, that the payment is allocable to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees (in addition to the U.S. payees described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(B)(2)(ii) of this section), which is comprised of account holders that are not subject to withholding under chapter 3 or 4 or to backup withholding under section 3406 and that are, with respect to a participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI), account holders that hold U.S. accounts (as defined in § 1.1471-1(b)(134) and an applicable Model 2 IGA) that the FFI reports as U.S. accounts pursuant to § 1.1471-4(d)(3) or (5) for the year in which the payment is made; with respect to a registered deemed-compliant FFI (other than a reporting Model 1 FFI), account holders of U.S. accounts that the FFI reports pursuant to the conditions of its applicable deemed-compliant status under § 1.1471-5(f)(1) for the year in which the payment is made; or with respect to a reporting Model 1 FFI, account holders of U.S. accounts that the reporting Model 1 FFI reports as reportable U.S. accounts pursuant to an applicable Model 1 IGA, and which includes the U.S. TINs of such account holders, for the year in which the payment is made.

(iv) An FFI withholding statement provided by a participating FFI or a registered deemed-compliant FFI may include a certification that the FFI is reporting, for the year in which the payment is made, an account held by a passive NFFE with one or more substantial U.S. owners (or, with respect to a reporting Model 1 FFI or reporting Model 2 FFI, one or more controlling persons that are specified U.S. persons, as defined in an applicable IGA) as a U.S. account (excluding a non-consenting U.S. account or an account held by a recalcitrant account holder) or, with respect to a reporting Model 1 FFI, a U.S. reportable account, in accordance with the terms of the FFI agreement or an applicable IGA.

(v) An FFI withholding statement provided by a participating FFI or a reporting Model 1 FFI may include a certification that the FFI is reporting to the IRS for the year of the payment all of the information described in § 1.1471-4(d) or § 1.1474-1(i)(1) (as applicable) with respect to all specified U.S. persons described in § 1.1471-3(d)(6)(iv)(A)(1) and (2) with respect to an account holder or payee that the FFI has agreed to treat as an owner-documented FFI.

(3)Special requirements for a chapter 4 withholding statement. A chapter 4 withholding statement must contain the name, address, TIN (if any), entity type, and chapter 4 status (using the applicable status code used for filing Form 1042-S) of each payee, the amount allocated to each payee, a valid withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation sufficient to establish the chapter 4 status of each payee, and each intermediary or flow-through entity that receives the payment on behalf of the payee, in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, and any other information the withholding agent reasonably requests in order to fulfill its obligations under chapter 4. Notwithstanding the prior sentence, a chapter 4 withholding statement is permitted to provide pooled allocation information with respect to payees that are treated as nonparticipating FFIs (in lieu of providing the withholding agent with documentation for each payee). A chapter 4 withholding statement may include an allocation of a portion of the payment to a pool of payees (rather than to each payee) for whom no reporting is required on any of Forms 1042-S, 1099, and 8966, provided each payee is identified on the withholding statement and documentation is provided to the withholding agent for each payee included in the pool. If the withholdable payment is a reportable amount under chapter 3, see the provisions of § 1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv)(C) for any additional information that may be required on the withholding statement (including pooled information under the alternative procedures described in § 1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv)(D), if applicable).

(4)Special requirements for an exempt beneficial owner withholding statement. An exempt beneficial owner withholding statement must include the name, address, TIN (if any), entity type, and chapter 4 status (using the applicable status code used for filing Form 1042-S) of each exempt beneficial owner on behalf of which the nonparticipating FFI is receiving the payment, the amount of the payment allocable to each exempt beneficial owner, a valid withholding certificate or other documentation sufficient to establish the chapter 4 status of each exempt beneficial owner in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, and any other information the withholding agent reasonably requests in order to fulfill its obligations under chapter 4. The withholding statement must allocate the remainder of the payment that is not allocated to an exempt beneficial owner to the nonparticipating FFI receiving the payment. With respect to the amount of the payment allocable to each exempt beneficial owner and subject to withholding under chapter 3, see § 1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv).

(5) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.1471-3T(c)(3)(iii)(B)(5).

(C)Failure to provide allocation information. A withholding certificate that fails to provide allocation information or any of the required documentation for one or more of the payees will not be treated as invalid with respect to the persons for whom valid documentation and allocation information is properly provided. The portion of the payment that is not reliably associated with underlying documentation or that is not properly allocated will be treated in accordance with the presumption rules set forth in paragraph (f) of this section. For example, assume a withholding certificate that is provided by a participating FFI that is an NQI includes an FFI withholding statement that indicates that 50 percent of the payment is allocable to payees that are exempt for purposes of chapter 4 but does not allocate the remaining 50 percent of the payment for purposes of chapter 4. In such case, the withholding agent may treat 50 percent of the payment as exempt from chapter 4 and the remaining 50 percent that was not allocated will be treated, under the presumption rules set forth in paragraph (f) of this section, as made to a pool of payees that are nonparticipating FFIs.

(D)Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate of a QI that assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3. A QI that assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 for a payment may not make an election to be withheld upon, as described in § 1.1471-2(a)(2)(iii), with respect to that payment. Thus, if a QI assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 with respect to a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, in addition to the other requirements described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(A) of this section, a withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a valid withholding certificate only when the QI has also indicated on the intermediary withholding certificate that it will assume primary withholding responsibility for that payment for purposes of chapter 4.

(E)Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate of a QI that does not assume primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3. A QI that does not assume primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 with respect to a payment of U.S. source FDAP income will be required to make the election to be withheld upon with respect to that payment. Thus, if a QI does not assume primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3, a withholding agent can reliably associate a payment of U.S. source FDAP income with a valid withholding certificate only when, in addition to the other information required by paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(A) of this section, the withholding certificate indicates that the QI does not assume primary withholding responsibility for that payment for purposes of chapter 4.

(F)Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate of a territory financial institution that agrees to be treated as a U.S. person. A withholding agent may reliably associate a payment with an intermediary withholding certificate or flow-through withholding certificate of a territory financial institution that agrees to be treated as a U.S. person if, in addition to the other information required by paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(A) of this section, the certificate contains an EIN of the territory financial institution and a certification that the territory financial institution agrees to be treated as a U.S. person and accepts primary withholding responsibility with respect to the payment for purposes of both chapters 3 and 4.

(G)Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate of a territory financial institution that does not agree to be treated as a U.S. person. A withholding agent may reliably associate a payment with an intermediary withholding certificate or a flow-through withholding certificate of a territory financial institution that does not agree to be treated as a U.S. person if, in addition to the information required by paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(A) of this section, the certificate indicates that the institution has not agreed to be treated as a U.S. person for purposes of chapter 4 and the institution provides a withholding statement described in paragraphs (c)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (3) of this section.

(H)Rules applicable to a withholding certificate of a U.S. branch. A withholding agent may reliably associate a payment with a withholding certificate of a U.S. branch of an FFI that is treated as a U.S. person for purposes of § 1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv) if, in addition to the other information required by paragraph (c)(2)(iii)(A) of this section, the certificate contains the EIN of the U.S. branch and a certification that the U.S. branch is described in paragraph § 1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv) and, accordingly, is required to accept primary withholding responsibility with respect to the payment for purposes of both chapters 3 and 4. A withholding agent may reliably associate a payment with a withholding certificate of a U.S. branch of an FFI that is not treated as a U.S. person and that applies the rules described in § 1.1471-4(d)(2)(iii)(C) if, in addition to the other information required by paragraph (c)(2)(iii)(A) of this section, the certificate contains the EIN of the U.S. branch and a certification that the U.S. branch applies the rules described in § 1.1471-4(d)(2)(iii)(C). However, the requirement to obtain the certification that a U.S. branch applies the rules described in § 1.1471-4(d)(2)(iii)(C) shall not apply to payments made on or before June 30, 2017.

(iv)Certificate for exempt status (Form W-8EXP). A Form W-8EXP is valid only if it contains the name, address, and chapter 4 status of the payee, the relevant certifications or documentation, and any other requirements indicated in the instructions to the form, and is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to sign for the payee.

(v)Certificate for effectively connected income (Form W-8ECI). A Form W-8ECI is valid only if, in addition to meeting the requirements in the instructions to the form, it contains the name, address, and TIN of the payee (other than a GIIN), represents that the amounts for which the certificate is furnished are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States and are includable in the payee's gross income for the taxable year (or are gross proceeds from the sale of property that can produce income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States), and is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to sign for the payee.

(4)Requirements for written statements. A written statement is a statement by the payee, or other person receiving the payment, that provides the person's chapter 4 status and any other information reasonably requested by the withholding agent to fulfill its obligations under chapter 4 with respect to the payment, such as whether the person is receiving the payment as a beneficial owner, intermediary, or flow-through entity. A written statement is valid only if it is provided by a person with respect to an offshore obligation, contains the name of the person, the person's address, the certifications relevant to the person's chapter 4 status (as contained on a withholding certificate), any additional information required with respect to the chapter 4 status claimed as provided under paragraph (d) of this section (for example, a GIIN), and a signed and dated certification that the information provided on the form is accurate and will be updated by the individual within 30 days of a change in circumstances that causes the form to become incorrect. A written statement may be submitted in any form that is acceptable to the withholding agent, including a statement made as part of the account opening documentation. A written statement may be used in lieu of a withholding certificate only to the extent provided under § 1.1471-3(d), as applicable to the chapter 4 status claimed.

(5)Requirements for documentary evidence. Documentary evidence with respect to a payee is only reliable if it contains sufficient information to support the payee's claim of chapter 4 status.

(i)Foreign status. Acceptable documentary evidence supporting a claim of foreign status includes the following types of documentation if the documentation contains a permanent residence address for the person named on the documentation (or indicates the country in which a person that is an individual is a resident or citizen or the country in which a person that is an entity has a permanent residence or is incorporated or organized, if the withholding agent has otherwise obtained a current permanent residence address for the person) -

(A)Certificate of residence. A certificate of residence issued by an appropriate tax official of the country in which the payee claims to be a resident that indicates that the payee has filed its most recent income tax return as a resident of that country;

(B)Individual government identification. With respect to an individual, any valid identification issued by an authorized government body (for example, a government or agency thereof, or a municipality), that is typically used for identification purposes;

(C)QI documentation. With respect to an account maintained in a jurisdiction with anti-money laundering rules that have been approved by the IRS in connection with a QI agreement (as referenced in § 1.1441-1(e)(5)(iii)), any of the documents other than a Form W-8 or W-9 referenced in the jurisdiction's attachment to the QI agreement for identifying individuals or entities;

(D)Entity government documentation. With respect to an entity, any documentation that substantiates that the entity is actually organized or created under the laws of a foreign country; and

(E)Third-party credit report. For a payment made with respect to an offshore obligation to an individual, a third-party credit report that is obtained pursuant to the conditions described in § 1.1471-4(c)(4)(ii).

(ii)Chapter 4 status. Acceptable documentary evidence supporting an entity's claim of chapter 4 status includes -

(A)General documentary evidence. With respect to an entity other than a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI, any organizational document (such as articles of incorporation or a trust agreement), financial statement, third-party credit report, letter from a government agency, or statement from a government Web site, agency, or registrar (such as an SEC report) to the extent permitted in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section;

(B)Preexisting obligation documentary evidence. With respect to a preexisting obligation of an entity, any classification in the withholding agent's records with respect to the payee that was determined based on documentation supplied by the payee (or other person receiving the payment) or a standardized industry coding system and that was recorded by the withholding agent consistent with its normal business practices for AML or another regulatory purpose (other than for tax purposes), to the extent permitted by paragraph (d) of this section and provided there is no U.S. indicia associated with the payee for which appropriate curing documentation has not been obtained as set forth in paragraph (e) of this section; and

(C)Payee-specific documentary evidence. A letter from an auditor or attorney with a location in the United States that is not related to the withholding agent or payee and is subject to the authority of a regulatory body that governs the auditor's or attorney's review of the chapter 4 status of the payee, any bankruptcy filing, corporate resolution, copy of a stock market index or other document to the extent permitted in the specific payee documentation requirements in paragraph (d) and (e) of this section.

(6)Applicable rules for withholding certificates, written statements, and documentary evidence. The provisions in this paragraph (c)(6) describe standards generally applicable to withholding certificates on Forms W-8 (or substitute forms), written statements, and documentary evidence furnished to establish the payee's chapter 4 status. These provisions do not apply to Forms W-9 (or their substitutes). For corresponding provisions regarding the Form W-9 (or a substitute Form W-9), see section 3406 and the regulations thereunder.

(i)Who may sign the withholding certificate or written statement. A withholding certificate (including an acceptable substitute) or written statement may be signed by any person authorized to sign a declaration under penalties of perjury on behalf of the person whose name is on the certificate or written statement, as provided in sections 6061 through 6063 and the regulations thereunder. A person authorized to sign a withholding certificate or written statement includes an officer or director of a corporation, a partner of a partnership, a trustee of a trust, an executor of an estate, any foreign equivalent of the former titles, and any other person that has been provided written authorization by the individual or entity named on the certificate or written statement to sign documentation on such person's behalf.

(ii)Period of validity -

(A)General rule. Except as provided otherwise in paragraphs (c)(6)(ii)(B) and (C) of this section, a withholding certificate or written statement will remain valid until the last day of the third calendar year following the year in which the withholding certificate or written statement is signed. Documentary evidence is generally valid until the last day of the third calendar year following the year in which the documentary evidence is provided to the withholding agent. Nevertheless, documentary evidence that contains an expiration date may be treated as valid until that expiration date if doing so would provide a longer period of validity than the three-year period. Notwithstanding the validity periods permitted by paragraphs (c)(6)(ii)(A) through (D) of this section, a withholding certificate, written statement, and documentary evidence will cease to be valid if the withholding agent has knowledge of a change in circumstances that makes the information on the documentation incorrect. Therefore, a withholding agent is required to institute procedures to ensure that any change to the customer master files that constitutes a change in circumstances described in paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(E) of this section is identified by the withholding agent. In addition, a withholding agent is required to notify any person providing documentation of the person's obligation to notify the withholding agent of a change in circumstances.

(B)Indefinite validity. Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, the following certificates (or parts of certificates), written statements, or documentary evidence shall remain valid until the withholding agent has knowledge of a change in circumstances that makes the information on the documentation incorrect -

(1) A withholding certificate or written statement provided by a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI that has furnished a valid GIIN that has been verified by the withholding agent in the manner set forth in paragraph (e)(3) of this section;

(2) A beneficial owner withholding certificate and documentary evidence supporting the individual's claim of foreign status when both are provided together (as defined in § 1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii)(B)(1)) by an individual claiming foreign status, if the withholding agent does not have a current U.S. residence or U.S. mailing address for the payee and does not have one or more current U.S. telephone numbers that are the only telephone numbers the withholding agent has for the payee;

(3) A beneficial owner withholding certificate that is provided by an entity described in paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(C)(2) of this section (other than an entity described in paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(C)(2)(iii) of this section) and documentary evidence establishing the entity's foreign status when both are received by the withholding agent before the validity period of either would otherwise expire under paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(A) of this section;

(4) A withholding certificate of an intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch (not including the withholding certificates, written statements, or documentary evidence of the payees, or withholding statements associated with the withholding certificate);

(5) A withholding certificate, written statement, or documentary evidence furnished by a foreign government, government of a U.S. territory, foreign central bank (including the Bank for International Settlements), international organization, or entity that is wholly owned by any such entities;

(6) Documentary evidence that is not generally renewed or amended (such as a certificate of incorporation); and

(7) For the validity period of a beneficial owner withholding certificate provided by an entity described in paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(C)(2)(iii) of this section, see § 1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii).

(C)Indefinite validity in the case of certain offshore obligations. Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, the following certificates, written statements, and documentary evidence that are provided with respect to offshore obligations shall remain valid until a change in circumstances occurs that makes the information on the documentation incorrect -

(1) A withholding certificate or documentary evidence provided by an individual claiming foreign status if the withholding agent does not have a current U.S. residence or U.S. mailing address for the payee, does not have one or more current U.S. telephone numbers that are the only telephone numbers the withholding agent has for the payee, and has not been provided standing instructions to make a payment in the United States for the obligation;

(2) A withholding certificate, written statement, or documentary evidence provided by one of the following entities if such entity is the payee -

(i) A retirement fund described in § 1.1471-6(f) or an entity that is wholly owned by such a retirement fund;

(ii) An excepted nonfinancial group entity described in § 1.1471-5(e)(5)(i);

(iii) A section 501(c) entity described in § 1.1471-5(e)(5)(v);

(iv) A non-profit organization described in § 1.1471-5(e)(5)(vi);

(v) A nonreporting IGA FFI;

(vi) A territory financial institution;

(vii) An NFFE whose stock is regularly traded as described in § 1.1472-1(c)(1)(i);

(viii) An NFFE affiliate described in § 1.1472-1(c)(1)(ii);

(ix) An active NFFE that the withholding agent has determined, through its AML due diligence, is engaged in a business other than that of a financial institution, and ongoing monitoring of the account for purposes of AML due diligence does not indicate that the determination is incorrect; and

(x) A sponsored FFI described in § 1.1471-5(f)(1)(i)(F);

(3) A withholding certificate or written statement of an owner-documented FFI, but not including the withholding statements, documentary evidence, and withholding certificates of its owners (unless such documentation is permitted indefinite validity under another provision);

(4) An owner reporting statement associated with a withholding certificate of an owner-documented FFI, provided the account balance of all accounts held by such owner-documented FFI with the withholding agent does not exceed $1,000,000 on the later of June 30, 2014, or the last day of the calendar year in which the account was opened, and the last day of each subsequent calendar year preceding the payment, applying the aggregation principles of § 1.1471-5(b)(4)(iii), and the owner-documented FFI does not have any contingent beneficiaries or designated classes with unidentified beneficiaries; and

(5) A withholding certificate of a passive NFFE or excepted territory NFFE, provided the account balance of all accounts held by such entity with the withholding agent does not exceed $1,000,000 on the later of June 30, 2014, or the last day of the calendar year in which the account was opened, and the last day of each subsequent calendar year preceding the payment, applying the aggregation principles of § 1.1471-5(b)(4)(iii), and the withholding agent does not know or have reason to know that the entity has any contingent beneficiaries or designated classes with unidentified beneficiaries.

(D)Exception for certificate for effectively connected income. Notwithstanding paragraphs (c)(6)(ii)(B) to (C) of this section, the period of validity of a withholding certificate furnished to a withholding agent to claim a reduced rate of withholding for income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall be limited to the three-year period described in paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(A) of this section.

(E)Change in circumstances -

(1)Defined. For purposes of this chapter, a person is considered to have a change in circumstances only if such change would affect the chapter 4 status of the person. A change in circumstances includes any change that results in the addition of information described in paragraph (e)(4) relevant to a person's claim of foreign status (that is, U.S. indicia that is not otherwise cured by documentation on file and that is relevant to the chapter 4 status claimed) or otherwise conflicts with such person's claim of chapter 4 status. Unless stated otherwise, a change of address or telephone number is a change in circumstances for purposes of this paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(E) only if it changes to an address or telephone number in the United States. A change in circumstances affecting the withholding information provided to the withholding agent, including allocation information or withholding pools contained in a withholding statement or owner reporting statement, will terminate the validity of the withholding certificate with respect to the information that is no longer reliable, until the information is updated.

(2)Obligation to notify withholding agent of a change in circumstances. If a change in circumstances makes any information on a certificate or other documentation incorrect, then the person whose name is on the certificate or other documentation must inform the withholding agent within 30 days of the change and furnish a new certificate, a new written statement, or new documentary evidence. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, if an FFI's chapter 4 status changes solely because the jurisdiction in which the FFI is resident, organized, or located is later treated as having an IGA in effect (including a jurisdiction that had a Model 2 IGA in effect and is later treated as having a Model 1 IGA in effect) or ceases to be treated as having an IGA in effect, in lieu of providing a new withholding certificate, the FFI may, within 30 days of such change in circumstances, provide to the withholding agent oral or written confirmation (including by email) of the change in the FFI's chapter 4 status. If an intermediary or a flow-through entity becomes aware that a certificate or other appropriate documentation it has furnished to the person from whom it collects a payment is no longer valid because of a change in the circumstances of the person who issued the certificate or furnished the other appropriate documentation, then the intermediary or flow-through entity must notify the person from whom it collects the payment of the change in circumstances within 30 days of the date that it knows or has reason to know of the change in circumstances. It must also obtain a new withholding certificate or new appropriate documentation to replace the existing certificate or documentation the validity of which has expired due to the change in circumstances.

(3)Withholding agent's obligation with respect to a change in circumstances. A certificate or other documentation becomes invalid on the date that the withholding agent holding the certificate or documentation knows or has reason to know that circumstances affecting the correctness of the certificate or documentation have changed. A withholding agent will not have reason to know of a change in circumstances with respect to an FFI's chapter 4 status that results solely because a jurisdiction is later treated as having an IGA in effect (including a jurisdiction that had a Model 2 IGA in effect and is later treated as having a Model 1 IGA in effect) until the withholding agent obtains the confirmation of a change in the FFI's chapter 4 status described in paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(E)(2) of this section (which will become part of the FFI's withholding certificate or other documentation retained by the withholding agent). See paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(E)(4) of this section for when a withholding agent has reason to know of a change in circumstances that results solely because a jurisdiction ceases to be treated as having an IGA in effect. A withholding agent may choose to treat a person as having the same chapter 4 status that it had prior to the change in circumstances until the earlier of 90 days from the date that the certificate or documentation became invalid due to the change in circumstances or the date that a new certificate or new documentation is obtained. See, however, § 1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii)(D) for requirements, including the requirement to withhold under chapter 3 or section 3406, applicable when a change in circumstances occurs for purposes of chapter 3 and the related grace period allowed under § 1.1441-1(b)(3)(iv). A withholding agent may rely on a certificate without having to inquire into possible changes of circumstances that may affect the validity of the statement, unless it knows or has reason to know that circumstances have changed. A withholding agent may require a new certificate or additional documentation at any time prior to a payment, regardless of whether the withholding agent knows or has reason to know that any information stated on the certificate or documentation has changed.

(4) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.1471-3T(c)(6)(ii)(E)(4).

(iii)Record Retention -

(A)In general. A withholding agent must retain each withholding certificate, written statement, or copy of documentary evidence for as long as it may be relevant to the determination of the withholding agent's tax liability under section 1474(a) and § 1.1474-1. A withholding agent may retain an original, certified copy, or photocopy (including a microfiche, electronic scan, or similar means of electronic storage) of the withholding certificate, written statement, or documentary evidence. With respect to documentary evidence, the withholding agent must also note in its records the date on which the document was received and reviewed. Any documentation that is stored electronically must be made available in hard copy form to the IRS upon request during an examination.

(B)Exception for documentary evidence received with respect to offshore obligations. A withholding agent that is making a payment with respect to an offshore obligation and is not required to retain copies of documentation reviewed pursuant to its AML due diligence, may, in lieu of retaining the documents as set forth in paragraph (c)(6)(iii)(A), retain a notation of the type of documentation reviewed, the date the documentation was reviewed, the document's identification number (if any) (for example, a passport number), and whether such documentation contained any U.S. indicia. The previous sentence applies with respect to an offshore obligation that is also a preexisting obligation, except, in such case, the requirement to record whether the documentation contained U.S. indicia does not apply. See also § 1.1471-4(c)(2)(iv) for the record retention requirements of a participating FFI.

(iv)Electronic transmission of withholding certificate, written statement, and documentary evidence. A withholding agent may accept a withholding certificate (including an acceptable substitute form), a written statement, or other such form as the IRS may prescribe, electronically in accordance with the requirements set forth in § 1.1441-1(e)(4)(iv).

(v)Acceptable substitute withholding certificate -

(A)In general. A withholding agent may substitute its own form for an official Form W-8 (or such other official form as the IRS may prescribe). A substitute form will be acceptable if it contains provisions that are substantially similar to those of the official form, it contains the same certifications relevant to the transactions as are contained on the official form and these certifications are clearly set forth, and the substitute form includes a signature-under-penalties-of-perjury statement identical to the one on the official form. The substitute form is acceptable even if it does not contain all of the provisions contained on the official form, so long as it contains those provisions that are relevant to the transaction for which it is furnished. A withholding agent may choose to provide a substitute form that does not include all of the chapter 4 statuses provided on the official version but the substitute form must include any chapter 4 status for which withholding may apply, such as the categories for a nonparticipating FFI or passive NFFE. A withholding agent that uses a substitute form must furnish instructions relevant to the substitute form only to the extent and in the manner specified in the instructions to the official form. A withholding agent may use a substitute form that is written in a language other than English and may accept a form that is filled out in a language other than English, but the withholding agent must make available an English translation of the form and its contents to the IRS upon request. A withholding agent may refuse to accept a certificate (including the official Form W-8) from a person if the certificate provided is not an acceptable substitute form provided by the withholding agent, but only if the withholding agent furnishes the person with an acceptable substitute form within five business days of receipt of an unacceptable form from the person. In that case, the substitute form is acceptable only if it contains a notice that the withholding agent has refused to accept the form submitted by the person and that the person must submit the acceptable form provided by the withholding agent in order for the person to be treated as having furnished the required withholding certificate.

(B)Non-IRS form for individuals. A withholding agent may also substitute its own form for an official Form W-8BEN (for individuals), regardless of whether the substitute form is titled a Form W-8. However, in addition to the name and address of the individual that is the payee or beneficial owner, the substitute form must provide all countries in which the individual is resident for tax purposes, country of birth, a tax identification number (if any) for each country of residence, the individual's date of birth, and must contain a signed and dated certification made under penalties of perjury that the information provided on the form is accurate and will be updated by the individual within 30 days of a change in circumstances that causes the form to become incorrect. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, the signed certification provided on a form need not be signed under penalties of perjury if the form is accompanied by documentary evidence that supports the individual's claim of foreign status. Such documentary evidence may be the same documentary evidence that is used to support foreign status in the case of a payee whose account has U.S. indicia as described in paragraph (e) of this section or § 1.1471-4(c)(4)(i)(A). The form may also request other information required for purposes of tax or AML due diligence in the United States or in other countries.

(vi)Electronic confirmation of TIN on withholding certificate. The Commissioner may prescribe procedures in a revenue procedure or other appropriate guidance to require a withholding agent to confirm electronically with the IRS information concerning any TIN stated on a withholding certificate.

(vii)Reliance on a prior version of a withholding certificate. Upon the issuance by the IRS of an updated version of a withholding certificate, a withholding agent may continue to accept the prior version of the withholding certificate in accordance with the requirements of § 1.1441-1(e)(4)(viii)(C) and without regard to whether a withholdable payment associated with the certificate is subject to withholding under § 1.1441-2(a).

(7)Curing documentation errors. The provisions in this paragraph (c)(7) describe standards generally applicable to withholding certificates (Forms W-8 or substitute forms), written statements, and documentary evidence furnished to establish the payee's chapter 4 status. These provisions do not apply to Forms W-9 (or their substitutes). For corresponding provisions regarding the Form W-9 (or a substitute Form W-9), see section 3406 and the regulations thereunder.

(i)Curing inconsequential errors on a withholding certificate. A withholding agent may treat a withholding certificate as valid, notwithstanding that the withholding certificate contains an inconsequential error, if the withholding agent has sufficient documentation on file to supplement the information missing from the withholding certificate due to the error. In such case, the documentation relied upon to cure the inconsequential error must be conclusive. For example, a withholding certificate in which the individual submitting the form abbreviated the country of residence in an ambiguous way may be treated as valid, notwithstanding the abbreviation, if the withholding agent has government issued identification for the person from a country that reasonably matches the abbreviation. On the other hand, an ambiguous abbreviation for the country of residence that does not reasonably match the country of residence shown on the person's passport is not an inconsequential error. A failure to select an entity type on a withholding certificate is not an inconsequential error, even if the withholding agent has an organization document for the entity that provides sufficient information to determine the person's entity type, if the person was eligible to make an election under § 301.7701-3(c)(1)(i) of this chapter (that is, a check-the-box election). A failure to check a box to make a required certification on the withholding certificate or to provide a country of residence or a country under which treaty benefits are sought is not an inconsequential error. In addition, information on a withholding certificate that contradicts other information contained on the withholding certificate or in the customer master file is not an inconsequential error.

(ii) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.1471-3T(c)(7)(ii).

(8)Documentation furnished on account-by-account basis unless exception provided for sharing documentation within expanded affiliated group. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (c)(8), a withholding agent that is a financial institution with which a customer may open an account must obtain withholding certificates, written statements, Forms W-9, or documentary evidence on an account-by-account basis. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, a withholding agent may rely upon the withholding certificate, written statement, or documentary evidence furnished by a customer under any one or more of the circumstances described in this paragraph (c)(8).

(i)Single branch systems. A withholding agent may rely on documentation furnished by a customer for another account if both accounts are held at the same branch location and both accounts are treated as consolidated obligations.

(ii)Universal account systems. A withholding agent may rely on documentation furnished by a customer for an account held at another branch location of the same withholding agent or at a branch location of a member of the expanded affiliated group of the withholding agent if the withholding agent treats all accounts that share documentation as consolidated obligations and the withholding agent and the other branch location or expanded affiliated group member are part of a universal account system that uses a customer identifier that can be used to retrieve systematically all other accounts of the customer. A withholding agent that opts to rely upon the chapter 4 status designated for the payee in the universal account system without obtaining and reviewing copies of the documentation supporting the status must be able to produce all documentation (or a notation of the documentary evidence reviewed if the withholding agent is not required to retain copies of the documentary evidence) relevant to the chapter 4 status claimed upon request by the IRS and will be liable for any underwithholding that results from any failure to assign the correct status based upon the available information.

(iii)Shared account systems. A withholding agent may rely on documentation furnished by a customer for an account held at another branch location of the same withholding agent or at a branch location of a member of the expanded affiliated group of the withholding agent if the withholding agent treats all accounts that share documentation as a consolidated obligation and the withholding agent and the other branch location or expanded affiliated group member share an information system, electronic or otherwise, that is described in this paragraph (c)(8)(iii). The system must allow the withholding agent to easily access data regarding the nature of the documentation, the information contained in the documentation (including a copy of the documentation itself), and the validity status of the documentation. The information system must also allow the withholding agent to easily transmit data into the system regarding any facts of which it becomes aware that may affect the reliability of the documentation. The withholding agent must be able to establish, to the extent applicable, how and when it has transmitted data regarding any facts of which it became aware that may affect the reliability of the documentation and must be able to establish that any data it has transmitted to the information system has been processed and appropriate due diligence has been exercised regarding the validity of the documentation. A withholding agent that opts to rely upon the chapter 4 status designated for the payee in the shared account system without obtaining and reviewing copies of the documentation supporting the status must be able to produce all documentation (or a notation of the documentary evidence reviewed if the withholding agent is not required to retain copies of the documentary evidence) relevant to the chapter 4 status claimed upon request by the IRS and will be liable for any underwithholding that results from any failure to assign the correct status based upon the available information.

(iv)Document sharing for gross proceeds. [Reserved]

(v)Preexisting account. A withholding agent may rely on documentation furnished by a payee for a preexisting account held at another branch location of the same withholding agent or at a branch location of a member of the expanded affiliated group of the withholding agent if the withholding agent obtains and reviews copies of such documentation supporting the chapter 4 status designated for the payee and the withholding agent has no reason to know that, at the time the documentation is obtained by the withholding agent, the documentation is unreliable or incorrect. For example, the withholding agent may not rely on documentation furnished by a payee for a preexisting account held at another branch location of the same withholding agent or at a branch location of a member of the expanded affiliated group of the withholding agent if, based on information in the withholding agent's account records, the withholding agent has reason to know that such documentation is unreliable or incorrect.

(9)Reliance on documentation collected by or certifications provided by other persons -

(i)Shared documentation system maintained by an agent. A withholding agent may rely on documentation collected by an agent (including a fund advisor for mutual funds, hedge funds, or a private equity group) of the withholding agent. The agent may retain the documentation as part of an information system maintained for a single withholding agent or multiple withholding agents provided that under the system, any withholding agent on behalf of which the agent retains documentation may easily access data regarding the nature of the documentation, the information contained in the documentation (including a copy of the documentation itself) and its validity, and must allow such withholding agent to easily transmit data, either directly into an electronic system or by providing such information to the agent, regarding any facts of which it becomes aware that may affect the reliability of the documentation. The withholding agent must be able to establish, to the extent applicable, how and when it has transmitted data regarding any facts of which it became aware that may affect the reliability of the documentation and must be able to establish that any data it has transmitted has been processed and appropriate due diligence has been exercised regarding the validity of the documentation. The agent must have a system in effect to ensure that any information it receives regarding facts that affect the reliability of the documentation or the chapter 4 status assigned to the customer are provided to all withholding agents for which the agent retains the documentation and any chapter 4 status assigned by the agent is amended to incorporate such information. A withholding agent that opts to rely upon the chapter 4 status assigned by the agent without obtaining and reviewing copies of the documentation supporting the status must be able to produce all documentation relevant to the chapter 4 status claimed upon request by the IRS and will be liable for any underwithholding that results from a failure of the agent to assign the correct status based upon the available information. See § 1.1474-1(a) for a withholding agent's liability when it relies upon an agent for chapter 4 purposes. This paragraph (c)(9)(i) does not apply to a withholding certificate provided by a QI, a withholding certificate provided by a territory financial institution that elects to be treated as a U.S. person, or any withholding statement, unless the person submitting the form specifically identifies the withholding agents for which the certificates and/or statements are provided.

(ii)Third-party data providers. A withholding agent may rely upon documentation collected by a third-party data provider with respect to an entity, subject to the conditions described in this paragraph (c)(9)(ii).

(A) The third-party data provider must have collected documentation that is sufficient to determine the chapter 4 status of the entity under paragraph (d) of this section.

(B) The third-party data provider must be in the business of providing credit reports or business reports to customers unrelated to it and must have reviewed all information it has for the entity and verified that such additional information does not conflict with the chapter 4 status claimed by the entity. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(9)(ii)(B), a customer is related to a third-party data provider if they have a relationship with each other that is described in section 267(b).

(C) The third-party data provider must notify the entity submitting the documentation that such entity must notify the third-party data provider in the event of a change in circumstances within 30 days of the change in circumstances, and the third-party data provider must be obligated under its contract with the withholding agent to notify the withholding agent if a change in circumstances occurs.

(D) The withholding agent may not rely upon a chapter 4 status provided by a third-party data provider if the withholding agent knows or has reason to know that the chapter 4 status is unreliable or incorrect based on information in the withholding agent's account records, or if the documentation or information provided by the third-party data provider does not support the chapter 4 status claimed.

(E) The withholding agent must be able to submit copies of the documentation received from the third-party data provider upon request to the IRS and will remain liable for any underwithholding that occurs as a result of its reliance on information provided by the third-party data provider if the documentation is invalid or unreliable.

(F) This paragraph (c)(9)(ii) does not apply to a withholding statement or a withholding certificate that contains an election to accept withholding or reporting responsibility (such as one made by a QI, territory financial institution, or U.S. branch) provided by a third-party data provider.

(iii)Reliance on certification provided by introducing brokers - (A) A withholding agent may rely on a certification of a broker indicating the broker's determination of a payee's chapter 4 status and indicating that the broker holds valid documentation sufficient to determine the payee's chapter 4 status under paragraph (d) of this section with respect to any readily tradable instrument as defined in § 31.3406(h)-1(d) of this chapter if the conditions in paragraph (c)(9)(iii)(B) of this section are satisfied and the broker is either -

(1) A U.S. person (including a U.S. branch that is treated as a U.S. person) that is acting as the agent of the payee; or

(2) A participating FFI or a reporting Model 1 FFI that is acting as the agent of the payee with respect to an obligation and receiving all payments from the withholding agent with respect to such obligation as an intermediary on behalf of the payee.

(B) The certification from the broker must be in writing or in electronic form and contain all of the information required of a chapter 4 withholding statement described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(B)(3). Notwithstanding this paragraph (c)(9)(iii), a withholding agent may not rely upon a certification provided by a broker if it knows or has reason to know that the broker has not obtained valid documentation as represented or the information contained in the certification is otherwise inaccurate. A broker that chooses to provide a certification under this paragraph (c)(9)(iii) will be responsible for applying the rules set forth in the regulations under section 1471 and 1472 to the withholding certificates, written statements, or documentary evidence obtained from the payee and shall be liable for any underwithholding that occurs as a result of the broker's failure to reasonably apply such rules.

(iv)Reliance on documentation and certifications provided between principals and agents -

(A)In general. Subject to the conditions under § 1.1474-1(a)(3), a withholding agent is permitted to use an agent to fulfill its chapter 4 obligations and such agent's actions are imputed to the principal. However, an agent that makes a payment pursuant to an agency arrangement (paying agent) is also a withholding agent with respect to the payment unless an exception under § 1.1473-1(d) applies. Therefore, the paying agent will have its own obligation to determine the chapter 4 status of the payee and withhold upon the payment if required. Although a paying agent is generally a withholding agent for purposes of chapter 4, the financial accounts to which it makes payments are not necessarily financial accounts of the paying agent. See the rules under § 1.1471-5(b)(5) to determine when a financial institution maintains a financial account. In addition, the status of a payment as made with respect to an offshore obligation or as a preexisting obligation will be determined based on such obligation's status in relation to the principal. Further, the due diligence required with respect to the payment will be determined by the status of the principal and not the paying agent. Consequently, a payment that is made, for example, by a paying agent that is a foreign entity on behalf of a principal that is a U.S. withholding agent will be subject to the due diligence applicable to the principal. See § 1.1474-1(a)(3) for rules regarding the reporting obligations of a principal and agent in the case of a payment made by an agent of behalf of a principal.

(B)Reliance upon certification of the principal. An agent that makes a payment on behalf of a principal that it may treat, pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, as a U.S. withholding agent, participating FFI, or reporting Model 1 FFI may rely upon a certification provided by the principal indicating that the principal has obtained valid documentation sufficient to determine the chapter 4 status of the payee and may rely upon the principal's determination as to the payee's chapter 4 status. In such a case, the agent will be permitted to rely upon the certification provided by the principal when determining whether it is required to withhold on the payment and will not be liable for any underwithholding that occurs as a result of the principal's failure to properly determine the chapter 4 status of the payee unless the agent knows or has reason to know the certification provided by the principal is inaccurate.

(C)Document sharing. In lieu of obtaining a certification from the principal as described in paragraph (c)(9)(iv)(B) of this section, or when reliance upon such certification is not permitted, an agent that makes a payment on behalf of a principal may rely upon copies of documentation provided to the principal with respect to the payment. However, in such case, both the principal and the agent are obligated to determine the chapter 4 status of the payee based upon the documentation and ensure that adequate withholding occurs with respect to the payment. While a principal is imputed the knowledge of the agent with respect to the payment, the agent is not imputed the knowledge of the principal.

(D)Examples -

(1)Example 1. Paying agent that does not collect documentation. A fund, P, that is a participating FFI contracts with a U.S. person, A, to make payments to its account holders with respect to their equity interests in P. P contracts with another agent, B, to obtain documentation sufficient to determine the chapter 4 status of such account holders. Based on the documentation it collects, B determines that none of P's account holders are subject to withholding. P provides a certification to A indicating that it has obtained documentation sufficient to determine the chapter 4 status of P's account holders and that each payee is not subject to withholding under chapter 4. As the actions of B, as P's agent, are attributed to P, P may provide a certification to A indicating that it has determined the chapter 4 status of its payees, even if it is B, and not P, who made the determinations. However, P will be liable for any underwithholding that results from a failure by B to reasonably apply the rules under chapter 4. A is permitted to rely upon the certification provided by P and, accordingly, is not required to withhold on the payments made to P's account holders and would not be liable for any underwithholding that results if the determinations made by B are incorrect unless A had reason to know that chapter 4 status claimed was inaccurate.

(ii)Example 2. Paying agent that collects documentation. A fund, P, that is a participating FFI contracts with a U.S. person, A, to make a payment to its account holders on its behalf. P also contracts with A to obtain documentation sufficient to determine the chapter 4 status of P's account holders. Based on the documentation it collects, A determines that none of P's account holders are subject to withholding. As the actions of A, as P's agent, are imputed to P, P will be liable for any underwithholding that results from a failure by A to reasonably apply the rules under chapter 4. P is also required to retain the documentation upon which A relied in determining the chapter 4 status of its account holders. Because A performed the due diligence on behalf of P, A will have reason to know if any of the chapter 4 determinations made based on the documentation received were made incorrectly, and, as a withholding agent with respect to the payment, is liable, in addition to P, for any underwithholding that results from an incorrect determination that withholding was not required. This result applies regardless of whether A retains copies of the documentation obtained with respect to P's account holders or receives a certification from P indicating that P has obtained documentation sufficient to determine the chapter 4 status of its account holders and that each payee is not subject to withholding under chapter 4.

(v)Reliance upon documentation for accounts acquired in merger or bulk acquisition for value. A withholding agent that acquires an account from a predecessor or transferor in a merger or bulk acquisition of accounts for value is permitted to rely upon valid documentation (or copies of valid documentation) collected by the predecessor or transferor. In addition, a withholding agent that acquires an account in a merger or bulk acquisition of accounts for value, other than a related party transaction, from a U.S. withholding agent, a participating FFI that has completed all due diligence required under its agreement with respect to the accounts transferred, or a reporting Model 1 FFI that has completed all due diligence required pursuant to the applicable Model 1 IGA, may also rely upon the predecessor's or transferor's determination of the chapter 4 status of an account holder for a transition period of the lesser of six months from the date of the merger or until the acquirer knows that the claim of status is inaccurate or a change in circumstances occurs. At the end of the transition period, the acquirer will be permitted to rely upon the predecessor's determination as to the chapter 4 status of the account holder only if the documentation that the acquirer has for the account holder, including documentation obtained from the predecessor or transferor, supports the chapter 4 status claimed. An acquirer that discovers at the end of the transition period that the chapter 4 status assigned by the predecessor or transferor to the account holder was incorrect and, as a result, has not withheld as it would have been required to but for its reliance upon the predecessor's determination, will be required to withhold on payments made after the transition period, if any, to the account holder equal to the amount of tax that should have been withheld during the transition period but for the erroneous classification as to the account holder's status. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(9)(v), a related party transaction is a merger or sale of accounts in which either the acquirer is in the same expanded affiliated group as the predecessor or transferor prior to or after the merger or acquisition or the predecessor or transferor (or shareholders of the predecessor or transferor) obtains a controlling interest in the acquirer or in a newly formed entity created for purposes of the merger or acquisition. See § 1.1471-4(c)(2)(ii)(B) for an additional allowance for a participating FFI to rely upon the determination made by another participating FFI as to the chapter 4 status of an account obtained as part of a merger or bulk acquisition for value.

(d)Documentation requirements to establish payee's chapter 4 status. Unless the withholding agent knows or has reason to know otherwise, a withholding agent may rely on the provisions of this paragraph (d) to determine the chapter 4 status of a payee (or other person that receives a payment). Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (d), a withholding agent is required to obtain a valid withholding certificate or a Form W-9 from a payee in order to treat the payee as having a particular chapter 4 status. Paragraphs (d)(1) through (12) of this section indicate when it is appropriate for a withholding agent to rely upon a written statement, documentary evidence, or other information in lieu of a Form W-8 or W-9. Paragraphs (d)(1) through (12) of this section also prescribe additional documentation requirements that must be met in certain cases in order to treat a payee as having a specific chapter 4 status and specific standards of knowledge that apply to a particular payee, in addition to the general standards of knowledge set forth in paragraph (e) of this section. This paragraph (d) also provides the circumstances in which special documentation rules are permitted with respect to preexisting obligations. A withholding agent may not rely on documentation described in this paragraph (d) if the documentation is not valid or cannot reliably be associated with the payment pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, or the withholding agent knows or has reason to know that such documentation is incorrect or unreliable as described in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section. If the chapter 4 status of a payee cannot be determined under this paragraph (d) based on documentation received, a withholding agent must apply the presumption rules in paragraph (f) to determine the chapter 4 status of the payee.

(1)Reliance on pre-FATCA Form W-8. To establish a payee's status as a foreign individual, foreign government, government of a U.S. territory, or international organization, a withholding agent may rely upon a pre-FATCA Form W-8 in lieu of obtaining an updated version of the withholding certificate. This reliance is only available in the case of a payee that is an international organization if such payee is described under section 7701(a)(18). To establish the chapter 4 status of a payee that is not a foreign individual, a foreign government, or an international organization, a withholding agent may, for payments made prior to January 1, 2017, rely upon a pre-FATCA Form W-8 in lieu of obtaining an updated version of the withholding certificate if the withholding agent has one or more forms of documentary evidence described in paragraphs (c)(5)(ii), as necessary, to establish the chapter 4 status of the payee and the withholding agent has obtained any additional documentation or information required for the particular chapter 4 status (such as withholding statements, certifications as to owners, or required documentation for underlying owners), as set forth under the specific payee rules in paragraphs (d)(2) through (12) of this section. See paragraph (d)(4)(ii) and (iv) of this section for specific requirements applicable when relying upon a pre-FATCA Form W-8 for a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI. This paragraph (d)(1) does not apply to nonregistering local banks, FFIs with only low-value accounts, sponsored FFIs, owner-documented FFIs, territory financial institutions that are not the beneficial owners of the payment, foreign central banks (other than a foreign central bank specifically identified as an exempt beneficial owner under a Model 1 IGA or Model 2 IGA), or international organizations not described under section 7701(a)(18).

(2)Identification of U.S. persons -

(i)In general. A withholding agent must treat a payee as a U.S. person, including a payee that is a foreign branch of a U.S. person (other than a branch that is treated as a QI) or is an FFI that has elected to be treated as a U.S. person for tax purposes under section 953(d), if it has a valid Form W-9 associated with the payee or if it must presume the payee is a U.S. person under the presumption rules set forth in paragraph (f) of this section. Consistent with the presumption rules in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, a withholding agent must treat a payee that has provided a valid Form W-9 as a specified U.S. person unless the Form W-9 contains a certification that the payee is other than a specified U.S. person. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a withholding agent receiving a Form W-9 indicating that the payee is other than a specified U.S. person must treat the payee as a specified U.S. person if the withholding agent knows or has reason to know that the payee's claim that it is other than a specified U.S. person is incorrect. For example, a withholding agent that receives a Form W-9 from a payee that is an individual would be required to treat the payee as a specified U.S. person regardless of whether the Form W-9 indicates that the payee is not a specified U.S. person, because an individual that is a U.S. person is not excepted from the definition of a specified U.S. person.

(ii)Reliance on documentary evidence. A withholding agent may also treat the payee as a U.S. person that is other than a specified U.S. person if the withholding agent has documentary evidence described in paragraphs (c)(5)(i)(C) and (D) of this section or general documentary evidence (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(A) of this section) that both establishes that the payee is a U.S. person and establishes (either through the documentation or the application of the rules in § 1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii) or paragraph (f)(3) of this section) that the payee is an exempt recipient. For purposes of the previous sentence, an exempt recipient means with respect to a withholding agent other than a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI, an exempt recipient under § 1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii) or, with respect to a withholding agent that is a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI, a U.S. person other than a specified U.S. person as described under § 1.1473-1(c).

(iii)Preexisting obligations. As an alternative to applying the rules in paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section, a withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to a preexisting obligation may treat a payee as a U.S. person if it has a notation in its files that it has previously reviewed a Form W-9 that established that the payee is a U.S. person and has retained the payee's TIN. A withholding agent, other than a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI, may also treat a payee of a payment with respect to a preexisting obligation as a U.S. person if it has previously classified the payee as a U.S. person for purposes of chapter 3 or 61 and established (through the documentation or the application of the rules in § 1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)) that the payee is an exempt recipient for purposes of chapter 61.

(3)Identification of individuals that are foreign persons -

(i)In general. A withholding agent may treat a payee as an individual that is a foreign person if the withholding agent has a withholding certificate identifying the payee as such a person.

(ii)Exception for offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation may treat the payee as an individual that is a foreign person if it obtains documentary evidence supporting the payee's claim of status as a foreign individual (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(i)) or if the payee is presumed to be an individual that is a foreign person under the presumption rules set forth in paragraph (f) of this section.

(4)Identification of participating FFIs and registered deemed-compliant FFIs -

(i)In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (d)(4)(ii) through (iv) or paragraphs (e)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, a withholding agent may treat a payee as a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI only if the withholding agent has a withholding certificate identifying the payee as a participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, or branch thereof (including an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from the FFI), and the withholding certificate contains a GIIN described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section that is verified against the published IRS FFI list in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section (indicating when a withholding agent may rely upon a GIIN). For when a withholding agent may treat a payee as a registered deemed-compliant FFI that is a sponsored investment entity or sponsored controlled foreign corporation, see paragraph (d)(4)(vi) of this section. See paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section for additional requirements that apply to a valid withholding certificate provided by a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI that is a flow-through entity or is acting as an intermediary with respect to the payment.

(ii)Exception for payments made prior to January 1, 2017, with respect to preexisting obligations (transitional). For payments made prior to January 1, 2017, with respect to a preexisting obligation, a withholding agent may treat a payee as a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI, or branch thereof (including an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from the FFI), if the payee has provided the withholding agent with a pre-FATCA Form W-8 and (either orally or in writing) its GIIN and has indicated whether it is a participating FFI or a registered deemed-compliant FFI (or whether such branch or disregarded entity is treated as a participating FFI or a registered deemed-compliant FFI), and the withholding agent has verified the GIIN of the FFI, branch, or disregarded entity, as the context requires, in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(iii)Exception for offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment, other than a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, with respect to an offshore obligation may treat a payee as a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI, or branch thereof (including an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from the FFI), if the payee provides the withholding agent with its GIIN and states whether the payee is a participating FFI or a registered deemed-compliant FFI, and the withholding agent verifies the GIIN in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section. A withholding agent that makes a payment of U.S. source FDAP income with respect to an offshore obligation may treat the payee as a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI, or branch thereof (including an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from the FFI) if -

(A) The payee provides the withholding agent with -

(1) A written statement that contains the payee's GIIN, states that the payee is the beneficial owner of the payment, and indicates whether the payee is treated as a participating FFI or a registered deemed-compliant FFI, as appropriate; and

(2) Documentary evidence supporting the payee's claim of foreign status; and

(B) The withholding agent verifies the GIIN in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(iv)Exceptions for payments to reporting Model 1 FFIs.

(A) For payments made prior to January 1, 2015, a withholding agent may treat a payee that is an FFI or branch of an FFI (including an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from the FFI) as a reporting Model 1 FFI if it receives a withholding certificate from the payee indicating that the payee is a reporting Model 1 FFI and the country in which the payee is a reporting Model 1 FFI, regardless of whether the certificate contains a GIIN for the payee.

(B) For payments made prior to January 1, 2015, with respect to a preexisting obligation, a withholding agent may treat a payee as a reporting Model 1 FFI if it obtains a pre-FATCA Form W-8 from the payee, and the payee indicates (either orally or in writing) that it is a reporting Model 1 FFI and the country in which it is a reporting Model 1 FFI, regardless of whether the certificate contains a GIIN for the payee.

(C) For payments made prior to January 1, 2015, with respect to an offshore obligation, a withholding agent may treat a payee as a reporting Model 1 FFI if the payee informs the withholding agent that the payee is a reporting Model 1 FFI and provides the country in which the payee is a reporting Model 1 FFI. In the case of a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, such payee must also provide a written statement that it is the beneficial owner and documentary evidence supporting the payee's claim of foreign status (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section).

(D) For payments made on or after January 1, 2015, that do not constitute U.S. source FDAP income, the withholding agent may continue to treat a payee as a reporting Model 1 FFI if the payee provides the withholding agent with its GIIN, either orally or in writing, and the withholding agent verifies the GIIN in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(v)Reason to know. See paragraph (e) of this section for when a withholding agent will have reason to know that a withholding certificate or written statement provided by a payee claiming status as a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI is incorrect or invalid.

(vi)Sponsored investment entities and sponsored controlled foreign corporations -

(A)In general. A withholding agent may treat a payee as a sponsored investment entity or sponsored controlled foreign corporation if the withholding agent has a withholding certificate identifying the payee as a sponsored investment entity or sponsored controlled foreign corporation (as applicable) and the withholding certificate includes the GIIN of the sponsored investment entity or sponsored controlled foreign corporation entity (as applicable), which the withholding agent has verified against the published IRS FFI list in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section.

(B)Payments made prior to January 1, 2017 (transitional). For payments made prior to January 1, 2017, a sponsored investment entity or sponsored controlled foreign corporation may provide the GIIN of its sponsoring entity on the withholding certificate, which the withholding agent must verify against the published IRS FFI list in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section.

(C)Payments made after December 31, 2016, to payees documented prior to January 1, 2017. For a payment made after December 31, 2016, to a payee that the withholding agent has documented prior to January 1, 2017, as a sponsored investment entity or sponsored controlled foreign corporation with a valid withholding certificate that includes the GIIN of the sponsoring entity, the withholding agent must obtain and verify the GIIN of the sponsored investment entity or sponsored controlled foreign corporation against the published IRS FFI list in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section by March 31, 2017. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a GIIN is not required for a payee that provides a valid withholding certificate prior to January 1, 2017, that identifies the payee as a sponsored FFI and includes the GIIN of the sponsoring entity if the withholding agent determines, based on information provided on the withholding certificate, that the sponsored entity is resident, organized, or located in a jurisdiction that is treated as having a Model 1 IGA in effect. A withholding agent required to obtain a GIIN of the sponsored investment entity or sponsored controlled foreign corporation under this paragraph (d)(4)(vi)(C) may obtain such GIIN by oral or written confirmation (including by email) rather than obtaining a new withholding certificate, provided that the withholding agent retains a record of the confirmation, which will become part of the withholding certificate.

(5)Identification of certified deemed-compliant FFIs -

(i)In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (d)(5), a withholding agent may treat a payee as a certified deemed-compliant FFI, other than a sponsored, closely held investment vehicle, if the withholding agent has a withholding certificate that identifies the payee as a certified deemed-compliant FFI, and the withholding certificate contains a certification by the payee that it meets the requirements to qualify as the type of certified deemed-compliant FFI identified on the withholding certificate. See paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section for additional requirements that apply to a valid withholding certificate provided by a certified deemed-compliant FFI that is a flow-through entity or is acting as an intermediary with respect to the payment, or by a U.S. branch of a certified deemed-compliant FFI.

(ii)Sponsored, closely held investment vehicles -

(A)In general. A withholding agent may treat a payee as a sponsored, closely held investment vehicle described in § 1.1471-5(f)(2)(iii) if the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate that identifies the payee as a sponsored, closely held investment vehicle and includes the sponsoring entity's GIIN, which the withholding agent has verified against the published IRS FFI list in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section. In addition to the standards of knowledge rules indicated in paragraph (e) of this section, a withholding agent will have reason to know that the payee is not a sponsored, closely held investment vehicle described in § 1.1471-5(f)(2)(iii) if its AML due diligence indicates that the payee has in excess of 20 individual investors that own direct and/or indirect interests in the payee. See paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section for additional requirements that apply to a valid withholding certificate provided by a sponsored, closely held investment vehicle that is a flow-through entity or is acting as an intermediary with respect to the payment, or by a U.S. branch of such vehicle.

(B)Offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation may treat a payee as a sponsored, closely held investment vehicle if it obtains a written statement that indicates that the payee is a sponsored, closely held investment vehicle, and provides the sponsoring entity's GIIN, which the withholding agent has verified in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section. In the case of a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, the written statement must also indicate that the payee is the beneficial owner and must be supplemented with documentary evidence supporting the payee's claim of foreign status (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section).

(iii)Certain investment entities that do not maintain financial accounts -

(A)In general. A withholding agent may treat a payee as an investment entity that does not maintain financial accounts described in § 1.1471-5(f)(2)(v) if the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate that identifies the payee as an investment entity that does not maintain financial accounts. In addition to the standards of knowledge rules indicated in paragraph (e) of this section, a withholding agent will have reason to know that the payee is not an investment entity that does not maintain financial accounts described in § 1.1471-5(f)(2)(v) if its AML due diligence documentation indicates that the payee has financial accounts.

(B)Offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation may treat a payee as an investment advisor and investment manager described in § 1.1471-5(f)(2)(v) if it obtains a written statement that indicates that the payee is an investment advisor and investment manager. In the case of a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, the written statement must also indicate that the payee is the beneficial owner and must be supplemented with documentary evidence supporting the payee's claim of foreign status (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section).

(6)Identification of owner-documented FFIs -

(i)In general. A withholding agent may treat a payee as an owner-documented FFI if all the following requirements of paragraphs (d)(6)(i)(A) through (F) of this section are met. A withholding agent may not rely upon a withholding certificate to treat a payee as an owner-documented FFI, either in whole or in part, if the withholding certificate does not contain all of the information and associated documentation required by paragraphs (d)(6)(i)(A), (C), and (D) of this section.

(A) The withholding agent has a withholding certificate that identifies the payee as an owner-documented FFI that is not acting as an intermediary;

(B) The withholding agent is a U.S. financial institution, participating FFI, or reporting Model 1 FFI that agrees pursuant to § 1.1471-5(f)(3) to act as a designated withholding agent with respect to the payee;

(C) The payee submits to the withholding agent an FFI owner reporting statement that meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(6)(iv) of this section;

(D) The payee submits to the withholding agent valid documentation meeting the requirements of paragraph (d)(6)(iii) of this section with respect to each person identified on the FFI owner reporting statement;

(E) The withholding agent does not know or have reason to know that the payee (or any other FFI that is an owner of the payee and that the designated withholding agent is treating as an owner-documented FFI) maintains any financial account for a nonparticipating FFI; and

(F) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.1471-3T(d)(6)(i)(F).

(ii)Auditor's letter substitute. A payee may, in lieu of providing an FFI owner reporting statement and documentation for each owner of the FFI as described in paragraphs (d)(6)(i)(C) and (D) of this section, provide a letter from an auditor or an attorney that is licensed in the United States or whose firm has a location in the United States, signed no more than four years prior to the date of the payment, that certifies that the firm or representative has reviewed the payee's documentation with respect to all of its owners and debt holders described in paragraph (d)(6)(iv) of this section in accordance with § 1.1471-4(c) and that the payee meets the requirements of § 1.1471-5(f)(3). The payee must also provide an FFI owner reporting statement and a Form W-9, with any applicable waiver, for each specified U.S. person that owns a direct or indirect interest in the payee or that holds debt interests described in paragraph (d)(6)(iv) of this section. A withholding agent may rely upon the letter described in this paragraph (d)(6)(ii) if it does not know or have reason to know that any of the information contained in the letter is unreliable or incorrect.

(iii)Documentation for owners and debt holders of payee. Acceptable documentation for an individual owning an equity interest in the payee or a debt holder described in paragraph (d)(6)(iv) of this section means a valid withholding certificate, valid Form W-9 (including any necessary waiver), or documentary evidence establishing the foreign status of the individual as set forth in paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section (regardless of whether the payment is made with respect to an offshore obligation). Acceptable documentation for a specified U.S. person means a valid Form W-9 (including any necessary waiver). Acceptable documentation for all other persons owning an equity or debt interest in the payee means documentation described in this paragraph (d), applicable to the chapter 4 status claimed by the person. The rules for reliably associating a payment with a withholding certificate or documentary evidence set forth in paragraph (c) of this section, the rules for payee documentation provided in this paragraph (d), and the standards of knowledge set forth in paragraph (e) of this section will apply to documentation submitted by the owners and debt holders by substituting the phrase “owner of the payee” or “debt holder” for “payee.”

(iv)Content of FFI owner reporting statement. The FFI owner reporting statement provided by an owner-documented FFI must contain the information required by this paragraph (d)(6)(iv) and is subject to the general rules applicable to all withholding statements described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section. An FFI that is a partnership, simple trust, or grantor trust may substitute an NWP withholding statement described in § 1.1441-5(c)(3)(iv) or a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding statement described in § 1.1441-5(e)(5)(iv) for the FFI owner reporting statement, provided that the NWP withholding certificate or foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate contains all of the information required in this paragraph (d)(6)(iv). The owner reporting statement will expire on the last day of the third calendar year following the year in which the statement was provided to the withholding agent unless an exception in paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of this section (for example, accounts with a balance or value of $1,000,000 or less) or this paragraph (d)(6) applies. The owner-documented FFI will also be required to provide the withholding agent with an updated owner reporting statement if there is a change in circumstances as required under paragraph (c)(6)(ii)(E) of this section.

(A) The FFI owner reporting statement must provide the following information:

(1) The name, address, TIN (if any), and chapter 4 status of every individual and specified U.S. person that owns a direct or indirect equity interest in the payee (looking through all entities other than specified U.S. persons).

(2) The name, address, TIN (if any), and chapter 4 status of every individual and specified U.S. person that owns a debt interest in the payee (including any indirect debt interest, which includes debt interests in any entity that directly or indirectly owns the payee or any direct or indirect equity interest in a debt holder of the payee), in either such case if the debt interest constitutes a financial account in excess of $50,000 (disregarding all such debt interests owned by participating FFIs, registered deemed-compliant FFIs, certified deemed-compliant FFIs, excepted NFFEs, exempt beneficial owners, or U.S. persons other than specified U.S. persons).

(3) Any other information the withholding agent reasonably requests in order to fulfill its obligations under chapter 4.

(B) The information on the FFI owner reporting statement may contain names of equity and debt holders that are prepopulated by the withholding agent based on prior information provided to the withholding agent by the payee if the prepopulated form instructs the payee to amend the statement if the contents are inaccurate, incomplete, or have changed, and the payee confirms in writing that the FFI owner reporting statement submitted to the withholding agent is accurate and complete.

(C) The FFI owner reporting statement may be submitted in any form that meets the requirements of this paragraph, including a form used for purposes of AML due diligence.

(v)Exception for preexisting obligations (transitional). A withholding agent may treat a payment made prior to January 1, 2017, with respect to a preexisting obligation as made to an owner-documented FFI if the withholding agent has collected, for purposes of satisfying its AML due diligence, documentation with respect to each individual and specified U.S. person that owns a direct or indirect interest in the payee, other than an interest as a creditor, within four years of the date of payment, that documentation is sufficient to satisfy the AML due diligence requirements of the jurisdiction in which the withholding agent maintains the account, the withholding agent has sufficient information to report all specified U.S. persons that own an interest in the payee, and the withholding agent does not know, or have reason to know, that any nonparticipating FFI owns an equity interest in the FFI or that any nonparticipating FFI or specified U.S. person owns a debt interest in the FFI constituting a financial account in excess of $50,000.

(vi)Exception for offshore obligations. A withholding agent that is making a payment, other than a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, with respect to an offshore obligation may, in lieu of obtaining a withholding certificate as otherwise required under paragraph (d)(6)(i)(A) of this section, rely upon a written statement that indicates the payee meets the requirements to qualify as an owner-documented FFI under § 1.1471-5(f)(3) and is not acting as an intermediary, if the withholding agent provides a written notice to the payee indicating that the payee is required to update the written statement and all associated documentation (such as the FFI owner reporting statement and underlying documentation) within 30 days of a change in circumstances.

(vii)Exception for certain offshore obligations of $1,000,000 or less - (A) A withholding agent may treat the payment as being made to an owner-documented FFI if -

(1) The payment is made with respect to an offshore obligation that has a balance or value not exceeding $1,000,000 on the later of June 30, 2014, or the last day of the calendar year in which the account was opened, and the last day of each subsequent year preceding the payment, applying the aggregation principles of § 1.1471-5(b)(4);

(2) The withholding agent has collected documentation or a certification as to the payee's owners (either for purposes of complying with its AML due diligence or for purposes of satisfying the requirements of this paragraph (d)(6)(vii)) sufficient to identify every individual and specified U.S. person that owns any direct or indirect interest in the payee (other than an interest as a creditor) and determine the chapter 4 status of such person;

(3) The documentation described in paragraph (d)(6)(vii)(A)(2) of this section is sufficient to satisfy the AML due diligence requirements of the jurisdiction in which the withholding agent maintains the account (and such jurisdiction is a FATF-compliant jurisdiction);

(4) The withholding agent has sufficient information to report all specified U.S. persons that own an interest in the payee in accordance with § 1.1474-1(d); and

(5) The withholding agent does not know, or have reason to know, that the payee has any contingent beneficiaries or designated classes with unidentified beneficiaries or owners, that any nonparticipating FFI owns a direct or indirect equity interest in the payee, or that any specified U.S. persons or nonparticipating FFIs own a debt interest constituting a financial account in excess of $50,000 in the payee (other than specified U.S. persons that the withholding agent has sufficient information to report).

(B) For example, a withholding agent that is required to obtain a certification from the payee identifying all persons owning an interest in the payee as part of its AML due diligence will not be required to obtain an FFI owner reporting statement, provided the other conditions of this paragraph (d)(6)(vii) are met. On the other hand, a withholding agent that has only obtained documentation for persons owning a certain threshold percentage of the payee will be required to obtain additional documentation to satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (d)(6)(vii). A withholding agent that treats a payee as an owner-documented FFI pursuant to this paragraph (d)(6)(vii) will not be required to obtain new documentation, including the FFI owner reporting statement, until there is a change in circumstances or until the account balance or value exceeds $1,000,000 on the last day of the calendar year.

(7)Nonreporting IGA FFIs -

(i)In general. A withholding agent may treat a payee as a nonreporting IGA FFI described in § 1.1471-1(b)(83)(ii) (unless such FFI is treated as a registered deemed-compliant FFI under Annex II of the Model 2 IGA) or as a nonreporting IGA FFI described in § 1.1471-1(b)(83)(i), (iv), or (v) if the withholding agent has a withholding certificate identifying the payee, or the relevant branch of the payee, as a nonreporting IGA FFI. A withholding agent may treat a payee as a nonreporting IGA FFI described in § 1.1471-1(b)(83)(ii) that is treated as a registered deemed-compliant FFI under Annex II of the Model 2 IGA or as a nonreporting IGA FFI described in § 1.1471-1(b)(83)(iii) if the withholding agent has a withholding certificate identifying the payee, or the relevant branch of the payee, as a nonreporting IGA FFI, and the withholding certificate contains a GIIN for the payee that is verified against the published IRS FFI list in the manner described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(ii)Exception for offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation may treat a payee as a nonreporting IGA FFI if it can reliably associate the payment with a written statement identifying the payee (or the relevant branch of the payee) as a nonreporting IGA FFI and, with respect to a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, the written statement indicates that the payee is the beneficial owner of the income and is accompanied by documentary evidence supporting a claim of foreign status (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section). A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation may also treat a payee as a nonreporting IGA FFI if the withholding agent has a permanent residence address for the payee, or an address of the relevant branch of the payee, and has obtained a notification, either orally or in writing, indicating that the payee is not acting as an intermediary and general documentary evidence (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(A) of this section) that provides the withholding agent with sufficient information to reasonably determine that the payee is an entity listed as a nonreporting IGA FFI pursuant to a Model 1 or Model 2 IGA.

(8)Identification of nonparticipating FFIs -

(i)In general. A withholding agent is required to treat a payee as a nonparticipating FFI if the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate identifying the payee as a nonparticipating FFI, the withholding agent knows or has reason to know that the payee is a nonparticipating FFI, or the withholding agent is required to treat the payee as a nonparticipating FFI under the presumption rules described in paragraph (f) of this section.

(ii)Special documentation rules for payments made to an exempt beneficial owner through a nonparticipating FFI. A withholding agent may treat a payment made to a nonparticipating FFI as beneficially owned by an exempt beneficial owner if the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with -

(A) A withholding certificate that identifies the payee as a nonparticipating FFI that is either acting as an intermediary or is a flow-through entity; and

(B) An exempt beneficial owner withholding statement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (c)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (4) of this section and contains the associated documentation necessary to establish the chapter 4 status of the exempt beneficial owner in accordance with paragraph (d)(9) of this section as if the exempt beneficial owner were the payee.

(9)Identification of exempt beneficial owners -

(i)Identification of foreign governments, governments of U.S. territories, international organizations, and foreign central banks of issue -

(A)In general. A withholding agent may treat a payee as a foreign government, government of a U.S. territory, international organization, or foreign central bank of issue if it has a withholding certificate that identifies the payee as such an entity, indicates that the payee is the beneficial owner of the payment, and indicates that the payee is not engaged in commercial financial activities with respect to the payments or accounts identified on the form. A withholding agent may treat a payee as an international organization without requiring a withholding certificate if the name of the payee is one that is designated as an international organization by executive order (pursuant to 22 U.S.C. 288 through 288f) and other facts surrounding the transaction reasonably indicate that the international organization is not receiving the payment as an intermediary on behalf of another person. A withholding agent may treat a payee as an exempt beneficial owner pursuant to a Model 1 IGA or Model 2 IGA if it has a withholding certificate that identifies the payee as such an entity and indicates that the payee is the beneficial owner of the payment.

(B)Exception for offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment, other than a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, with respect to an offshore obligation may treat a payee as a foreign government, government of a U.S. territory, international organization, or foreign central bank of issue if the payee provides a written statement that it is such an entity and the written statement indicates that the payee receives the payment as a beneficial owner (within the meaning provided in § 1.1471-6). A written statement provided by a foreign central bank of issue must also state that the foreign central bank of issue does not receive the payment in connection with a commercial activity as provided in § 1.1471-6(h).

(C)Exception for preexisting offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment, other than a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, with respect to an offshore obligation that is also a preexisting obligation may treat the payee as a foreign government, government of a U.S. territory, international organization, or foreign central bank of issue if -

(1) The payee is generally known to the withholding agent to be, the payee's name and the facts surrounding the payment reasonably indicate, or the withholding agent has preexisting account documentary evidence (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(B) of this section) that reasonably indicates that the payee is a foreign government or government of a U.S territory, a political subdivision of a foreign government or government of a U.S. territory, any wholly owned agency or instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing, an international organization, a foreign central bank of issue, or the Bank for International Settlements; and

(2) The withholding agent does not know that the payee is not the beneficial owner, within the meaning of § 1.1471-6(b) through (e) (disregarding any presumption that a financial institution is assumed to be an intermediary absent documentation indicating otherwise) or a foreign central bank of issue receiving the payment in connection with a commercial activity.

(ii)Identification of retirement funds -

(A)In general. A withholding agent may treat a payee as a retirement fund described in § 1.1471-6(f) if it has a withholding certificate in which the payee certifies that it is a retirement fund meeting the requirements of § 1.1471-6(f).

(B)Exception for offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation may treat the payment as being made to a retirement fund described in § 1.1471-6(f) if it obtains a written statement in which the payee certifies that it is a retirement fund under the laws of its local jurisdiction meeting the requirements of § 1.1471-6(f) and, with respect to a payment of U.S. source FDAP income, documentary evidence supporting a claim of foreign status (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section). A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation may also treat the payment as made to a retirement fund if it obtains general documentary evidence (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(A) of this section) that provides the withholding agent with sufficient information to establish that the payee is a retirement fund meeting the requirements of § 1.1471-6(f).

(C)Exception for preexisting offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation that is also a preexisting obligation, may treat the payee as a retirement fund described in § 1.1471-6(f) if the withholding agent has general documentary evidence or preexisting account documentary evidence (as described in paragraphs (c)(5)(ii)(A) or (B)) that establishes that the payee is a foreign entity that qualifies as a retirement fund in the country in which the payee is organized.

(iii)Identification of entities wholly owned by exempt beneficial owners. A withholding agent may treat a payee as an entity described in § 1.1471-6(g) (referring to certain entities wholly owned by exempt beneficial owners) if the withholding agent has -

(A) A withholding certificate or, for a payment made with respect to an offshore obligation, a written statement that identifies the payee as an investment entity that is the beneficial owner of the payment;

(B) An owner reporting statement that contains the name, address, TIN (if any), chapter 4 status (identifying the type of exempt beneficial owner), and a description of the type of documentation (Form W-8 or other documentary evidence) provided to the withholding agent for every person that owns a direct equity interest, or a debt interest constituting a financial account, in the payee, and that is subject to the general rules applicable to all withholding statements described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(B)(1) of this section; and

(C) Documentation for every person identified on the owner reporting statement establishing, pursuant to the documentation requirements described in this paragraph (d)(9), that such person is an exempt beneficial owner (without regard to whether the person is a beneficial owner of the payment).

(10)Identification of territory financial institutions -

(i)Identification of territory financial institutions that are beneficial owners -

(A)In general. A withholding agent may treat a payee as a territory financial institution if the withholding agent has a withholding certificate identifying the payee as a territory financial institution that beneficially owns the payment. See paragraph (d)(11)(viii) of this section for rules for documenting territory NFFEs.

(B)Exception for preexisting offshore obligations. A withholding agent that makes a payment with respect to an offshore obligation that is also a preexisting obligation may treat the payee as a territory financial institution if the withholding agent receives written notification, whether signed or not, that the payee is the beneficial owner of the payment and the withholding agent has general documentary evidence (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(A) of this section) or preexisting account documentary evidence (as described in paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(B) of this section) establishing that the payee was organized or incorporated under the laws of any U.S. territory and is a depository institution, custodial institution, or specified insurance company.

(ii)Identification of territory financial institutions acting as intermediaries or that are flow-through entities. A withholding agent may treat a payment as being made to a territory financial institution that is acting as an intermediary or that is a flow-through entity if the withholding agent has an intermediary withholding certificate or flow-through withholding certificate as described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section that identifies the person who receives the payment as a territory financial institution. A withholding agent that obtains the documentation described in the preceding sentence may treat the territory financial institution as the payee if the withholding certificate contains a certification that the territory financial institution agrees to be treated as a U.S. person with respect to the payment. If the withholding certificate does not contain such a certification, then the withholding agent must treat the person on whose behalf the territory financial institution receives the payment as the payee. See paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section for additional documentation that must accompany the withholding certificate of the territory financial institution in this case.

(iii)Reason to know. In addition to the general standards of knowledge described in paragraph (e) of this section, a withholding agent will have reason to know that an entity is not a territory financial institution if the withholding agent has: a current residence or mailing address, either in the entity's account files or on documentation provided by the payee, for the entity that is outside the U.S. territory in which the entity claims to be organized; a current telephone number for the payee that has a country code other than the country code for the