26 CFR 1.166-10 - Reserve for guaranteed debt obligations.
(a)Definitions. The following provisions apply for purposes of this section and section 166(f):
(2)Guaranteed debt obligation. A guaranteed debt obligation is a legal duty of one person as a guarantor, endorser or indemnitor of a second person to pay a third person. It does not include duties based solely on moral or good public relations considerations that are not legally binding. A guaranteed debt obligation typically arises where a seller receives in payment for property or services the debt obligation of a purchaser and sells that obligation to a third party with recourse. However, a guaranteed debt obligation also may arise out of a sale in respect of which there is no direct debtor-creditor relationship between the debtor purchaser and the seller. For example, it arises where a purchaser borrows money from a third party to make payment to the seller and the seller guarantees the payment of the purchaser's debt. Generally, debt obligations which are sold without recourse do not result in any obligation of the seller as a guarantor, endorser, or indemnitor. However, there are certain without-recourse transactions which may give rise to a seller's liability as a guarantor or indemnitor. For example, such a liability may arise where a holder of a debt obligation holds money or other property of a seller which the holder may apply, without seeking permission of the seller, against any uncollectible debt obligations transferred to the holder by the seller without recourse, or where the seller is under a legal obligation to reacquire the real or tangible personal property from the holder of the debt obligation who repossessed property in satisfaction of the debt obligations.
(3)Real or tangible personal property. Real or tangible personal property generally does not include other forms of property, such as securities. However, if the sale of other property is related to the sale of actual real or tangible personal property, the other property will be considered to be real or tangible personal property. In order for the sale of other property to be related, it must be -
(i) Incidental to the sale of the actual real or tangible personal property; and
(ii) Made under an agreement, entered into at the same time as the sale of actual real or tangible personal property, between the dealer in that property and the customer with respect to that property.
(4)Related services. In the case of a sale of both property and services a determination must be made as to whether the services are related to the property. Related services include only those services which are -
(i) Incidental to the sale of the real or tangible personal property; and
(b)Incorporation of section 166(c) rules. A reserve for section 166(f)(1)(A) guaranteed debt obligations must be established and maintained under the rules applicable to the reserve for bad debts under section 166(c) (with the exception of the statement requirement under § 1.166-4 (c)). For example, the rules in § 1.166-4(b), relating to what constitutes a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts and to correction of errors in prior estimates, apply to a reserve for section 166(f)(1)(A) guaranteed debt obligations as well.
(c)Special requirements. Any reserve for section 166(f)(1)(A) guaranteed debt obligations must be established and maintained separately from any reserve for other debt obligations. In addition, a taxpayer who charges off direct debts when they become worthless in whole or in part rather than maintaining a reserve for such obligations may not maintain a reserve for section 166(f)(1)(A) guaranteed debt obligations in the same trade or business.
(d)Requirement of statement. A taxpayer who uses the reserve method of treating section 166(f)(1)(A) guaranteed debt obligations must attach to his return for each taxable year, returns for which are filed after April 17, 1986, and for each trade or business for which the reserve is maintained a statement showing -
(5) The adjustment, if any, to that account;
(6) The adjusted balance, if any, at the close of the taxable year;
(e)Computation of opening balance -
(1)In general. The opening balance of a reserve for section 166(f)(1)(A) guaranteed debt obligations established for the first taxable year for which a taxpayer maintains such a reserve shall be determined as if the taxpayer had maintained such a reserve for the taxable years preceding that taxable year. The amount of the opening balance may be determined under the following formula:
|Year||Obligations outstanding at close of year||Gross losses from these obligations||Recoveries from these obligations||Net losses from these obligations|
(3)More appropriate balance. A taxpayer may select a balance other than the one produced under paragraph (e)(1) of this section if it is more appropriate, based upon the taxpayer's actual experience, and in the event the taxpayer's return is examined, if the balance is approved by the district director.
(4)No losses in the five preceding taxable years. If a taxpayer is in the taxpayer's first taxable year of a particular trade or business, or if the taxpayer has no losses arising from section 166(f)(1)(A) guaranteed debt obligations in a particular trade or business for any other reason in the five preceding taxable years, then the taxpayer's opening balance is zero for that particular trade or business.
(5)Where reserve method was used before October 22, 1965. If for a taxable year ending before October 22, 1965, the taxpayer maintained a reserve for bad debts under section 166(c) which included guaranteed debt obligations described in section 166(f)(1)(A), and if the taxpayer is allowed a deduction referred to in paragraph (g)(2) of this section on account of those obligations, the amount of the opening balance of the reserve for section 166(f)(1)(A) guaranteed debt obligations for the taxpayer's first taxable year ending after October 21, 1965, shall be an amount equal to that portion of the section 166(c) reserve at the close of the last taxable year which is attributable to those debt obligations. The amount of the balance of the section 166(c) reserve for the taxable year shall be reduced by the amount of the opening balance of the reserve for those guaranteed debt obligations.
(f)Suspense account -
|(1) Taxable year||1977||1978||1979||1980|
|(2) Closing reserve account balance||$8,400||$8,250||$8,150||$8,175|
|(3) Opening suspense account balance||8,200||8,200||8,200||8,150|
|(4) Line (2) less line (3)||200||50||(50||25|
|(5) Adjustment to suspense account balance||0||0||(50||25|
|(6) Closing suspense account balance (line 3 plus line 5)||8,200||8,200||8,150||8,175|
(g)Effective date -
(2)Transitional rule. Section 2(b) of the Act of November 2, 1966 (Pub. L. 89-722, 80 Stat. 1151) allows additions to section 166(c) bad debt reserves in earlier taxable years on account of section 166(f)(1)(A) guaranteed debt obligations to be deducted for those earlier taxable years. Paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this section do not apply in determining whether a deduction is allowed under section 2(b) of the Act. See Rev. Rul. 68-313 (1968-1C.B. 75) for rules relating to that deduction.