26 CFR § 1.245A(e)-1 - Special rules for hybrid dividends.

§ 1.245A(e)-1 Special rules for hybrid dividends.

(a) Overview. This section provides rules for hybrid dividends. Paragraph (b) of this section disallows the deduction under section 245A(a) for a hybrid dividend received by a United States shareholder from a CFC. Paragraph (c) of this section provides a rule for hybrid dividends of tiered corporations. Paragraph (d) of this section sets forth rules regarding a hybrid deduction account. Paragraph (e) of this section provides an anti-avoidance rule. Paragraph (f) of this section provides definitions. Paragraph (g) of this section illustrates the application of the rules of this section through examples. Paragraph (h) of this section provides the applicability date.

(b) Hybrid dividends received by United States shareholders -

(1) In general. If a United States shareholder receives a hybrid dividend, then -

(i) The United States shareholder is not allowed a deduction under section 245A(a) for the hybrid dividend; and

(ii) The rules of section 245A(d) (disallowance of foreign tax credits and deductions) apply to the hybrid dividend. See paragraph (g)(1) of this section for an example illustrating the application of paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) Definition of hybrid dividend. The term hybrid dividend means an amount received by a United States shareholder from a CFC for which, without regard to section 245A(e) and this section as well as § 1.245A-5, the United States shareholder would be allowed a deduction under section 245A(a), to the extent of the sum of the United States shareholder's hybrid deduction accounts (as described in paragraph (d) of this section) with respect to each share of stock of the CFC, determined at the close of the CFC's taxable year (or in accordance with paragraph (d)(5) of this section, as applicable). No other amount received by a United States shareholder from a CFC is a hybrid dividend for purposes of section 245A.

(3) Special rule for certain dividends attributable to earnings of lower-tier foreign corporations. This paragraph (b)(3) applies if a domestic corporation directly or indirectly (as determined under the principles of § 1.245A-5(g)(3)(ii)) sells or exchanges stock of a foreign corporation and, pursuant to section 1248, the gain recognized on the sale or exchange is included in gross income as a dividend. In such a case, for purposes of this section -

(i) To the extent that earnings and profits of a lower-tier CFC gave rise to the dividend under section 1248(c)(2), those earnings and profits are treated as distributed as a dividend by the lower-tier CFC directly to the domestic corporation under the principles of § 1.1248-1(d); and

(ii) To the extent the domestic corporation indirectly owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)(2), and determined by treating a domestic partnership as foreign) shares of stock of the lower-tier CFC, the hybrid deduction accounts with respect to those shares are treated as the domestic corporation's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to stock of the lower-tier CFC. Thus, for example, if a domestic corporation sells or exchanges all the stock of an upper-tier CFC and under this paragraph (b)(3) there is considered to be a dividend paid directly by the lower-tier CFC to the domestic corporation, then the dividend is generally a hybrid dividend to the extent of the sum of the upper-tier CFC's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to stock of the lower-tier CFC.

(4) Ordering rule. Amounts received by a United States shareholder from a CFC are subject to the rules of section 245A(e) and this section based on the order in which they are received. Thus, for example, if on different days during a CFC's taxable year a United States shareholder receives dividends from the CFC, then the rules of section 245A(e) and this section apply first to the dividend received on the earliest date (based on the sum of the United States shareholder's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to each share of stock of the CFC), and then to the dividend received on the next earliest date (based on the remaining sum).

(c) Hybrid dividends of tiered corporations -

(1) In general. If a CFC (the receiving CFC) receives a tiered hybrid dividend from another CFC, and a domestic corporation is a United States shareholder with respect to both CFCs, then, notwithstanding any other provision of the Code -

(i) For purposes of section 951(a) as to the United States shareholder, the tiered hybrid dividend is treated for purposes of section 951(a)(1)(A) as subpart F income of the receiving CFC for the taxable year of the CFC in which the tiered hybrid dividend is received;

(ii) The United States shareholder includes in gross income an amount equal to its pro rata share (determined in the same manner as under section 951(a)(2)) of the subpart F income described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section; and

(iii) The rules of section 245A(d) (disallowance of foreign tax credit, including for taxes that would have been deemed paid under section 960(a) or (b), and deductions) apply to the amount included under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section in the United States shareholder's gross income. See paragraph (g)(2) of this section for an example illustrating the application of paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Definition of tiered hybrid dividend. The term tiered hybrid dividend means an amount received by a receiving CFC from another CFC to the extent that the amount would be a hybrid dividend under paragraph (b)(2) of this section if, for purposes of section 245A and the regulations in this part under section 245A (except for section 245A(e)(2) and this paragraph (c)), the receiving CFC were a domestic corporation. A tiered hybrid dividend does not include an amount described in section 959(b). No other amount received by a receiving CFC from another CFC is a tiered hybrid dividend for purposes of section 245A.

(3) Special rule for certain dividends attributable to earnings of lower-tier foreign corporations. This paragraph (c)(3) applies if a CFC directly or indirectly (as determined under the principles of § 1.245A-5(g)(3)(ii)) sells or exchanges stock of a foreign corporation and pursuant to section 964(e)(1) the gain recognized on the sale or exchange is included in gross income as a dividend. In such a case, the rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section apply, by treating the CFC as the domestic corporation described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section and substituting the phrase “sections 964(e)(1) and 1248(c)(2)” for the phrase “section 1248(c)(2)” in paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section.

(4) Interaction with rules under section 964(e). To the extent a dividend described in section 964(e)(1) (gain on certain stock sales by CFCs treated as dividends) is a tiered hybrid dividend, the rules of section 964(e)(4) do not apply as to a domestic corporation that is a United States shareholder of both of the CFCs described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section and, therefore, such United States shareholder is not allowed a deduction under section 245A(a) for the amount included in gross income under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section.

(d) Hybrid deduction accounts -

(1) In general. A specified owner of a share of CFC stock must maintain a hybrid deduction account with respect to the share. The hybrid deduction account with respect to the share must reflect the amount of hybrid deductions of the CFC allocated to the share (as determined under paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section), and must be maintained in accordance with the rules of paragraphs (d)(4) through (6) of this section.

(2) Hybrid deductions -

(i) In general. The term hybrid deduction of a CFC means a deduction or other tax benefit (such as an exemption, exclusion, or credit, to the extent equivalent to a deduction) for which the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i)(A) and (B) of this section are both satisfied.

(A) The deduction or other tax benefit is allowed to the CFC (or a person related to the CFC) under a relevant foreign tax law, regardless of whether the deduction or other tax benefit is used, or otherwise reduces tax, currently under the relevant foreign tax law.

(B) The deduction or other tax benefit relates to or results from an amount paid, accrued, or distributed with respect to an instrument issued by the CFC and treated as stock for U.S. tax purposes, or is a deduction allowed to the CFC with respect to equity. Examples of such a deduction or other tax benefit include an interest deduction, a dividends paid deduction, and a notional interest deduction (or similar deduction determined with respect to the CFC's equity). However, a deduction or other tax benefit relating to or resulting from a distribution by the CFC that is a dividend for purposes of the relevant foreign tax law is considered a hybrid deduction only to the extent it has the effect of causing the earnings that funded the distribution to not be included in income (determined under the principles of § 1.267A-3(a)) or otherwise subject to tax under such tax law. Thus, for example, upon a distribution by a CFC that is treated as a dividend for purposes of the CFC's tax law to a shareholder of the CFC, a dividends paid deduction allowed to the CFC under its tax law (or a refund to the shareholder, including through a credit, of tax paid by the CFC on the earnings that funded the distribution) pursuant to an integration or imputation system is not a hybrid deduction of the CFC to the extent that the shareholder, if a tax resident of the CFC's country, includes the distribution in income under the CFC's tax law or, if not a tax resident of the CFC's country, is subject to withholding tax (as defined in section 901(k)(1)(B)) on the distribution under the CFC's tax law. As an additional example, upon a distribution by a CFC to a shareholder of the CFC that is a tax resident of the CFC's country, a dividends received deduction allowed to the shareholder under the tax law of such foreign country pursuant to a regime intended to relieve double-taxation within the group is not a hybrid deduction of the CFC (though if the CFC were also allowed a deduction or other tax benefit for the distribution under such tax, such deduction or other tax benefit would be a hybrid deduction of the CFC). See paragraphs (g)(1) and (2) of this section for examples illustrating the application of paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) Coordination with foreign disallowance rules. The following special rules apply for purposes of determining whether a deduction or other tax benefit is allowed to a CFC (or a person related to the CFC) under a relevant foreign tax law:

(A) Whether the deduction or other tax benefit is allowed is determined without regard to a rule under the relevant foreign tax law that disallows or suspends deductions if a certain ratio or percentage is exceeded (for example, a thin capitalization rule that disallows interest deductions if debt to equity exceeds a certain ratio, or a rule similar to section 163(j) that disallows or suspends interest deductions if interest exceeds a certain percentage of income).

(B) Except as provided in this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B), whether the deduction or other tax benefit is allowed is determined without regard to hybrid mismatch rules, if any, under the relevant foreign tax law that may disallow such deduction or other tax benefit. However, whether the deduction or other tax benefit is allowed is determined with regard to hybrid mismatch rules under the relevant foreign tax law if the amount giving rise to the deduction or other tax benefit neither gives rise to a dividend for U.S. tax purposes nor, based on all the facts and circumstances, is reasonably expected to give rise to a dividend for U.S. tax purposes that will be paid within 12 months from the end of the taxable period for which the deduction or other tax benefit would be allowed but for the hybrid mismatch rules. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B), the term hybrid mismatch rules has the meaning provided in § 1.267A-5(b)(10).

(iii) Anti-duplication rule. A deduction or other tax benefit allowed to a CFC (or a person related to the CFC) under a relevant foreign tax law for an amount paid, accrued, or distributed with respect to an instrument issued by the CFC is not a hybrid deduction to the extent that treating it as a hybrid deduction would have the effect of duplicating a hybrid deduction that is a deduction or other tax benefit allowed under such tax law for an amount paid, accrued, or distributed with respect to an instrument that is issued by a CFC at a higher tier and that has terms substantially similar to the terms of the first instrument. For example, if an upper tier CFC issues to a corporate United States shareholder a hybrid instrument (the “upper tier instrument”), a lower tier CFC issues to the upper tier CFC a hybrid instrument that has terms substantially similar to the terms of the upper tier instrument (the “mirror instrument”), the CFCs are tax residents of the same foreign country, and the upper tier CFC includes in income under its tax law (as determined under the principles of § 1.267A-3(a)) amounts accrued with respect to the mirror instrument, then a deduction allowed to the lower tier CFC under such foreign tax law for an amount accrued pursuant to the mirror instrument is not a hybrid deduction (but a deduction allowed to the upper tier CFC under the foreign tax law for an amount accrued with respect to the upper tier instrument is a hybrid deduction).

(iv) Application limited to items allowed in taxable years ending on or after December 20, 2018; special rule for deductions with respect to equity. A deduction or other tax benefit, other than a deduction with respect to equity, allowed to a CFC (or a person related to the CFC) under a relevant foreign tax law is taken into account for purposes of this section only if it was allowed with respect to a taxable year under the relevant foreign tax law ending on or after December 20, 2018. A deduction with respect to equity allowed to a CFC under a relevant foreign tax law is taken into account for purposes of this section only if it was allowed with respect to a taxable year under the relevant foreign tax law beginning on or after December 20, 2018.

(3) Allocating hybrid deductions to shares. A hybrid deduction is allocated to a share of stock of a CFC to the extent that the hybrid deduction (or amount equivalent to a deduction) relates to an amount paid, accrued, or distributed by the CFC with respect to the share. However, in the case of a hybrid deduction that is a deduction with respect to equity (such as a notional interest deduction), the deduction is allocated to a share of stock of a CFC based on the product of -

(i) The amount of the deduction allowed for all of the equity of the CFC; and

(ii) A fraction, the numerator of which is the value of the share and the denominator of which is the value of all of the stock of the CFC.

(4) Maintenance of hybrid deduction accounts -

(i) In general. A specified owner's hybrid deduction account with respect to a share of stock of a CFC is, as of the close of the taxable year of the CFC, adjusted pursuant to the following rules.

(A) First, the account is increased by the amount of hybrid deductions of the CFC allocated to the share for the taxable year.

(B) [Reserved]

(C) Third, the account is decreased by the amount of hybrid deductions in the account that gave rise to a hybrid dividend or tiered hybrid dividend during the taxable year. If the specified owner has more than one hybrid deduction account with respect to its stock of the CFC, then a pro rata amount in each hybrid deduction account is considered to have given rise to the hybrid dividend or tiered hybrid dividend, based on the amounts in the accounts before applying this paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C).

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) Acquisition of account and certain other adjustments -

(A) In general. The following rules apply when a person (the acquirer) directly or indirectly through a partnership, trust, or estate acquires a share of stock of a CFC from another person (the transferor).

(1) In the case of an acquirer that is a specified owner of the share immediately after the acquisition, the transferor's hybrid deduction account, if any, with respect to the share becomes the hybrid deduction account of the acquirer.

(2) In the case of an acquirer that is not a specified owner of the share immediately after the acquisition, the transferor's hybrid deduction account, if any, is eliminated and accordingly is not thereafter taken into account by any person.

(B) Additional rules. The following rules apply in addition to the rules of paragraph (d)(4)(iii)(A) of this section.

(1) Certain section 354 or 356 exchanges. The following rules apply when a shareholder of a CFC (the CFC, the target CFC; the shareholder, the exchanging shareholder) exchanges stock of the target CFC for stock of another CFC (the acquiring CFC) pursuant to an exchange described in section 354 or 356 that occurs in connection with a transaction described in section 381(a)(2) in which the target CFC is the transferor corporation.

(i) In the case of an exchanging shareholder that is a specified owner of one or more shares of stock of the acquiring CFC immediately after the exchange, the exchanging shareholder's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to the shares of stock of the target CFC that it exchanges are attributed to the shares of stock of the acquiring CFC that it receives in the exchange.

(ii) In the case of an exchanging shareholder that is not a specified owner of one or more shares of stock of the acquiring CFC immediately after the exchange, the exchanging shareholder's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to its shares of stock of the target CFC are eliminated and accordingly are not thereafter taken into account by any person.

(2) Section 332 liquidations. If a CFC is a distributor corporation in a transaction described in section 381(a)(1) (the distributor CFC) in which a controlled foreign corporation is the acquiring corporation (the distributee CFC), then each hybrid deduction account with respect to a share of stock of the distributee CFC is increased pro rata by the sum of the hybrid deduction accounts with respect to shares of stock of the distributor CFC.

(3) Recapitalizations. If a shareholder of a CFC exchanges stock of the CFC pursuant to a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(E) or a transaction to which section 1036 applies, then the shareholder's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to the stock of the CFC that it exchanges are attributed to the shares of stock of the CFC that it receives in the exchange.

(4) Certain distributions involving section 355 or 356. In the case of a transaction involving a distribution under section 355 (or so much of section 356 as it relates to section 355) by a CFC (the distributing CFC) of stock of another CFC (the controlled CFC), the balance of the hybrid deduction accounts with respect to stock of the distributing CFC is attributed to stock of the controlled CFC in a manner similar to how earnings and profits of the distributing CFC and controlled CFC are adjusted. To the extent the balance of the hybrid deduction accounts with respect to stock of the distributing CFC is not so attributed to stock of the controlled CFC, such balance remains as the balance of the hybrid deduction accounts with respect to stock of the distributing CFC.

(5) Effect of section 338(g) election -

(i) In general. If an election under section 338(g) is made with respect to a qualified stock purchase (as described in section 338(d)(3)) of stock of a CFC, then a hybrid deduction account with respect to a share of stock of the old target is not treated as (or attributed to) a hybrid deduction account with respect to a share of stock of the new target. Accordingly, immediately after the deemed asset sale described in § 1.338-1, the balance of a hybrid deduction account with respect to a share of stock of the new target is zero; the account must then be maintained in accordance with the rules of paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) Special rule regarding carryover FT stock. Paragraph (d)(4)(iii)(B)(5)(i) of this section does not apply as to a hybrid deduction account with respect to a share of carryover FT stock (as described in § 1.338-9(b)(3)(i)). A hybrid deduction account with respect to a share of carryover FT stock is attributed to the corresponding share of stock of the new target.

(5) Determinations and adjustments made during year of transfer in certain cases. This paragraph (d)(5) applies if on a date other than the date that is the last day of the CFC's taxable year a United States shareholder of the CFC or an upper-tier CFC with respect to the CFC directly or indirectly (as determined under the principles of § 1.245A-5(g)(3)(ii)) transfers a share of stock of the CFC, and, during the taxable year, but on or before the transfer date, the United States shareholder or upper-tier CFC receives an amount from the CFC that is subject to the rules of section 245A(e) and this section. In such a case, the following rules apply:

(i) As to the United States shareholder or upper-tier CFC and the United States shareholder's or upper-tier CFC's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to each share of stock of the CFC (regardless of whether such share is transferred), the determinations and adjustments under this section that would otherwise be made at the close of the CFC's taxable year are made at the close of the date of the transfer. When making these determinations and adjustments at the close of the date of the transfer, each hybrid deduction account described in the previous sentence is pursuant to paragraph (d)(4)(ii)(A) of this section increased by a ratable portion (based on the number of days in the taxable year within the pre-transfer period to the total number of days in the taxable year) of the hybrid deductions of the CFC allocated to the share for the taxable year, and pursuant to paragraph (d)(4)(ii)(C) of this section decreased by the amount of hybrid deductions in the account that gave rise to a hybrid dividend or tiered hybrid dividend during the portion of the taxable year up to and including the transfer date. Thus, for example, if a United States shareholder of a CFC exchanges stock of the CFC in an exchange described in § 1.367(b)-4(b)(1)(i) and is required to include in income as a deemed dividend the section 1248 amount attributable to the stock exchanged, then: As of the close of the date of the exchange, each of the United States shareholder's hybrid deductions accounts with respect to a share of stock of the CFC is increased by a ratable portion of the hybrid deductions of the CFC allocated to the share for the taxable year (based on the number of days in the taxable year within the pre-transfer period to the total number of days in the taxable year); the deemed dividend is a hybrid dividend to the extent of the sum of the United States shareholder's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to each share of stock of the CFC; and, as the close of the date of the exchange, each of the accounts is decreased by the amount of hybrid deductions in the account that gave rise to a hybrid dividend during the portion of the taxable year up to and including the date of the exchange.

(ii) As to a hybrid deduction account described in paragraph (d)(5)(i) of this section, the adjustments to the account as of the close of the taxable year of the CFC must take into account the adjustments, if any, occurring with respect to the account pursuant to paragraph (d)(5)(i) of this section. Thus, for example, if an acquisition of a share of stock of a CFC occurs on a date other than the date that is the last day of the CFC's taxable year and pursuant to paragraph (d)(4)(iii)(A)(1) of this section the acquirer succeeds to the transferor's hybrid deduction account with respect to the share, then, as of the close of the taxable year of the CFC, the account is increased by a ratable portion of the hybrid deductions of the CFC allocated to the share for the taxable year (based on the number of days in the taxable year within the post-transfer period to the total number of days in the taxable year), and, decreased by the amount of hybrid deductions in the account that gave rise to a hybrid dividend or tiered hybrid dividend during the portion of the taxable year following the transfer date.

(6) Effects of CFC functional currency -

(i) Maintenance of the hybrid deduction account. A hybrid deduction account with respect to a share of CFC stock must be maintained in the functional currency (within the meaning of section 985) of the CFC. Thus, for example, the amount of a hybrid deduction and the adjustments described in paragraphs (d)(4)(i)(A) and (B) of this section are determined based on the functional currency of the CFC. In addition, for purposes of this section, the amount of a deduction or other tax benefit allowed to a CFC (or a person related to the CFC) is determined taking into account foreign currency gain or loss recognized with respect to such deduction or other tax benefit under a provision of foreign tax law comparable to section 988 (treatment of certain foreign currency transactions).

(ii) Determination of amount of hybrid dividend. This paragraph (d)(6)(ii) applies if a CFC's functional currency is other than the functional currency of a United States shareholder or upper-tier CFC that receives an amount from the CFC that is subject to the rules of section 245A(e) and this section. In such a case, the sum of the United States shareholder's or upper-tier CFC's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to each share of stock of the CFC is, for purposes of determining the extent that a dividend is a hybrid dividend or tiered hybrid dividend, translated into the functional currency of the United States shareholder or upper-tier CFC based on the spot rate (within the meaning of § 1.988-1(d)) as of the date of the dividend.

(e) Anti-avoidance rule. Appropriate adjustments are made pursuant to this section, including adjustments that would disregard the transaction or arrangement, if a transaction or arrangement is undertaken with a principal purpose of avoiding the purposes of section 245A(e) and this section. For example, if a specified owner of a share of CFC stock transfers the share to another person, and a principal purpose of the transfer is to shift the hybrid deduction account with respect to the share to the other person or to cause the hybrid deduction account to be eliminated, then for purposes of this section the shifting or elimination of the hybrid deduction account is disregarded as to the transferor. As another example, if a transaction or arrangement is undertaken to affirmatively fail to satisfy the holding period requirement under section 246(c)(5) with a principal purpose of avoiding the tiered hybrid dividend rules described in paragraph (c) of this section, the transaction or arrangement is disregarded for purposes of this section. This paragraph (e) will not apply, however, to disregard (or make other adjustments with respect to) a transaction pursuant to which an instrument or arrangement that gives rise to hybrid deductions is eliminated or otherwise converted into another instrument or arrangement that does not give rise to hybrid deductions.

(f) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this section.

(1) The term controlled foreign corporation (or CFC) has the meaning provided in section 957.

(2) The term domestic corporation means an entity classified as a domestic corporation under section 7701(a)(3) and (4) or otherwise treated as a domestic corporation by the Internal Revenue Code. However, for purposes of this section, a domestic corporation does not include a regulated investment company (as described in section 851), a real estate investment trust (as described in section 856), or an S corporation (as described in section 1361).

(3) The term person has the meaning provided in section 7701(a)(1).

(4) The term related has the meaning provided in this paragraph (f)(4). A person is related to a CFC if the person is a related person within the meaning of section 954(d)(3). See also § 1.954-1(f)(2)(iv)(B)(1) (neither section 318(a)(3), nor § 1.958-2(d) or the principles thereof, applies to attribute stock or other interests).

(5) The term relevant foreign tax law means, with respect to a CFC, any regime of any foreign country or possession of the United States that imposes an income, war profits, or excess profits tax with respect to income of the CFC, other than a foreign anti-deferral regime under which a person that owns an interest in the CFC is liable to tax. If a foreign country has an income tax treaty with the United States that applies to taxes imposed by a political subdivision or other local authority of that country, then the tax law of the political subdivision or other local authority is deemed to be a tax law of a foreign country. Thus, the term includes any regime of a foreign country or possession of the United States that imposes income, war profits, or excess profits tax under which -

(i) The CFC is liable to tax as a resident;

(ii) The CFC has a branch that gives rise to a taxable presence in the foreign country or possession of the United States; or

(iii) A person related to the CFC is liable to tax as a resident, provided that under such person's tax law the person is allowed a deduction for amounts paid or accrued by the CFC (because the CFC is fiscally transparent under the person's tax law).

(6) The term specified owner means, with respect to a share of stock of a CFC, a person for which the requirements of paragraphs (f)(6)(i) and (ii) of this section are satisfied.

(i) The person is a domestic corporation that is a United States shareholder of the CFC, or is an upper-tier CFC that would be a United States shareholder of the CFC were the upper-tier CFC a domestic corporation (provided that, for purposes of sections 951 and 951A, a domestic corporation that is a United States shareholder of the upper-tier CFC owns (within the meaning of section 958(a), and determined by treating a domestic partnership as foreign) one or more shares of stock of the upper-tier CFC).

(ii) The person owns the share directly or indirectly through a partnership, trust, or estate. Thus, for example, if a domestic corporation directly owns all the shares of stock of an upper-tier CFC and the upper-tier CFC directly owns all the shares of stock of another CFC, the domestic corporation is the specified owner with respect to each share of stock of the upper-tier CFC and the upper-tier CFC is the specified owner with respect to each share of stock of the other CFC.

(7) The term United States shareholder has the meaning provided in section 951(b).

(g) Examples. This paragraph (g) provides examples that illustrate the application of this section. For purposes of the examples in this paragraph (g), unless otherwise indicated, the following facts are presumed. US1 is a domestic corporation. FX and FZ are CFCs formed at the beginning of year 1, and the functional currency (within the meaning of section 985) of each of FX and FZ is the dollar. FX is a tax resident of Country X and FZ is a tax resident of Country Z. US1 is a United States shareholder with respect to FX and FZ. No distributed amounts are attributable to amounts which are, or have been, included in the gross income of a United States shareholder under section 951(a). All instruments are treated as stock for U.S. tax purposes. Only the tax law of the United States contains hybrid mismatch rules.

(1) Example 1. Hybrid dividend resulting from hybrid instrument -

(i) Facts. US1 holds both shares of stock of FX, which have an equal value. One share is treated as indebtedness for Country X tax purposes (“Share A”), and the other is treated as equity for Country X tax purposes (“Share B”). During year 1, under Country X tax law, FX accrues $80x of interest to US1 with respect to Share A and is allowed a deduction for the amount (the “Hybrid Instrument Deduction”). During year 2, FX distributes $30x to US1 with respect to each of Share A and Share B. For U.S. tax purposes, each of the $30x distributions is treated as a dividend for which, without regard to section 245A(e) and this section as well as § 1.245A-T, US1 would be allowed a deduction under section 245A(a). For Country X tax purposes, the $30x distribution with respect to Share A represents a payment of interest for which a deduction was already allowed (and thus FX is not allowed an additional deduction for the amount), and the $30x distribution with respect to Share B is treated as a dividend (for which no deduction is allowed).

(ii) Analysis. The entire $30x of each dividend received by US1 from FX during year 2 is a hybrid dividend, because the sum of US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to each of its shares of FX stock at the end of year 2 ($80x) is at least equal to the amount of the dividends ($60x). See paragraph (b)(2) of this section. This is the case for the $30x dividend with respect to Share B even though there are no hybrid deductions allocated to Share B. See paragraph (b)(2) of this section. As a result, US1 is not allowed a deduction under section 245A(a) for the entire $60x of hybrid dividends and the rules of section 245A(d) (disallowance of foreign tax credits and deductions) apply. See paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Paragraphs (g)(1)(ii)(A) through (D) of this section describe the determinations under this section.

(A) At the end of year 1, US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to Share A and Share B are $80x and $0, respectively, calculated as follows.

(1) The $80x Hybrid Instrument Deduction allowed to FX under Country X tax law (a relevant foreign tax law) is a hybrid deduction of FX, because the deduction is allowed to FX and relates to or results from an amount accrued with respect to an instrument issued by FX and treated as stock for U.S. tax purposes. See paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section. Thus, FX's hybrid deductions for year 1 are $80x.

(2) The entire $80x Hybrid Instrument Deduction is allocated to Share A, because the deduction was accrued with respect to Share A. See paragraph (d)(3) of this section. As there are no additional hybrid deductions of FX for year 1, there are no additional hybrid deductions to allocate to either Share A or Share B. Thus, there are no hybrid deductions allocated to Share B.

(3) At the end of year 1, US1's hybrid deduction account with respect to Share A is increased by $80x (the amount of hybrid deductions allocated to Share A). See paragraph (d)(4)(i)(A) of this section. Because FX did not pay any dividends with respect to either Share A or Share B during year 1 (and therefore did not pay any hybrid dividends or tiered hybrid dividends), no further adjustments are made. See paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section. Therefore, at the end of year 1, US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to Share A and Share B are $80x and $0, respectively.

(B) At the end of year 2, and before the adjustments described in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section, US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to Share A and Share B remain $80x and $0, respectively. This is because there are no hybrid deductions of FX for year 2. See paragraph (d)(4)(i)(A) of this section.

(C) Because at the end of year 2 (and before the adjustments described in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section) the sum of US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to Share A and Share B ($80x, calculated as $80x plus $0) is at least equal to the aggregate $60x of year 2 dividends, the entire $60x dividend is a hybrid dividend. See paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(D) At the end of year 2, US1's hybrid deduction account with respect to Share A is decreased by $60x, the amount of the hybrid deductions in the account that gave rise to a hybrid dividend or tiered hybrid dividend during year 2. See paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section. Because there are no hybrid deductions in the hybrid deduction account with respect to Share B, no adjustments with respect to that account are made under paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section. Therefore, at the end of year 2 and taking into account the adjustments under paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section, US1's hybrid deduction account with respect to Share A is $20x ($80x less $60x) and with respect to Share B is $0.

(iii) Alternative facts - notional interest deductions. The facts are the same as in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, except that for each of year 1 and year 2 FX is allowed $10x of notional interest deductions with respect to its equity, Share B, under Country X tax law (the “NIDs”). In addition, during year 2, FX distributes $47.5x (rather than $30x) to US1 with respect to each of Share A and Share B. For U.S. tax purposes, each of the $47.5x distributions is treated as a dividend for which, without regard to section 245A(e) and this section as well as § 1.245A-T, US1 would be allowed a deduction under section 245A(a). For Country X tax purposes, the $47.5x distribution with respect to Share A represents a payment of interest for which a deduction was already allowed (and thus FX is not allowed an additional deduction for the amount), and the $47.5x distribution with respect to Share B is treated as a dividend (for which no deduction is allowed). The entire $47.5x of each dividend received by US1 from FX during year 2 is a hybrid dividend, because the sum of US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to each of its shares of FX stock at the end of year 2 ($80x plus $20x, or $100x) is at least equal to the amount of the dividends ($95x). See paragraph (b)(2) of this section. As a result, US1 is not allowed a deduction under section 245A(a) for the $95x hybrid dividend and the rules of section 245A(d) (disallowance of foreign tax credits and deductions) apply. See paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Paragraphs (g)(1)(iii)(A) through (D) of this section describe the determinations under this section.

(A) The $10x of NIDs allowed to FX under Country X tax law in year 1 are hybrid deductions of FX for year 1. See paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section. The $10x of NIDs is allocated equally to each of Share A and Share B, because the hybrid deduction is with respect to equity and the shares have an equal value. See paragraph (d)(3) of this section. Thus, $5x of the NIDs is allocated to each of Share A and Share B for year 1. For the reasons described in paragraph (g)(1)(ii)(A)(2) of this section, the entire $80x Hybrid Instrument Deduction is allocated to Share A. Therefore, at the end of year 1, US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to Share A and Share B are $85x and $5x, respectively.

(B) Similarly, the $10x of NIDs allowed to FX under Country X tax law in year 2 are hybrid deductions of FX for year 2, and $5x of the NIDs is allocated to each of Share A and Share B for year 2. See paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (d)(3) of this section. Thus, at the end of year 2 (and before the adjustments described in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section), US1's hybrid deduction account with respect to Share A is $90x ($85x plus $5x) and with respect to Share B is $10x ($5x plus $5x). See paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section.

(C) Because at the end of year 2 (and before the adjustments described in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section) the sum of US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to Share A and Share B ($100x, calculated as $90x plus $10x) is at least equal to the aggregate $95x of year 2 dividends, the entire $95x of dividends are hybrid dividends. See paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(D) At the end of year 2, US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to Share A and Share B are decreased by the amount of hybrid deductions in the accounts that gave rise to a hybrid dividend or tiered hybrid dividend during year 2. See paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section. A total of $95x of hybrid deductions in the accounts gave rise to a hybrid dividend during year 2. For the hybrid deduction account with respect to Share A, $85.5x in the account is considered to have given rise to a hybrid deduction (calculated as $95x multiplied by $90x/$100x). See paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section. For the hybrid deduction account with respect to Share B, $9.5x in the account is considered to have given rise to a hybrid deduction (calculated as $95x multiplied by $10x/$100x). See paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section. Thus, following these adjustments, at the end of year 2, US1's hybrid deduction account with respect to Share A is $4.5x ($90x less $85.5x) and with respect to Share B is $0.5x ($10x less $9.5x).

(iv) Alternative facts - deduction in branch country -

(A) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, except that for Country X tax purposes Share A is treated as equity (and thus the Hybrid Instrument Deduction does not exist, and under Country X tax law FX is not allowed a deduction for the $30x distributed in year 2 with respect to Share A). However, FX has a branch in Country Z that gives rise to a taxable presence under Country Z tax law, and for Country Z tax purposes Share A is treated as indebtedness and Share B is treated as equity. Also, during year 1, for Country Z tax purposes, FX accrues $80x of interest to US1 with respect to Share A and is allowed an $80x interest deduction with respect to its Country Z branch income. Moreover, for Country Z tax purposes, the $30x distribution with respect to Share A in year 2 represents a payment of interest for which a deduction was already allowed (and thus FX is not allowed an additional deduction for the amount), and the $30x distribution with respect to Share B in year 2 is treated as a dividend (for which no deduction is allowed).

(B) Analysis. The $80x interest deduction allowed to FX under Country Z tax law (a relevant foreign tax law) with respect to its Country Z branch income is a hybrid deduction of FX for year 1. See paragraphs (d)(2)(i) and (f)(5) of this section. For reasons similar to those discussed in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, at the end of year 2 (and before the adjustments described in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section), US1's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to Share A and Share B are $80x and $0, respectively, and the sum of the accounts is $80x. Accordingly, the entire $60x of the year 2 dividend is a hybrid dividend. See paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Further, for the reasons described in paragraph (g)(1)(ii)(D) of this section, at the end of year 2 and taking into account the adjustments under paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section, US1's hybrid deduction account with respect to Share A is $20x ($80x less $60x) and with respect to Share B is $0.

(2) Example 2. Tiered hybrid dividend rule; tax benefit equivalent to a deduction -

(i) Facts. US1 holds all the stock of FX, and FX holds all 100 shares of stock of FZ (the “FZ shares”), which have an equal value. The FZ shares are treated as equity for Country Z tax purposes. At the end of year 1, the sum of FX's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to each of its shares of FZ stock is $0. During year 2, FZ distributes $10x to FX with respect to each of the FZ shares, for a total of $1,000x. The $1,000x is treated as a dividend for U.S. and Country Z tax purposes, and is not deductible for Country Z tax purposes. If FX were a domestic corporation, then, without regard to section 245A(e) and this section as well as § 1.245A-5, FX would be allowed a deduction under section 245A(a) for the $1,000x. Under Country Z tax law, 75% of the corporate income tax paid by a Country Z corporation with respect to a dividend distribution is refunded to the corporation's shareholders (regardless of where such shareholders are tax residents) upon a dividend distribution by the corporation. The corporate tax rate in Country Z is 20%. With respect to FZ's distributions, FX is allowed a refundable tax credit of $187.5x. The $187.5x refundable tax credit is calculated as $1,250x (the amount of pre-tax earnings that funded the distribution, determined as $1,000x (the amount of the distribution) divided by 0.8 (the percentage of pre-tax earnings that a Country Z corporation retains after paying Country Z corporate tax)) multiplied by 0.2 (the Country Z corporate tax rate) multiplied by 0.75 (the percentage of the Country Z tax credit). Under Country Z tax law, FX is not subject to Country Z withholding tax (or any other tax) with respect to the $1,000x dividend distribution.

(ii) Analysis. As described in paragraphs (g)(2)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section, the sum of FX's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to each of its shares of FZ stock at the end of year 2 is $937.5x and, as a result, $937.5x of the $1,000x of dividends received by FX from FZ during year 2 is a tiered hybrid dividend. See paragraphs (b)(2) and (c)(2) of this section. The $937.5x tiered hybrid dividend is treated for purposes of section 951(a)(1)(A) as subpart F income of FX and US1 must include in gross income its pro rata share of such subpart F income, which is $937.5x. See paragraph (c)(1) of this section. This is the case notwithstanding any other provision of the Code, including section 952(c) or section 954(c)(3) or (6). In addition, the rules of section 245A(d) (disallowance of foreign tax credits and deductions) apply with respect to US1's inclusion. See paragraph (c)(1) of this section. Paragraphs (g)(2)(ii)(A) through (C) of this section describe the determinations under this section. The characterization of the FZ stock for Country X tax purposes (or for purposes of any other foreign tax law) does not affect this analysis.

(A) The $187.5x refundable tax credit allowed to FX under Country Z tax law (a relevant foreign tax law) is equivalent to a $937.5x deduction, calculated as $187.5x (the amount of the credit) divided by 0.2 (the Country Z corporate tax rate). The $937.5x is a hybrid deduction of FZ because it is allowed to FX (a person related to FZ), it relates to or results from amounts distributed with respect to instruments issued by FZ and treated as stock for U.S. tax purposes, and it has the effect of causing the earnings that funded the distributions to not be included in income under Country Z tax law. See paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section. $9.375x of the hybrid deduction is allocated to each of the FZ shares, calculated as $937.5x (the amount of the hybrid deduction) multiplied by 1/100 (the value of each FZ share relative to the value of all the FZ shares). See paragraph (d)(3) of this section. The result would be the same if FX were instead a tax resident of Country Z (and not Country X), FX were allowed the $187.5x refundable tax credit under Country Z tax law, and under Country Z tax law FX were to not include the $1,000x in income (because, for example, Country Z tax law provides Country Z resident corporations a 100% exclusion or dividends received deduction with respect to dividends received from a resident corporation). See paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(B) At the end of year 2, and before the adjustments described in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section, the sum of FX's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to each of its shares of FZ stock is $937.5x, calculated as $9.375x (the amount in each account) multiplied by 100 (the number of accounts). See paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section. Accordingly, $937.5x of the $1,000x dividend received by FX from FZ during year 2 is a tiered hybrid dividend. See paragraphs (b)(2) and (c)(2) of this section.

(C) At the end of year 2, each of FX's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to its shares of FZ is decreased by the $9.375x in the account that gave rise to a hybrid dividend or tiered hybrid dividend during year 2. See paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section. Thus, following these adjustments, at the end of year 2, each of FX's hybrid deduction accounts with respect to its shares of FZ stock is $0, calculated as $9.375x (the amount in the account before the adjustments described in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section) less $9.375x (the adjustment described in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(C) of this section with respect to the account).

(iii) Alternative facts - imputation system that taxes shareholders. The facts are the same as in paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section, except that under Country Z tax law the $1,000x dividend to FX is subject to a 30% gross basis withholding tax, or $300x, and the $187.5x refundable tax credit is applied against and reduces the withholding tax to $112.5x. The $187.5x refundable tax credit provided to FX is not a hybrid deduction because FX was subject to Country Z withholding tax of $300x on the $1,000x dividend (such withholding tax being greater than the $187.5x credit). See paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section. If instead FZ were allowed a $1,000x dividends paid deduction for the $1,000x dividend (and FX were not allowed the refundable tax credit) and the dividend were subject to 5% gross basis withholding tax (or $50x), then $750x of the dividends paid deduction would be a hybrid deduction, calculated as the excess of $1,000x (the dividends paid deduction) over $250x (the amount of income that under Country Z tax law would produce an amount of tax equal to the $50x of withholding tax, calculated as $50x, the amount of withholding tax, divided by 0.2, the Country Z corporate tax rate). See paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(h) Applicability dates -

(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2) of this section, this section applies to distributions made after December 31, 2017, provided that such distributions occur during taxable years ending on or after December 20, 2018. However, taxpayers may apply this section in its entirety to distributions made after December 31, 2017 and occurring during taxable years ending before December 20, 2018. In lieu of applying the regulations in this section, taxpayers may apply the provisions matching this section from the Internal Revenue Bulletin (IRB) 2019-03 (https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-irbs/irb19-03.pdf) in their entirety for all taxable years ending on or before April 8, 2020.

(2) [Reserved]

[T.D. 9896, 85 FR 19830, Apr. 8, 2020, as amended by T.D. 9909, 85 FR 53096, Aug. 27, 2020]