26 CFR § 1.1472-1 - Withholding on NFFEs.

§ 1.1472-1 Withholding on NFFEs.

(a)In general. This section provides rules that a withholding agent must apply to determine its obligations to withhold under section 1472 on withholdable payments made to a payee that is a NFFE. A participating FFI that complies with its withholding obligations under § 1.1471-4(b) will be deemed to satisfy its obligations under section 1472 with respect to withholdable payments made to NFFEs that are account holders. The rules of this section will apply, however, in the case of a participating FFI acting as a withholding agent with respect to a payment made to a NFFE that is not an account holder (for example, a payment with respect to a contract that does not constitute a financial account). See § 1.1473-1(a)(4)(vi), however, for rules excepting from the definition of withholdable payment certain payments of U.S. source FDAP income made prior to January 1, 2017, with respect to an offshore obligation and § 1.1471-2(b) for rules excepting from the definition of withholdable payment a grandfathered obligation. See also § 1.1471-2(a)(2)(ii), (iv), (v), and (vi) for special rules of withholding that apply for purposes of this section and § 1.1471-2(a)(5) for withholding requirements if the source or character of a payment is unknown. The following entities are deemed to satisfy their withholding obligations under section 1472: Exempt beneficial owners; section 501(c) entities described in § 1.1471-5(e)(5)(v); and nonprofit organizations described in § 1.1471-5(e)(5)(vi). See § 1.1471-5(f) for when a deemed-compliant FFI is deemed to satisfy its withholding obligations with respect to payments made to NFFEs that are account holders under section 1472.

(b)Withholdable payments made to an NFFE -

(1)In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section (providing transitional relief) or paragraph (c)(1) or (2) of this section (providing exceptions for payments to an excepted NFFE or an exempt beneficial owner), § 1.1471-2(a)(4)(i) (providing an exception to withholding if the withholding agent lacks control, custody, or knowledge), § 1.1471-2(a)(4)(vii) (providing an exception to withholding for payments made to an account held with or equity interests traded through a clearing organization with FATCA-compliant membership), or § 1.1471-2(a)(4)(viii) (providing an exception to withholding for payments to certain excepted accounts), a withholding agent must withhold 30 percent of any withholdable payment made after June 30, 2014, to a payee that is a NFFE unless -

(i) The beneficial owner of such payment is the NFFE or any other NFFE;

(ii) The withholding agent can, pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, treat the beneficial owner of the payment as an NFFE that does not have any substantial U.S. owners, or as an NFFE that has identified its substantial U.S. owners; and

(iii) The withholding agent reports the information described in § 1.1474-1(i)(2) relating to any substantial U.S. owners of the beneficial owner of such payment.

(2)Transitional relief. For any withholdable payment made prior to July 1, 2016, with respect to a preexisting obligation to a payee that is not a prima facie FFI and for which a withholding agent does not have documentation indicating the payee's status as a passive NFFE when the NFFE has failed to provide the owner certification as required under § 1.1471-3(d)(12)(iii), the withholding agent is not required to withhold under this section or report under § 1.1474-1(i)(2) (describing the reporting obligations of withholding agents with respect to NFFEs).

(c)Exceptions -

(1)Payments to an excepted NFFE. A withholding agent is not required to withhold under section 1472(a) and paragraph (b) of this section on a withholdable payment (or portion thereof) if the withholding agent can treat the payment as made to a payee that is an excepted NFFE. For purposes of this paragraph, the term excepted NFFE means a payee that the withholding agent may treat as a NFFE that is a QI, WP, or WT. Additionally, the term excepted NFFE means, with respect to the payment, a NFFE described in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (vii) of this section to the extent the withholding agent may treat the NFFE as the beneficial owner of the payment.

(i)Publicly traded corporation. A NFFE is described in this paragraph (c)(1)(i) if it is a corporation the stock of which is regularly traded on one or more established securities markets for the calendar year.

(A)Regularly traded. For purposes of this section, stock of a corporation is regularly traded on one or more established securities markets for a calendar year if -

(1) One or more classes of stock of the corporation that, in the aggregate, represent more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote and of the total value of the stock of such corporation are listed on such market or markets during the prior calendar year; and

(2) With respect to each class relied on to meet the more-than-50-percent listing requirement of paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A)(1) of this section -

(i) Trades in each such class are effected, other than in de minimis quantities, on such market or markets on at least 60 days during the prior calendar year; and

(ii) The aggregate number of shares in each such class that are traded on such market or markets during the prior year are at least 10 percent of the average number of shares outstanding in that class during the prior calendar year.

(B)Special rules regarding the regularly traded requirement -

(1)Year of initial public offering. For the calendar year in which a corporation initiates a public offering of a class of stock for trading on one or more established securities markets, as defined in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(C) of this section, such class of stock meets the requirements of this paragraph (c)(1)(i) for such year if the stock is regularly traded in more than de minimis quantities on 1/6 of the days remaining after the date of the offering in the quarter during which the offering occurs, and on at least 15 days during each remaining quarter of the calendar year. If a corporation initiates a public offering of a class of stock in the fourth quarter of the calendar year, such class of stock meets the requirements of this paragraph (c)(1)(i) in the calendar year of the offering if the stock is regularly traded on such established securities market, other than in de minimis quantities, on the greater of 1/6 of the days remaining after the date of the offering in the quarter during which the offering occurs, or 5 days.

(2)Classes of stock treated as meeting the regularly traded requirement. A class of stock meets the trading requirements of this paragraph (c)(1)(i) for a calendar year if the stock is traded during such year on an established securities market located in the United States and is regularly quoted by dealers making a market in the stock. A dealer makes a market in a stock only if the dealer regularly and actively offers to, and in fact does, purchase the stock from, and sell the stock to, customers who are not related persons (as defined in section 954(d)(3)) with respect to the dealer in the ordinary course of a trade or business.

(3)Anti-abuse rule. Any trade conducted with a principal purpose of meeting the regularly traded requirements of this paragraph (c)(1)(i) shall be disregarded. Further, a class of stock shall not be treated as regularly traded if there is a pattern of trades conducted to meet the requirements of this paragraph (c)(1)(i). Similarly, paragraph (c)(1)(i)(B)(1) of this section shall not apply to a public offering of stock that has as one of its principal purposes qualification of the class of stock as regularly traded under the reduced regularly traded requirements for the calendar year of an initial public offering. For purposes of applying the immediately preceding sentence, consideration will be given to whether the regularly traded requirements of this paragraph (c)(1)(i) are satisfied in the calendar year immediately following the initial public offering.

(C)Established securities market -

(1)In general. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(1)(i), the term established securities market means, for any calendar year -

(i) A foreign securities exchange that is officially recognized, sanctioned, or supervised by a governmental authority of the foreign country in which the market is located, and has an annual value of shares traded on the exchange (or a predecessor exchange) exceeding $1 billion during each of the three calendar years immediately preceding the calendar year in which the determination is being made;

(ii) A national securities exchange that is registered under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78f) with the Securities and Exchange Commission;

(iii) Any exchange designated under a Limitation on Benefits article of an income tax treaty with the United States that is in force; or

(iv) Any other exchange that the Secretary may designate in published guidance.

(2)Foreign exchange with multiple tiers. If an exchange in a foreign country has more than one tier or market level on which stock may be separately listed or traded, each such tier shall be treated as a separate exchange.

(3)Computation of dollar value of stock traded. For purposes of paragraph (c)(1)(i)(C)(1)(i) of this section, the value in U.S. dollars of shares traded during a calendar year shall be determined on the basis of the dollar value of such shares traded as reported by the World Federation of Exchanges located in Paris (or a successor institution), or, if not so reported, by converting into U.S. dollars the aggregate value in local currency of the shares traded using an exchange rate equal to the average of the spot rates on the last day of each month of the calendar year.

(ii)Certain affiliated entities related to a publicly traded corporation. A NFFE is described in this paragraph (c)(1)(ii) if it is a corporation that is a member of the same expanded affiliated group (as defined in § 1.1471-5(i)) as a corporation described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section (without regard to whether such corporation is a NFFE).

(iii)Certain territory entities. A NFFE is described in this paragraph (c)(1)(iii) if it is a territory entity that is directly or indirectly wholly owned by one or more bona fide residents of the U.S. territory under the laws of which the entity is organized. The term bona fide resident of a U.S. territory means an individual who qualifies as a bona fide resident under section 937(a) and § 1.937-1.

(iv)Active NFFEs. A NFFE is described in this paragraph (c)(1)(iv) (and thus constitutes an active NFFE) if it is an entity and for the preceding calendar or fiscal year less than 50 percent of its gross income is passive income and the weighted average of the percentage of assets held by it that produce or are held for the production of passive income (weighted by total assets and measured quarterly) is less than 50 percent, as determined after the application of paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(B) of this section (passive assets). For purposes of the calculations described in the preceding sentence, a NFFE may use any accounting method permitted under paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(C) of this section but must apply a uniform method for measuring assets for the calendar or fiscal year.

(A)Passive income. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(B) of this section, the term passive income means the portion of gross income that consists of -

(1)Dividends, including substitute dividend amounts;

(2)Interest;

(3)Income equivalent to interest, including substitute interest and amounts received from or with respect to a pool of insurance contracts if the amounts received depend in whole or part upon the performance of the pool;

(4)Rents and royalties, other than rents and royalties derived in the active conduct of a trade or business conducted, at least in part, by employees of the NFFE;

(5)Annuities;

(6) The excess of gains over losses from the sale or exchange of property that gives rise to passive income described in paragraphs (c)(1)(iv)(A)(1) through (5) of this section;

(7) The excess of gains over losses from transactions (including futures, forwards, and similar transactions) in any commodities, but not including -

(i) Any commodity hedging transaction described in section 954(c)(5)(A), determined by treating the entity as a controlled foreign corporation; or

(ii) Active business gains or losses from the sale of commodities, but only if substantially all the foreign entity's commodities are property described in paragraph (1), (2), or (8) of section 1221(a);

(8) The excess of foreign currency gains over foreign currency losses (as defined in section 988(b)) attributable to any section 988 transaction;

(9) Net income from notional principal contracts as defined in § 1.446-3(c)(1);

(10)Amounts received under cash value insurance contracts; or

(11)Amounts earned by an insurance company in connection with its reserves for insurance and annuity contracts.

(B)Exceptions from passive income treatment. Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(A) of this section, the term passive income does not include -

(1) Any income from interest, dividends, rents, or royalties that is received or accrued from a related person to the extent such amount is properly allocable to income of such related person that is not passive income. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(B)(1), the term “related person” has the meaning given such term by section 954(d)(3) determined by substituting “foreign entity” for “controlled foreign corporation” each place it appears in section 954(d)(3); or

(2) In the case of a foreign entity that regularly acts as a dealer in property described in paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(A)(6) of this section (referring to the sale or exchange of property that gives rise to passive income), forward contracts, option contracts, or similar financial instruments (including notional principal contracts and all instruments referenced to commodities) -

(i) Any item of income or gain (other than any dividends or interest) from any transaction (including hedging transactions and transactions involving physical settlement) entered into in the ordinary course of such dealer's trade or business as such a dealer; and

(ii) If such dealer is a dealer in securities (within the meaning of section 475(c)(2)), any income from any transaction entered into in the ordinary course of such trade or business as a dealer in securities.

(C)Methods of measuring assets. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(1)(iv), the value of a NFFE's assets is determined based on the fair market value or book value of the assets that is reflected on the NFFE's balance sheet (as determined under either a U.S. or an international financial accounting standard).

(v)Excepted nonfinancial entities. A NFFE is described in this paragraph (c)(1)(v) if it is an entity described in § 1.1471-5(e)(5) (referring to holding companies, treasury centers, and captive finance companies that are members of a nonfinancial group; start-up companies; entities that are liquidating or emerging from bankruptcy; and non-profit organizations).

(vi)Direct reporting NFFEs. A NFFE is described in this paragraph (c)(1)(vi) if it meets the requirements described in § 1.1472-1(c)(3) to be treated as a direct reporting NFFE.

(vii)Sponsored direct reporting NFFEs. A NFFE is described in this paragraph (c)(1)(vii) if it meets the requirements described in § 1.1472-1(c)(5) to be treated as a sponsored direct reporting NFFE.

(2)Payments made to an exempt beneficial owner. A withholding agent is not required to withhold on a withholdable payment (or portion thereof) under section 1472(a) and paragraph (b) of this section if the withholding agent may treat the payment as made to an exempt beneficial owner.

(3)Definition of direct reporting NFFE. A direct reporting NFFE means a NFFE that elects to report information about its direct or indirect substantial U.S. owners to the IRS and meets the following requirements -

(i) The NFFE must register on Form 8957, “FATCA Registration,” (or such other form as the IRS may prescribe) with the IRS to obtain a GIIN pursuant to the procedures prescribed by the IRS;

(ii) The NFFE must report directly to the IRS on Form 8966, “FATCA Report,” (or such other form as the IRS may prescribe) the following information for each calendar year (or, may be required by the IRS to certify on Form 8966, or in such other manner as the IRS may prescribe, that the NFFE has no substantial U.S. owners):

(A) The name, address, and TIN of each substantial U.S. owner (as defined in § 1.1473-1(b)) of such NFFE;

(B) The total of all payments made to each substantial U.S. owner (including the gross amounts paid or credited to the substantial U.S. owner with respect to such owner's equity interest in the NFFE during the calendar year, which include payments in redemption or liquidation (in whole or part) of the substantial U.S. owner's equity interest in the NFFE);

(C) The value of each substantial U.S. owner's equity interest in the NFFE determined by applying the rules described in § 1.1471-5(b)(4) (substituting the term equity for the termsaccount and financial account);

(D) The name, address, and GIIN of the NFFE; and

(E) Any other information as required by Form 8966 (or such other form as the IRS may prescribe) and its accompanying instructions;

(iii) The NFFE must obtain a written certification (contained on a withholding certificate or in a written statement) from each person that would be treated as a substantial U.S. owner of the NFFE if such person were a specified U.S. person. Such written certification must indicate whether the person is a substantial U.S. owner of the NFFE, and if so, the name, address and TIN of the person. If the NFFE has reason to know that such written certification is unreliable or incorrect, it must contact the person and request a revised written certification. If no revised written certification is received, the NFFE must treat the person as a substantial U.S. owner and report on Form 8966 the information required under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section. The NFFE has reason to know that such a written certification is unreliable or incorrect if the certification is inconsistent with information in the NFFE's possession, including information that the NFFE provides to a financial institution in order for the financial institution to meet its AML or other account identification due diligence procedures with respect to the NFFE's account, information that is publicly available, or U.S. indicia as described in § 1.1441-7(b) for which appropriate documentation sufficient to cure the U.S. indicia in the manner set forth in § 1.1441-7(b)(8) has not been obtained;

(iv) The NFFE must keep records that it produces in the ordinary course of its business that summarize the activity (including the gross amounts described in paragraph (c)(3)(ii)(B) of this section that are paid or credited to each of its substantial U.S. owners) relating to its transactions with respect to the equity of the NFFE held by each of its substantial U.S. owners for any calendar year in which the owner was required to be reported under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section. The records must be retained for the longer of six years or the retention period under the NFFE's normal business procedures. A NFFE may be required to extend the six year retention period if the IRS requests such an extension prior to the expiration of the six year period;

(v) The NFFE must respond to requests made by the IRS for additional information with respect to any substantial U.S. owner that is subject to reporting by the NFFE or with respect to the records described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) or (iv) of this section;

(vi) The NFFE must make a periodic certification to the IRS on or before July 1 of the calendar year following the end of each certification period relating to its compliance with respect to the election described in paragraphs (c)(3) and (4) of this section on the form and in the manner prescribed by the IRS. The first certification period begins on the later of the date a GIIN is issued or June 30, 2014, and ends at the close of the third full calendar year following that date. Each subsequent certification period is the three calendar year period following the close of the previous certification period. The certification will require an officer of the NFFE to certify to the following statements -

(A)

(1) The NFFE has not had any events of default described in paragraph (c)(4)(v) of this section; or

(2) If there are any events of default, appropriate measures were taken to remediate such failures and to prevent such failures from recurring; and

(B) With respect to any failure to report to the extent required under paragraph (c)(3)(ii), the NFFE has corrected such failure by filing the appropriate information returns; and

(vii) The NFFE has not had its status as a direct reporting NFFE revoked by the IRS.

(4)Election to be treated as a direct reporting NFFE -

(i)Manner of making election. A NFFE may elect to be treated as a direct reporting NFFE by registering on Form 8957 (or such other form as the IRS may prescribe) with the IRS to obtain a GIIN pursuant to the procedures prescribed by the IRS.

(ii)Effective date of election. The election is effective upon the issuance of a GIIN to the NFFE.

(iii)Revocation of election by NFFE. The election may be revoked by the NFFE by canceling its registration account on the FATCA registration Web site and notifying the IRS of its revocation in such manner as the IRS may prescribe in the Instructions for Form 8966, “FATCA Report.” The NFFE must also notify within 30 days its sponsoring entity (if applicable) and each withholding agent and financial institution from which it receives payments or with which it holds an account for which a withholding certificate or written statement prescribed in § 1.1471-3(d)(11)(x)(B) (as applicable) was provided on which the NFFE certified its status as a direct reporting NFFE if it revokes its election.

(iv)Revocation of election by Commissioner. The election may be revoked by the Commissioner upon an event of default described in paragraph (c)(4)(v) of this section and following the notice and remediation procedures described in paragraphs (vi) and (vii) of this section. If the Commissioner revokes the NFFE's status as a direct reporting NFFE, the NFFE must provide notification within 30 days of the revocation to each withholding agent and financial institution from which the NFFE receives payments or with which it holds an account for which a withholding certificate or written statement (as permitted for chapter 4 purposes) was provided by the NFFE to represent its status as a direct reporting NFFE.

(v)Event of default. An event of default occurs if a direct reporting NFFE fails to perform any of the obligations described in (c)(3)(i) through (vi) of this section. An event of default also includes any misrepresentation of a material fact to the IRS.

(vi)Notice of event of default. Following an event of default known by or disclosed to the IRS, the IRS will deliver to the NFFE a notice of default specifying the event of default. The IRS will request that the NFFE remediate the event of default within a specified time period. The NFFE must respond to the notice of default and provide information responsive to an IRS request for information or state the reasons why the NFFE does not agree that an event of default has occurred. If the NFFE does not provide a response within the specified time period, the IRS may, at its sole discretion, deliver a notice to the NFFE that its election to be treated as a direct reporting NFFE has been revoked. A NFFE may request, within 90 days of receipt, reconsideration of a notice of default or notice of revocation by written request to the IRS.

(vii)Remediation of event of default. A NFFE will be permitted to remediate an event of default to the extent it agrees with the IRS on a remediation plan. The IRS may, as part of a remediation plan, require additional information from the NFFE.

(5)Election by a direct reporting NFFE to be treated as a sponsored direct reporting NFFE -

(i)Definition of sponsored direct reporting NFFE. A NFFE is a sponsored direct reporting NFFE if the NFFE is a direct reporting NFFE and if another entity, other than a nonparticipating FFI, has agreed with the NFFE to act as its sponsoring entity, as described in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section.

(ii)Requirements for sponsoring entity of a sponsored direct reporting NFFE. A sponsoring entity meets the requirements of this paragraph (c)(5)(ii) if the sponsoring entity -

(A) Is authorized to act on behalf of the NFFE;

(B) Has registered with the IRS as a sponsoring entity;

(C) Has registered the NFFE with the IRS as a sponsored direct reporting NFFE by the later of January 1, 2017, or the date that the NFFE identifies itself to a withholding agent or financial institution as qualifying as a sponsored direct reporting NFFE under paragraph (c)(5) of this section;

(D) Agrees to perform, on behalf of the NFFE, all due diligence, reporting, and other requirements that the NFFE would have been required to perform as a direct reporting NFFE;

(E) Identifies the NFFE in all reporting completed on the NFFE's behalf;

(F) Complies with the certification and other requirements in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section;

(G) Has not had its status as a sponsoring entity revoked; and

(H) Agrees to notify all relevant withholding agents and the IRS if its status as a sponsoring entity is revoked, if it otherwise ceases to be the sponsoring entity of any of its sponsored direct reporting NFFEs (for example, if the sponsored direct reporting NFFE changes sponsors), or if the status of any of its sponsored direct reporting NFFEs has been revoked.

(iii)Revocation of status as sponsoring entity. The IRS may revoke a sponsoring entity's status as a sponsoring entity with respect to all sponsored direct reporting NFFEs if there is a material failure by the sponsoring entity to comply with its obligations under paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section with respect to any sponsored direct reporting NFFE.

(iv)Liability of sponsoring entity. A sponsoring entity is not liable for any failure to comply with the obligations contained in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section. A sponsored direct reporting NFFE will remain liable for all of its chapter 4 obligations without regard to any failure of its sponsoring entity to comply with the obligations contained in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section that the sponsoring entity has agreed to undertake on behalf of the NFFE.

(d)Rules for determining payee and beneficial owner -

(1)In general. For purposes of this section, except in the case of a payee that is a QI, WP, or WT, a withholding agent may treat a withholdable payment as beneficially owned by the payee as determined under § 1.1471-3. Thus, a withholding agent may treat a withholdable payment as beneficially owned by an excepted NFFE (other than a QI, WP, or WT) if the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation to determine the payee's status as an excepted NFFE under the rules of § 1.1471-3(d).

(2)Payments made to a NFFE that is a QI, WP, or WT. A withholding agent may treat the payee of a withholdable payment as a NFFE that is a QI, WP, or WT if the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation to determine the payee's status as such under the rules of § 1.1471-3(b)(3) and (d).

(3)Payments made to a partner or beneficiary of an NFFE that is an NWP or NWT. A withholding agent may treat a partner or beneficiary of an NFFE that is an NWP or NWT, respectively, as the payee of a withholdable payment under this section if the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a valid Form W-8 or written notification that the NFFE is a flow-through entity as described in § 1.1471-3(c)(2), including valid documentation sufficient to establish the chapter 4 status of each payee of the payment that is a partner or beneficiary, respectively, by applying the rules described in § 1.1471-3(d).

(4)Payments made to a beneficial owner that is an NFFE. A withholding agent may treat the beneficial owner of a withholdable payment as an NFFE that does not have any substantial U.S. owners or that has identified all of its substantial U.S. owners if it can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation identifying the beneficial owner as an NFFE that does not have any substantial U.S. owners or that has identified all of its substantial U.S. owners by applying the rules described in § 1.1471-3(d).

(5)Absence of valid documentation. A withholding agent that cannot reliably associate the payment with documentation as described in any of paragraphs (d)(2) through (4) of this section must treat the payment as made to a payee in accordance with the presumption rules under § 1.1471-3(f).

(e)Information reporting requirements -

(1)Reporting on withholdable payments. A withholding agent that treats a withholdable payment as made to any payee described in paragraph (d) of this section must provide information about such payee on Form 1042-S and file a withholding income tax return on Form 1042 to the extent required under § 1.1474-1(d) and (c), respectively.

(2)Reporting on substantial U.S. owners. A withholding agent that receives information about any substantial U.S. owners of an NFFE that is not an excepted NFFE must report information about the NFFE's substantial U.S. owners in accordance with § 1.1474-1(i)(2). See § 1.1471-4(d) for the reporting requirements of a participating FFI with respect to the substantial U.S. owners of account holders that are NFFEs.

(f)Sponsoring entity verification. [Reserved]

(g)Sponsoring entity event of default. [Reserved]

(h)Effective/applicability date. This section applies on January 6, 2017. However, taxpayers may apply these provisions as of January 28, 2013. (For the rules that apply beginning on January 28, 2013, and before January 6, 2017, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2016.)

[T.D. 9610, 78 FR 5978, Jan. 28, 2013; 78 FR 55208, Sept. 10, 2013, as amended by T.D. 9657, 79 FR 12858, Mar. 6, 2014; T.D. 9809, 82 FR 2184, Jan. 6, 2017]