26 CFR § 1.199A-7 - Section 199A(a) Rules for Cooperatives and their patrons.

§ 1.199A-7 Section 199A(a) Rules for Cooperatives and their patrons.

(a) Overview—(1) In general. This section provides guidance and special rules on the application of the rules of §§ 1.199A–1 through 1.199A–6 regarding the deduction for qualified business income (QBI) under section 199A(a) (section 199A(a) deduction) of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) by patrons (patrons) of cooperatives to which Part I of subchapter T of chapter 1 of the Code (subchapter T) applies (Cooperatives). Unless otherwise provided in this section, all the rules in §§ 1.199A–1 through 1.199A–6 relating to calculating the section 199A(a) deduction apply to patrons and Cooperatives. Paragraph (b) of this section provides special rules for patrons relating to trades or businesses. Paragraph (c) of this section provides special rules for patrons and Cooperatives relating to the definition of QBI. Paragraph (d) of this section provides special rules for patrons and Cooperatives relating to specified service trades or businesses (SSTBs). Paragraph (e) of this section provides special rules for patrons relating to the statutory limitations based on W–2 wages and unadjusted basis immediately after acquisition (UBIA) of qualified property. Paragraph (f) of this section provides special rules for specified agricultural or horticultural cooperatives (Specified Cooperatives) and paragraph (g) of this section provides examples for Specified Cooperatives and their patrons. Paragraph (h) of this section sets forth the applicability date of this section and a special transition rule relating to Specified Cooperatives and their patrons.

(2) At patron level. The section 199A(a) deduction is applied at the patron level, and patrons who are individuals (as defined in § 1.199A–1(a)(2)) may take the section 199A(a) deduction.

(3) Definitions. For purposes of section 199A and § 1.199A–7, the following definitions apply—

(i) Individual is defined in § 1.199A–1(a)(2).

(ii) Patron is defined in § 1.1388–1(e).

(iii) Patronage and nonpatronage is defined in § 1.1388–1(f).

(iv) Relevant Passthrough Entity (RPE) is defined in § 1.199A–1(a)(9).

(v) Qualified payment is defined in § 1.199A–8(d)(2)(ii).

(vi) Specified Cooperative is defined in § 1.199A–8(a)(2) and is a subset of Cooperatives defined in § 1.199A–7(a)(1).

(b) Trade or business. A patron (whether the patron is an RPE or an individual), and not a Cooperative, must determine whether it has one or more trades or businesses that it directly conducts as defined in § 1.199A–1(b)(14). To the extent a patron operating a trade or business has income directly from that business, the patron must follow the rules of §§ 1.199A–1 through 1.199A–6 to calculate the section 199A(a) deduction. Patronage dividends or similar payments are considered to be generated from the trade or business the Cooperative conducts on behalf of or with the patron. A Cooperative that distributes patronage dividends or similar payments, as described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, must determine and report information to its patrons relating to qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss in accordance with paragraphs (c)(3) and (d)(3) of this section. A patron that receives patronage dividends or similar payments, as described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, from a Cooperative must follow the rules of paragraphs (c) through (e) of this section to calculate the section 199A(a) deduction.

(c) Qualified Business Income—(1) In general. QBI means the net amount of qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss with respect to any trade or business as determined under the rules of section 199A(c)(3) and § 1.199A–3(b). A qualified item of income includes distributions for which the Cooperative is allowed a deduction under section 1382(b) and (c)(2) (including patronage dividends or similar payments, such as money, property, qualified written notices of allocations, and qualified per-unit retain certificates, as well as money or property paid in redemption of a nonqualified written notice of allocation (collectively patronage dividends or similar payments)), provided such distribution is otherwise a qualified item of income, gain, deduction, or loss. See special rule in paragraph (d)(3) of this section relating to SSTBs that may affect QBI.

(2) QBI determinations made by patron. A patron must determine QBI for each trade or business it directly conducts. In situations where the patron receives distributions described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the Cooperative must determine whether those distributions include qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss as determined under rules of section 199A(c)(3) and § 1.199A–3(b). These distributions may be included in the QBI of the patron's trade or business to the extent that:

(i) The distributions are related to the patron's trade or business as defined in § 1.199A–1(b)(14);

(ii) The distributions are qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss as determined under rules of section 199A(c)(3) and § 1.199A–3(b) at the Cooperative's trade or business level;

(iii) The distributions are not items from an SSTB as defined in section 199A(d)(2) at the Cooperative's trade or business level (except as permitted by the threshold rules in section 199A(d)(3) and § 1.199A–5(a)(2)); and

(iv) Certain information is reported by the Cooperative about these payments as provided in paragraphs (c)(3) and (d)(3) of this section.

(3) Qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss determinations made and reported by Cooperatives. In the case of a Cooperative that makes distributions described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section to a patron, the Cooperative must determine the amount of qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss as determined under the rules of section 199A(c)(3) and § 1.199A–3(b) in those distributions. A patron must determine whether these qualified items relate to one or more trades or businesses that it directly conducts as defined in § 1.199A–1(b)(14). Pursuant to this paragraph (c)(3), the Cooperative must report the net amount of qualified items with respect to non-SSTBs of the Cooperative in the distributions made to the patron on an attachment to or on the Form 1099–PATR, Taxable Distributions Received From Cooperatives, (or any successor form) issued by the Cooperative to the patron, unless otherwise provided by the instructions to the Form. If the Cooperative does not report on or before the due date of the Form 1099–PATR the amount of such qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss in the distributions to the patron, the amount of distributions from the Cooperative that may be included in the patron's QBI is presumed to be zero. See special rule in paragraph (d)(3) of this section relating to reporting of qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss with respect to SSTBs of the Cooperative.

(d) Specified Service Trades or Businesses—(1) In general. This section provides guidance on the determination of SSTBs as defined in section 199A(d)(2) and § 1.199A–5. Unless otherwise provided in this section, all of the rules in § 1.199A–5 relating to SSTBs apply to patrons of Cooperatives.

(2) SSTB determinations made by patron. A patron (whether an RPE or an individual) must determine whether each trade or business it directly conducts is an SSTB.

(3) SSTB determinations made and reported by Cooperatives—(i) In general. In the case of a Cooperative that makes distributions described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section to a patron, the Cooperative must determine the amount of qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss as determined under the rules of section 199A(c)(3) and § 1.199A–3(b) with respect to SSTBs directly conducted by the Cooperative. A patron must determine whether these qualified items relate to one or more trades or businesses that it directly conducts as defined in § 1.199A–1(b)(14). The Cooperative must report the net amount of qualified items with respect to the SSTBs of the Cooperative in the distributions made to the patron on an attachment to or on the Form 1099–PATR, Taxable Distributions Received from Cooperatives, (or any successor form) issued by the Cooperative to the patron, unless otherwise provided by the instructions to the Form. If the Cooperative does not report the amount on or before the due date of the Form 1099–PATR, then only the amount that a Cooperative reports as qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss under § 1.199A–7(c)(3) may be included in the patron's QBI, and the remaining amount of distributions from the Cooperative that may be included in the patron's QBI is presumed to be zero.

(ii) Patron allocation of expenses paid to Cooperative for SSTB items of income reported by Cooperative—(A) In general. When a Cooperative reports SSTB items to a patron, a patron may allocate a deductible expense that was paid to the Cooperative in connection with the patron's qualified trade or business between a patron's qualified trade or business income and the SSTB income reported to it by the Cooperative only if the SSTB income directly relates to the deductible expense. A patron can allocate the deductible expense paid by the patron to the Cooperative only up to the amount of SSTB income reported by the Cooperative.

(B) Example. Patron allocating expenses between qualified trade or business and SSTB income from a Cooperative.

(1) Cooperative provides to its patrons a service that is an SSTB under section 199A(d)(2). P, a patron, runs a qualified trade or business under section 199A(d)(1) and incurs expenses for the service from the Cooperative in P's qualified trade or business. P pays the Cooperative $1,000 for the service. Cooperative later pays P a patronage dividend of $50 related to the service.

(2) Cooperative reports the $50 as SSTB income on the Form 1099–PATR issued to P.

(3) Since P's deductible expense for services from the Cooperative was in connection with a qualified trade or business and the SSTB income directly relates to that expense, P may allocate the expense under paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, $50 of the $1,000 expense is allocated to P's SSTB income, and $950 of the expense is allocated to P's qualified trade or business and is included in P's QBI calculation.

(e) W–2 wages and unadjusted basis immediately after acquisition of qualified property—(1) In general. This section provides guidance on calculating a trade or business's W–2 wages and the UBIA of qualified property properly allocable to QBI.

(2) Determinations made by patron. The determination of W–2 wages and UBIA of qualified property must be made for each trade or business by the patron (whether an RPE or individual) that directly conducts the trade or business before applying the aggregation rules of § 1.199A–4. Unlike RPEs, Cooperatives do not compute and allocate their W–2 wages and UBIA of qualified property to patrons.

(f) Special rules for patrons of Specified Cooperatives—(1) Section 199A(b)(7) reduction. A patron of a Specified Cooperative that receives a qualified payment must reduce its section 199A(a) deduction as provided in § 1.199A–1(e)(7). This reduction applies whether the Specified Cooperative passes through all, some, or none of the Specified Cooperative's section 199A(g) deduction to the patron in that taxable year. The rules relating to the section 199A(g) deduction can be found in §§ 1.199A–8 through 1.199A–12.

(2) Reduction calculation—(i) Allocation method. If in any taxable year, a patron receives income or gain related to qualified payments and income or gain that is not related to qualified payments in a trade or business, the patron must allocate the income or gain and related deductions, losses and W–2 wages using a reasonable method based on all the facts and circumstances for purposes of calculating the reduction in § 1.199A–1(e)(7). Different reasonable methods may be used for different items and related deductions of income, gain, deduction, and loss. The chosen reasonable method for each item must be consistently applied from one taxable year of the patron to another, and must clearly reflect the income and expenses of each trade or business. The overall combination of methods must also be reasonable based on all the facts and circumstances. The books and records maintained for a trade or business must be consistent with any allocations under this paragraph (f)(2)(i).

(ii) Safe harbor. A patron with taxable income under the threshold amount set forth in section 199A(e)(2) is eligible to use the safe harbor set forth in this paragraph (f)(2)(ii) to apportion its deductions, losses and W–2 wages instead of the allocation method set forth in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section for any taxable year in which the patron receives income or gain related to qualified payments and income or gain not related to qualified payments in a trade or business. Under the safe harbor the patron may apportion its deductions, losses and W–2 wages ratably between income or gain related to qualified payments and income or gain that is not related to qualified payments for purposes of calculating the reduction in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. Accordingly, the amount of deductions and losses apportioned to determine QBI allocable to qualified payments is equal to the proportion of the total deductions and losses that the amount of income or gain related to qualified payments bears to total income or gain used to determine QBI. The same proportion applies to determine the amount of W–2 wages allocable to the portion of the trade or business that received qualified payments.

(3) Qualified payments notice requirement. A Specified Cooperative must report the amount of the qualified payments made to the eligible taxpayer, as defined in section 199A(g)(2)(D), on an attachment to or on the Form 1099–PATR (or any successor form) issued by the Cooperative to the patron, unless otherwise provided by the instructions to the Form.

(g) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of paragraph (f) of this section. For purposes of these examples, assume that the Specified Cooperative has satisfied the applicable written notice requirements in paragraphs (c)(3), (d)(3) and (f)(3) of this section.

(1) Example 1. Patron of Specified Cooperative with W–2 wages.

(i) P, a grain farmer and patron of nonexempt Specified Cooperative C, delivered to C during 2020 2% of all grain marketed through C during such year. During 2021, P receives $20,000 in patronage dividends and $1,000 of allocated section 199A(g) deduction from C related to the grain delivered to C during 2020.

(ii) P has taxable income of $75,000 for 2021 (determined without regard to section 199A) and has a filing status of married filing jointly. P's QBI related to its grain trade or business for 2021 is $50,000, which consists of gross receipts of $150,000 from sales to an independent grain elevator, per-unit retain allocations received from C during 2021 of $80,000, patronage dividends received from C during 2021 related to C's 2020 net earnings of $20,000, and expenses of $200,000 (including $50,000 of W–2 wages).

(iii) The portion of QBI from P's grain trade or business related to qualified payments received from C during 2021 is $10,000, which consists of per-unit retain allocations received from C during 2021 of $80,000, patronage dividends received from C during 2021 related to C's 2020 net earnings of $20,000, and properly allocable expenses of $90,000 (including $25,000 of W–2 wages).

(iv) P's deductible amount related to the grain trade or business is 20% of QBI ($10,000) reduced by the lesser of 9% of QBI related to qualified payments received from C ($900) or 50% of W–2 wages related to qualified payments received from C ($12,500), or $9,100. As P does not have any other trades or businesses, the combined QBI amount is also $9,100.

(v) P's deduction under section 199A for 2021 is $10,100, which consists of the combined QBI amount of $9,100, plus P's deduction passed through from C of $1,000.

(2) Example 2. Patron of Specified Cooperative without W–2 wages.

(i) C and P have the same facts for 2020 and 2021 as Example 1, except that P has expenses of $200,000 that include zero W–2 wages during 2021.

(ii) P's deductible amount related to the grain trade or business is 20% of QBI ($10,000) reduced by the lesser of 9% of QBI related to qualified payments received from C ($900) or 50% of W–2 wages related to qualified payments received from C ($0), or $10,000.

(iii) P's deduction under section 199A for 2021 is $11,000, which consists of the combined QBI amount of $10,000, plus P's deduction passed through from C of $1,000.

(3) Example 3. Patron of Specified Cooperative—Qualified Payments do not equal QBI and no section 199A(g) passthrough.

(i) P, a grain farmer and a patron of a nonexempt Specified Cooperative C, during 2020, receives $60,000 in patronage dividends, $100,000 in per-unit retain allocations, and $0 of allocated section 199A(g) deduction from C related to the grain delivered to C. C notifies P that only $150,000 of the patronage dividends and per-unit retain allocations are qualified payments because $10,000 of the payments are not attributable to C's QPAI.

(ii) P has taxable income of $90,000 (determined without regard to section 199A) and has a filing status of married filing jointly. P's QBI related to its grain trade or business is $45,000, which consists of gross receipts of $95,000 from sales to an independent grain elevator, plus $160,000 from C (all payments from C qualify as qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss), less expenses of $210,000 (including $30,000 of W–2 wages).

(iii) The portion of QBI from P's grain trade or business related to qualified payments received from C is $25,000, which consists of the qualified payments received from C of $150,000, less the properly allocable expenses of $125,000 (including $18,000 of W–2 wages), which were determined using a reasonable method under paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section.

(iv) P's patron reduction is $2,250, which is the lesser of 9% of QBI related to qualified payments received from C, $2,250 (9% × $25,000), or 50% of W–2 wages related to qualified payments received from C, $9,000 (50% × $18,000). As P does not have any other trades or businesses, the combined QBI amount is $6,750 (20% of P's total QBI, $9,000 (20% × $45,000), reduced by the patron reduction of $2,250).

(v) P's deduction under section 199A is $6,750, which consists of the combined QBI amount of $6,750.

(4) Example 4. Patron of Specified Cooperative—Reasonable Method under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section. P is a grain farmer that has $45,000 of QBI related to P's grain trade or business in 2020. P's QBI consists of $105,000 of sales to an independent grain elevator, $100,000 of per-unit retain allocations, and $50,000 of patronage dividends from a nonexempt Specified Cooperative C, for which C reports $150,000 of qualified payments to P as required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section. P's grain trade or business has $210,000 of expenses (including $30,000 of W–2 wages). P delivered 65x bushels of grain to C and sold 35x bushels of comparable grain to the independent grain elevator. To allocate the expenses between qualified payments ($150,000) and other income ($105,000), P compares the bushels of grain delivered to C (65x) to the total bushels of grain delivered to C and sold to the independent grain elevator (100x). P determines $136,500 (65% × $210,000) of expenses (including $19,500 of W–2 wages) are properly allocable to the qualified payments. The portion of QBI from P's grain trade or business related to qualified payments received from C is $13,500, which consists of qualified payments of $150,000 less the properly allocable expenses of $136,500 (including $19,500 of W–2 wages). P's method of allocating expenses is a reasonable method under paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section.

(5) Example 5. Patron of Specified Cooperative using safe harbor to allocate.

(i) P is a grain farmer with taxable income of $100,000 for 2021 (determined without regard to section 199A) and has a filing status of married filing jointly. P's QBI related to P's grain trade or business for 2021 is $50,000, which consists of gross receipts of $180,000 from sales to an independent grain elevator, per-unit retain allocations received from a Specified Cooperative C during 2021 of $15,000, patronage dividends received from C during 2021 related to C's 2020 net earnings of $5,000, and expenses of $150,000 (including $50,000 of W–2 wages). C also passed through $1,800 of the section 199A(g) deduction to P, which related to the grain delivered by P to the Specified Cooperative during 2020. P uses the safe harbor in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section to determine the expenses (including W–2 wages) allocable to the qualified payments.

(ii) Using the safe harbor to allocate P's $150,000 of expenses, P allocates $15,000 of the expenses to the qualified payments ($150,000 of expenses multiplied by the ratio (0.10) of qualified payments ($20,000) to total gross receipts ($200,000)). Using the same ratio, P also determines there are $5,000 of W–2 wages allocable ($50,000 multiplied by 0.10) to the qualified payments.

(iii) The portion of QBI from P's grain trade or business related to qualified payments received from C during 2021 is $5,000, which consists of per-unit retain allocations received from C during 2021 of $15,000, patronage dividends of $5,000, and properly allocable expenses of $15,000 (including $5,000 of W–2 wages).

(iv) P's QBI related to the grain trade or business is 20% of QBI ($10,000) reduced by the lesser of 9% of QBI related to qualified payments received from C ($450) or 50% of W–2 wages related to qualified payments received from C ($2,500), or $9,550. As P does not have any other trades or businesses, the combined QBI amount is also $9,550.

(v) P's deduction under section 199A for 2021 is $11,350, which consists of the combined QBI amount of $9,550, plus P's deduction passed through from C of $1,800.

(h) Applicability date—(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2) of this section, the provisions of this section apply to taxable years beginning after January 19, 2021. Taxpayers, however, may choose to apply the rules of §§ 1.199A–7 through 1.199A–12 for taxable years beginning on or before that date, provided taxpayers apply the rules in their entirety and in a consistent manner.

(2) Transition rule for qualified payments of patrons of Cooperatives. See the transition rule for qualified payments of patrons of Cooperatives for a taxable year of a Cooperative beginning before January 1, 2018 in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 (Pub. L. 115–141, 132 Stat. 348) Division T, section 101(c).

(3) Notice from the Cooperative. If a patron of a Cooperative cannot claim a deduction under section 199A for any qualified payments described in the transition rule set forth in paragraph (h)(2) of this section, the Cooperative must use a reasonable method to identify the qualified payments to its patrons. A reasonable method includes reporting this information on an attachment to or on the Form 1099–PATR (or any successor form) issued by the Cooperative to the patron, unless otherwise provided by the instructions to the Form.

[T.D. 9947, 86 FR 5569, Jan. 19, 2021, as amended by 87 FR 68898, Nov. 17, 2022]