26 CFR § 1.148-9 - Arbitrage rules for refunding issues.

§ 1.148-9 Arbitrage rules for refunding issues.

(a)Scope of application. This section contains special arbitrage rules for refunding issues. These rules apply for all purposes of section 148 and govern allocations of proceeds, bonds, and investments to determine transferred proceeds, temporary periods, reasonably required reserve or replacement funds, minor portions, and separate issue treatment of certain multipurpose issues.

(b)Transferred proceeds allocation rule -

(1)In general. When proceeds of the refunding issue discharge any of the outstanding principal amount of the prior issue, proceeds of the prior issue become transferred proceeds of the refunding issue and cease to be proceeds of the prior issue. The amount of proceeds of the prior issue that becomes transferred proceeds of the refunding issue is an amount equal to the proceeds of the prior issue on the date of that discharge multiplied by a fraction -

(i) The numerator of which is the principal amount of the prior issue discharged with proceeds of the refunding issue on the date of that discharge; and

(ii) The denominator of which is the total outstanding principal amount of the prior issue on the date immediately before the date of that discharge.

(2)Special definition of principal amount. For purposes of this section, principal amount means, in reference to a plain par bond, its stated principal amount, and in reference to any other bond, its present value.

(3)Relation of transferred proceeds rule to universal cap rule -

(i)In general. Paragraphs (b)(1) and (c) of this section apply to allocate transferred proceeds and corresponding investments to a refunding issue on any date required by those paragraphs before the application of the universal cap rule of § 1.148-6(b)(2) to reallocate any of those amounts. To the extent nonpurpose investments allocable to proceeds of a refunding issue exceed the universal cap for the issue on the date that amounts become transferred proceeds of the refunding issue, those transferred proceeds and corresponding investments are reallocated back to the issue from which they transferred on that same date to the extent of the unused universal cap on that prior issue.

(ii)Example. The following example illustrates the application of this paragraph of (b)(3):

Example.
On January 1, 1995, $100,000 of nonpurpose investments allocable to proceeds of issue A become transferred proceeds of issue B under § 1.148-9, but the unused portion of issue B' s universal cap is $75,000 as of that date. On January 1, 1995, issue A has unused universal cap in excess of $25,000. Thus, $25,000 of nonpurpose investments representing the transferred proceeds are immediately reallocated back to issue A on January 1, 1995, and are proceeds of issue A. On the next transfer date under § 1.148-9, the $25,000 receives no priority in determining transferred proceeds as of that date but is treated the same as all other proceeds of issue A subject to transfer.

(4)Limitation on multi-generational transfers. This paragraph (b)(4) contains limitations on the manner in which proceeds of a first generation issue that is refunded by a refunding issue (a second generation issue) become transferred proceeds of a refunding issue (a third generation issue) that refunds the second generation issue. Proceeds of the first generation issue that become transferred proceeds of the third generation issue are treated as having a yield equal to the yield on the refunding escrow allocated to the second generation issue (i.e., as determined under § 1.148-5(b)(2)(iv)). The determination of the transferred proceeds of the third generation issue does not affect compliance with the requirements of section 148, including the determination of the amount of arbitrage rebate with respect to or the yield on the refunding escrow, of the second generation issue.

(c)Special allocation rules for refunding issues -

(1)Allocations of investments -

(i)In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (c), investments purchased with sale proceeds or investment proceeds of a refunding issue must be allocated to those proceeds, and investments not purchased with those proceeds may not be allocated to those proceeds (i.e., a specific tracing method).

(ii)Allocations to transferred proceeds. When proceeds of a prior issue become transferred proceeds of a refunding issue, investments (and the related payments and receipts) of proceeds of the prior issue that are held in a refunding escrow for another issue are allocated to the transferred proceeds under the ratable allocation method described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. Investments of proceeds of the prior issue that are not held in a refunding escrow for another issue are allocated to the transferred proceeds by application of the allocation methods described in paragraph (c)(1) (iii) or (iv) of this section, consistently applied to all investments on a transfer date.

(iii)Ratable allocation method. Under the ratable allocation method, a ratable portion of each nonpurpose and purpose investment of proceeds of the prior issue is allocated to transferred proceeds of the refunding issue.

(iv)Representative allocation method -

(A)In general. Under the representative allocation method, representative portions of the portfolio of nonpurpose investments and the portfolio of purpose investments of proceeds of the prior issue are allocated to transferred proceeds of the refunding issue. Unlike the ratable allocation method, this representative allocation method permits an allocation of particular whole investments. Whether a portion is representative is based on all the facts and circumstances, including, without limitation, whether the current yields, maturities, and current unrealized gains or losses on the particular allocated investments are reasonably comparable to those of the unallocated investments in the aggregate. In addition, if a portion of nonpurpose investments is otherwise representative, it is within the issuer's discretion to allocate the portion from whichever source of funds it deems appropriate, such as a reserve fund or a construction fund for a prior issue.

(B)Mark-to-market safe harbor for representative allocation method. In addition to other representative allocations, a specific allocation of a particular nonpurpose investment to transferred proceeds (e.g., of lower yielding investments) is treated as satisfying the representative allocation method if that investment is valued at fair market value on the transfer date in determining the payments and receipts on that date, but only if the portion of the nonpurpose investments that transfers is based on the relative fair market value of all nonpurpose investments.

(2)Allocations of mixed escrows to expenditures for principal, interest, and redemption prices on a prior issue -

(i)In general. Except for amounts required or permitted to be accounted for under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, proceeds of a refunding issue and other amounts that are not proceeds of a refunding issue that are deposited in a refunding escrow (a mixed escrow) must be accounted for under this paragraph (c)(2)(i). Those proceeds and other amounts must be allocated to expenditures for principal, interest, or stated redemption prices on the prior issue so that the expenditures of those proceeds do not occur faster than ratably with expenditures of the other amounts in the mixed escrow. During the period that the prior issue has unspent proceeds, however, these allocations must be ratable (with reasonable adjustments for rounding) both between sources for expenditures (i.e., proceeds and other amounts) and between uses (i.e., principal, interest, and stated redemption prices on the prior issue).

(ii)Exceptions -

(A)Mandatory allocation of certain non-proceeds to earliest expenditures. If amounts other than proceeds of the refunding issue are deposited in a mixed escrow, but before the issue date of the refunding issue those amounts had been held in a bona fide debt service fund or a fund to carry out the governmental purpose of the prior issue (e.g., a construction fund), those amounts must be allocated to the earliest maturing investments in the mixed escrow.

(B)Permissive allocation of non-proceeds to earliest expenditures. Excluding amounts covered by paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section and subject to any required earlier expenditure of those amounts, any amounts in a mixed escrow that are not proceeds of a refunding issue may be allocated to the earliest maturing investments in the mixed escrow, provided that those investments mature and the proceeds thereof are expended before the date of any expenditure from the mixed escrow to pay any principal of the prior issue.

(d)Temporary periods in refundings -

(1)In general.Proceeds of a refunding issue may be invested in higher yielding investments under section 148(c) only during the temporary periods described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(2)Types of temporary periods in refundings. The available temporary periods for proceeds of a refunding issue are as follows:

(i)General temporary period for refunding issues. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (d)(2), the temporary period for proceeds (other than transferred proceeds) of a refunding issue is the period ending 30 days after the issue date of the refunding issue.

(ii)Temporary periods for current refunding issues -

(A)In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, the temporary period for proceeds (other than transferred proceeds) of a current refunding issue is 90 days.

(B)Temporary period for short-term current refunding issues. The temporary period for proceeds (other than transferred proceeds) of a current refunding issue that has an original term to maturity of 270 days or less may not exceed 30 days. The aggregate temporary periods for proceeds (other than transferred proceeds) of all current refunding issues described in the preceding sentence that are part of the same series of refundings is 90 days. An issue is part of a series of refundings if it finances or refinances the same expenditures for a particular governmental purpose as another issue.

(iii)Temporary periods for transferred proceeds -

(A)In general. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(B) of this section, each available temporary period for transferred proceeds of a refunding issue begins on the date those amounts become transferred proceeds of the refunding issue and ends on the date that, without regard to the discharge of the prior issue, the available temporary period for those proceeds would have ended had those proceeds remained proceeds of the prior issue.

(B)Termination of initial temporary period for prior issue in an advance refunding. The initial temporary period under § 1.148-2(e) (2) and (3) for the proceeds of a prior issue that is refunded by an advance refunding issue (including transferred proceeds) terminates on the issue date of the advance refunding issue.

(iv)Certain short-term gross proceeds. Except for proceeds of a refunding issue held in a refunding escrow, proceeds otherwise reasonably expected to be used to pay principal or interest on the prior issue, replacement proceeds not held in a bona fide debt service fund, and transferred proceeds, the temporary period for gross proceeds of a refunding issue is the 13-month period beginning on the date of receipt.

(e)Reasonably required reserve or replacement funds in refundings. In addition to the requirements of § 1.148-2(f), beginning on the issue date of a refunding issue, a reserve or replacement fund for a refunding issue or a prior issue is a reasonably required reserve or replacement fund under section 148(d) that may be invested in higher yielding investments only if the aggregate amount invested in higher yielding investments under this paragraph (e) for both the refunding issue and the prior issue does not exceed the size limitations under § 1.148-2 (f)(2) and (f)(3), measured by reference to the refunding issue only (regardless of whether proceeds of the prior issue have become transferred proceeds of the refunding issue).

(f)Minor portions in refundings. Beginning on the issue date of the refunding issue, gross proceeds not in excess of a minor portion of the refunding issue qualify for investment in higher yielding investments under section 148(e), and gross proceeds not in excess of a minor portion of the prior issue qualify for investment in higher yielding investments under either section 148(e) or section 149(d)(3)(A)(v), whichever is applicable. Minor portion is defined in § 1.148-2(g).

(g)Certain waivers permitted. On or before the issue date, an issuer may waive the right to invest in higher yielding investments during any temporary period or as part of a reasonably required reserve or replacement fund. At any time, an issuer may waive the right to invest in higher yielding investments as part of a minor portion.

(h)Multipurpose issue allocations -

(1)Application of multipurpose issue allocation rules. The portion of the bonds of a multipurpose issue reasonably allocated to any separate purpose under this paragraph (h) is treated as a separate issue for all purposes of section 148 except the following -

(i)Arbitrage yield. Except to the extent that the proceeds of an issue are allocable to two or more conduit loans that are tax-exempt bonds, determining the yield on a multipurpose issue and the yield on investments for purposes of the arbitrage yield restrictions of section 148 and the arbitrage rebate requirement of section 148(f);

(ii)Rebate amount. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(1)(i) of this section, determining the rebate amount for a multipurpose issue, including subsidiary matters with respect to that determination, such as the computation date credit under § 1.148-3(d)(1), the due date for payments, and the $100,000 bona fide debt service fund exception under section 148(f)(4)(A)(ii);

(iii)Minor portion. Determining the minor portion of an issue under section 148(e);

(iv)Reasonably required reserve or replacement fund. Determining the portion of an issue eligible for investment in higher yielding investments as part of a reasonably required reserve or replacement fund under section 148(d); and

(v)Effective date. Applying the provisions of § 1.148-11(b) (relating to elective retroactive application of §§ 1.148-1 through 1.148-10 to certain issues).

(2)Rules on allocations of multipurpose issues -

(i)In general. This paragraph (h) applies to allocations of multipurpose issues, including allocations involving the refunding purposes of the issue. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (h), proceeds, investments, and bonds of a multipurpose issue may be allocated among the various separate purposes of the issue using any reasonable, consistently applied allocation method. An allocation is not reasonable if it achieves more favorable results under section 148 or 149(d) than could be achieved with actual separate issues. An allocation under this paragraph (h) may be made at any time, but once made may not be changed.

(ii)Allocations involving certain common costs. A ratable allocation of common costs (as described in paragraph (h)(3)(ii) of this section) among the separate purposes of the multipurpose issue is generally reasonable. If another allocation method more accurately reflects the extent to which any separate purpose of a multipurpose issue enjoys the economic benefit or bears the economic burden of certain common costs, that allocation method may be used.

(3)Separate purposes of a multipurpose issue -

(i)In general. Separate purposes of a multipurpose issue include refunding a separate prior issue, financing a separate purpose investment, financing a construction issue (as defined in § 1.148-7(f)), and any clearly discrete governmental purpose reasonably expected to be financed by that issue. In general, all integrated or functionally related capital projects that qualify for the same initial temporary period under § 1.148-2(e)(2) are treated as having a single governmental purpose. The separate purposes of a refunding issue include the separate purposes of the prior issue, if any. Separate purposes may be treated as a single purpose if the proceeds used to finance those purposes are eligible for the same initial temporary period under section 148(c). For example, the use of proceeds of a multipurpose issue to finance separate qualified mortgage loans may be treated as a single purpose.

(ii)Financing common costs. Common costs of a multipurpose issue are not separate purposes. Common costs include issuance costs, accrued interest, capitalized interest on the issue, a reserve or replacement fund, qualified guarantee fees, and similar costs properly allocable to the separate purposes of the issue.

(iii)Example. The following example illustrates the application of this paragraph (h)(3).

Example.
On January 1, 1994, Housing Authority of State A issues a $10 million issue (the 1994 issue) at an interest rate of 10 percent to finance qualified mortgage loans for owner-occupied residences under section 143. During 1994, A originates $5 million in qualified mortgage loans at an interest rate of 10 percent. In 1995, the market interest rates for housing loans falls to 8 percent and A is unable to originate further loans from the 1994 issue. On January 1, 1996, A issues a $5 million issue (the 1996 issue) at an interest rate of 8 percent to refund partially the 1994 issue. Under paragraph (h) of this section, A treats the portion of the 1994 issue used to originate $5 million in loans as a separate issue comprised of that group of purpose investments. A allocates those purpose investments representing those loans to that separate unrefunded portion of the issue. In addition, A treats the unoriginated portion of the 1994 issue as a separate issue and allocates the nonpurpose investments representing the unoriginated proceeds of the 1994 issue to the refunded portion of the issue. Thus, when proceeds of the 1996 issue are used to pay principal on the refunded portion of the 1994 issue that is treated as a separate issue under paragraph (h) of this section, only the portion of the 1994 issue representing unoriginated loan funds invested in nonpurpose investments transfer to become transferred proceeds of the 1996 issue.

(4)Allocations of bonds of a multipurpose issue -

(i)Reasonable allocation of bonds to portions of issue. After reasonable adjustment of the issue price of a multipurpose issue to account for common costs, the portion of the bonds of a multipurpose issue allocated to a separate purpose must have an issue price that bears the same ratio to the aggregate issue price of the multipurpose issue as the portion of the sale proceeds of the multipurpose issue used for that separate purpose bears to the aggregate sale proceeds of the multipurpose issue. For a refunding issue used to refund two or more prior issues, the portion of the sales proceeds allocated to the refunding of a separate prior issue is based on the present value of the refunded debt service on that prior issue, using the yield on investments in the refunding escrow allocable to the entire refunding issue as the discount rate.

(ii)Safe harbor for pro rata allocation method for bonds. The use of the relative amount of sales proceeds used for each separate purpose to ratably allocate each bond or a ratable number of substantially identical whole bonds is a reasonable method for allocating bonds of a multipurpose issue.

(iii)Safe harbor for allocations of bonds used to finance separate purpose investments. An allocation of a portion of the bonds of a multipurpose issue to a particular purpose investment is generally reasonable if that purpose investment has principal and interest payments that reasonably coincide in time and amount to principal and interest payments on the bonds allocated to that purpose investment.

(iv)Rounding of bond allocations to next whole bond denomination permitted. An allocation that rounds each resulting fractional bond up or down to the next integral multiple of a permitted denomination of bonds of that issue not in excess of $100,000 does not prevent the allocation from satisfying this paragraph (h)(4).

(v)Restrictions on allocations of bonds to refunding purposes. For each portion of a multipurpose issue that is used to refund a separate prior issue, a method of allocating bonds of that issue is reasonable under this paragraph (h) only if, in addition to the requirements of paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2) of this section, the portion of the bonds allocated to the refunding of that prior issue -

(A)Results from a pro rata allocation under paragraph (h)(4)(ii) of this section;

(B) Reflects aggregate principal and interest payable in each bond year that is less than, equal to, or proportionate to, the aggregate principal and interest payable on the prior issue in each bond year;

(C)Results from an allocation of all the bonds of the entire multipurpose issue in proportion to the remaining weighted average economic life of the capital projects financed or refinanced by the issue, determined in the same manner as under section 147(b); or

(D)Results from another reasonable allocation method, but only to the extent that the application of the allocation methods provided in this paragraph (h)(4)(v) is not permitted under state law restrictions applicable to the bonds, reasonable terms of bonds issued before, or subject to a master indenture that became effective prior to, July 1, 1993, or other similar restrictions or circumstances. This paragraph (h)(4)(v)(D) shall be strictly construed and is available only if it does not result in a greater burden on the market for tax-exempt bonds than would occur using one of the other allocation methods provided in this paragraph (h)(4)(v). (See also § 1.148-11(c)(2).)

(vi)Exception for refundings of interim notes.Paragraph (h)(4)(v) of this section need not be applied to refunding bonds issued to provide permanent financing for one or more projects if the prior issue had a term of less than 3 years and was sold in anticipation of permanent financing, but only if the aggregate term of all prior issues sold in anticipation of permanent financing was less than 3 years.

(5)Limitation on multi-generation allocations. This paragraph (h) does not apply to allocations of a multipurpose refunded issue unless that refunded issue is refunded directly by an issue to which this paragraph (h) applies. For example, if a 1994 issue refunds a 1984 multipurpose issue, which in turn refunded a 1980 multipurpose issue, this paragraph (h) applies to allocations of the 1984 issue for purposes of allocating the refunding purposes of the 1994 issue, but does not permit allocations of the 1980 issue.

(i)Operating rules for separation of prior issue into refunded and unrefunded portions -

(1)In general. For purposes of paragraph (h)(3)(i) of this section, the separate purposes of a prior issue include the refunded and un refunded portions of the prior issue. Thus, the refunded and un refunded portions are treated as separate issues under paragraph (h)(1) of this section. Those separate issues must satisfy the requirements of paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section. The refunded portion of the bonds of a prior issue is based on a fraction the numerator of which is the principal amount of the prior issue to be paid with proceeds of the refunding issue and the denominator of which is the outstanding principal amount of the bonds of the prior issue, each determined as of the issue date of the refunding issue. (See also paragraph (b)(2) of this section.)

(2)Allocations of proceeds and investments in a partial refunding. As of the issue date of a partial refunding issue under this paragraph (i), unspent proceeds of the prior issue are allocated ratably between the refunded and un refunded portions of the prior issue and the investments allocable to those unspent proceeds are allocated in the manner required for the allocation of investments to transferred proceeds under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section.

(3)References to prior issue. If the refunded and un refunded portions of a prior issue are treated as separate issues under this paragraph (i), then, except to the extent that the context clearly requires otherwise (e.g., references to the aggregate prior issue in the mixed escrow rule in paragraph (c)(2) of this section), all references in this section to a prior issue refer only to the refunded portion of that prior issue.

[T.D. 8476, 58 FR 33541, June 18, 1993; 58 FR 44453, Aug. 23, 1993, as amended by T.D. 8538, 59 FR 24045, May 10, 1994; T.D. 8718, 62 FR 25512, May 9, 1997]