26 CFR § 1.194-2 - Amount of deduction allowable.

§ 1.194-2 Amount of deduction allowable.

(a) General rule. The allowable monthly deduction with respect to reforestation expenditures made in a taxable year is determined by dividing the amount of reforestation expenditures made in such taxable year (after applying the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section) by 84. In order to determine the total allowable amortization deduction for a given month, a taxpayer should add the monthly amortization deductions computed under the preceding sentence for qualifying expenditures made by the taxpayer in the taxable year and the preceding seven taxable years.

(b) Dollar limitation -

(1) Maximum amount subject to election. A taxpayer may elect to amortize up to $10,000 of qualifying reforestation expenditures each year under section 194. However, the maximum amortizable amount is $5,000 in the case of a married individual (as defined in section 143) filing a separate return. No carryover or carryback of expenditures in excess of $10,000 is permitted. The maximum annual amortization deduction for expenditures incurred in any taxable year is $1,428.57 ($10,000/7). The maximum deduction in the first and eighth taxable years of the amortization period is one-half that amount, or $714.29, because of the half-year convention provided in § 1.194-1(b). Total deductions for any one year under this section will reach $10,000 only if a taxpayer incurs and elects to amortize the maximum $10,000 of expenditures each year over an 8-year period.

(2) Allocation of amortizable basis among taxpayer's timber properties. The limit of $10,000 on amortizable reforestation expenditures applies to expenditures paid or incurred during a taxable year on all of the taxpayer's timber properties. A taxpayer who incurs more than $10,000 in qualifying expenditures in connection with more than one qualified timber property during a taxable year may select the properties for which section 194 amortization will be elected as well as the manner in which the $10,000 limitation on amortizable basis is allocated among such properties. For example, A incurred $10,000 of qualifying reforestation expenditures on each of four properties in 1981. A may elect under section 194 to amortize $2,500 of the amount spent on each property, $5,000 of the amount spent on any two properties, the entire $10,000 spent on any one property, or A may allocate the $10,000 maximum amortizable basis among some or all of the properties in any other manner.

(3) Basis -

(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, the basis of a taxpayer's interest in qualified timber property for which an election is made under section 194 shall be adjusted to reflect the amount of the section 194 amortization deduction allowable to the taxpayer.

(ii) Special rule for trusts. Although a trust may be a partner of a partnership, income beneficiary of an estate, or (for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982) shareholder of an S corporation, it may not deduct its allocable share of a section 194 amortization deduction allowable to such a partnership, estate, or S corporation. In addition, the basis of the interest held by the partnership, estate, or S corporation in the qualified timber property shall not be adjusted to reflect the portion of the section 194 amortization deduction that is allocable to the trust.

(4) Allocation of amortizable basis among component members of a controlled group. Component members of a controlled group (as defined in § 1.194-3(d)) on a December 31 shall be treated as one taxpayer in applying the $10,000 limitation of paragraph (b)(1) of this section. The amortizable basis may be allocated to any one such member or allocated (for the taxable year of each such member which includes such December 31) among the several members in any manner, Provided That the amount of amortizable basis allocated to any member does not exceed the amount of amortizable basis actually acquired by the member in the taxable year. The allocation is to be made (i) by the common parent corporation if a consolidated return is filed for all component members of the group, or (ii) in accordance with an agreement entered into by the members of the group if separate returns are filed. If a consolidated return is filed by some component members of the group and separate returns are filed by other component members, then the common parent of the group filing the consolidated return shall enter into an agreement with those members who do not join in filing the consolidated return allocating the amount between the group filing the return and the other component members of the controlled group who do not join in filing the consolidated return. If a consolidated return is filed, the common parent corporation shall file a separate statement attached to the income tax return on which an election is made to amortize reforestation costs under section 194. See § 1.194-4. If separate returns are filed by some or all component members of the group, each component member to which is allocated any part of the deduction under section 194 shall file a separate statement attached to the income tax return in which an election is made to amortize reforestation expenditures. See § 1.194-4. Such statement shall include the name, address, employer identification number, and the taxable year of each component member of the controlled group, a copy of the allocation agreement signed by persons duly authorized to act on behalf of those members who file separate returns, and a description of the manner in which the deduction under section 194 has been divided among them.

(5) Partnerships -

(i) Election to be made by partnership. A partnership makes the election to amortize qualified reforestation expenditures of the partnership. See section 703(b).

(ii) Dollar limitations applicable to partnerships. The dollar limitations of section 194 apply to the partnership as well as to each partner. Thus, a partnership may not elect to amortize more than $10,000 of reforestation expenditures under section 194 in any taxable year.

(iii) Partner's share of amortizable basis. Section 704 and the regulations thereunder shall govern the determination of a partner's share of a partnership's amortizable reforestation expenditures for any taxable year.

(iv) Dollar limitation applicable to partners. A partner shall in no event be entitled in any taxable year to claim a deduction for amortization based on more than $10,000 ($5,000 in the case of a married taxpayer who files a separate return) of amortizable basis acquired in such taxable year regardless of the source of the amortizable basis. In the case of a partner who is a member of two or more partnerships that elect under section 194, the partner's aggregate share of partnership amortizable basis may not exceed $10,000 or $5,000, whichever is applicable. In the case of a member of a partnership that elects under section 194 who also has separately acquired qualified timber property, the aggregate of the member's partnership and non-partnership amortizable basis may not exceed $10,000 or $5,000 whichever is applicable.

(6) S corporations. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982, rules similar to those contained in paragraph (b)(5) (ii) and (iv) of this section shall apply in the case of S corporations (as defined in section 1361(a)) and their shareholders.

(7) Estates. Estates may elect to amortize in each taxable year up to a maximum of $10,000 of qualifying reforestation expenditures under section 194. Any amortizable basis acquired by an estate shall be apportioned between the estate and the income beneficiary on the basis of the income of the estate allocable to each. The amount of amortizable basis apportioned from an estate to a beneficiary shall be taken into account in determining the $10,000 (or $5,000) amount of amortizable basis allowable to such beneficiary under this section.

(c) Life tenant and remainderman. If property is held by one person for life with remainder to another person, the life tenant is entitled to the full benefit of any amortization allowable under section 194 on qualifying expenditures he or she makes. Any remainder interest in the property is ignored for this purpose.

[T.D. 7927, 48 FR 55849, Dec. 16, 1983]