26 CFR 1.263A-4 - Rules for property produced in a farming business.

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§ 1.263A-4 Rules for property produced in a farming business.

(a)Introduction -

(1)In general. This section provides guidance with respect to the application of section 263A to property produced in a farming business as defined in paragraph (a)(4) of this section. Except as otherwise provided by the rules of this section, the general rules of §§ 1.263A-1 through 1.263A-3 and §§ 1.263A-7 through 1.263A-15 apply to property produced in a farming business. A taxpayer that engages in the raising or growing of any agricultural or horticultural commodity, including both plants and animals, is engaged in the production of property. Section 263A generally requires the capitalization of the direct costs and an allocable portion of the indirect costs that directly benefit or are incurred by reason of the production of this property. The direct and indirect costs of producing plants or animals generally include preparatory costs allocable to the plant or animal and preproductive period costs of the plant or animal. Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (e) of this section, taxpayers must capitalize the costs of producing all plants and animals unless the election described in paragraph (d) of this section is made.

(2)Exception -

(i)In general. Section 263A does not apply to the costs of producing plants with a preproductive period of 2 years or less or the costs of producing animals in a farming business, if the taxpayer is not -

(A) A corporation or partnership required to use an accrual method of accounting (accrual method) under section 447 in computing its taxable income from farming; or

(B) A tax shelter prohibited from using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting (cash method) under section 448(a)(3).

(ii)Tax shelter -

(A)In general. A farming business is considered a tax shelter, and thus a taxpayer prohibited from using the cash method under section 448(a)(3), if the farming business is -

(1) A farming syndicate as defined in section 464(c); or

(2) A tax shelter, within the meaning of section 6662(d)(2)(C)(iii).

(B)Presumption. Marketed arrangements in which persons carry on farming activities using the services of a common managerial or administrative service will be presumed to have the principal purpose of tax avoidance, within the meaning of section 6662(d)(2)(C)(iii), if such persons prepay a substantial portion of their farming expenses with borrowed funds.

(iii)Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (a)(2):

Example 1.
Farmer A grows trees that have a preproductive period in excess of 2 years, and that produce an annual crop. Farmer A is not required by section 447 to use an accrual method or prohibited by section 448(a)(3) from using the cash method. Accordingly, Farmer A qualifies for the exception described in this paragraph (a)(2). Since the trees have a preproductive period in excess of 2 years, Farmer A must capitalize the direct costs and an allocable portion of the indirect costs that directly benefit or are incurred by reason of the production of the trees. Since the annual crop has a preproductive period of 2 years or less, Farmer A is not required to capitalize the costs of producing the crops.
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as Example 1, except that Farmer A is required by section 447 to use an accrual method or prohibited by 448(a)(3) from using the cash method. Farmer A does not qualify for the exception described in this paragraph (a)(2). Farmer A is required to capitalize the direct costs and an allocable portion of the indirect costs that directly benefit or are incurred by reason of the production of the trees and crops.

(3)Costs required to be capitalized or inventoried under another provision. The exceptions from capitalization provided in paragraphs (a)(2), (d) and (e) of this section do not apply to any cost that is required to be capitalized or inventoried under another Internal Revenue Code or regulatory provision, such as section 263 or 471.

(4)Farming business -

(i)In general. A farming business means a trade or business involving the cultivation of land or the raising or harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodity. Examples include the trade or business of operating a nursery or sod farm; the raising or harvesting of trees bearing fruit, nuts, or other crops; the raising of ornamental trees (other than evergreen trees that are more than 6 years old at the time they are severed from their roots); and the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and management of animals. For purposes of this section, the term harvesting does not include contract harvesting of an agricultural or horticultural commodity grown or raised by another. Similarly, merely buying and reselling plants or animals grown or raised entirely by another is not raising an agricultural or horticultural commodity. A taxpayer is engaged in raising a plant or animal, rather than the mere resale of a plant or animal, if the plant or animal is held for further cultivation and development prior to sale. In determining whether a plant or animal is held for further cultivation and development prior to sale, consideration will be given to all of the facts and circumstances, including: the value added by the taxpayer to the plant or animal through agricultural or horticultural processes; the length of time between the taxpayer's acquisition of the plant or animal and the time that the taxpayer makes the plant or animal available for sale; and in the case of a plant, whether the plant is kept in the container in which purchased, replanted in the ground, or replanted in a series of larger containers as it is grown to a larger size.

(A)Plant. A plant produced in a farming business includes, but is not limited to, a fruit, nut, or other crop bearing tree, an ornamental tree, a vine, a bush, sod, and the crop or yield of a plant that will have more than one crop or yield raised by the taxpayer. Sea plants are produced in a farming business if they are tended and cultivated as opposed to merely harvested.

(B)Animal. An animal produced in a farming business includes, but is not limited to, any stock, poultry or other bird, and fish or other sea life raised by the taxpayer. Thus, for example, the term animal may include a cow, chicken, emu, or salmon raised by the taxpayer. Fish and other sea life are produced in a farming business if they are raised on a fish farm. A fish farm is an area where fish or other sea life are grown or raised as opposed to merely caught or harvested.

(ii)Incidental activities -

(A)In general. A farming business includes processing activities that are normally incident to the growing, raising, or harvesting of agricultural or horticultural products. For example, a taxpayer in the trade or business of growing fruits and vegetables may harvest, wash, inspect, and package the fruits and vegetables for sale. Such activities are normally incident to the raising of these crops by farmers. The taxpayer will be considered to be in the trade or business of farming with respect to the growing of fruits and vegetables and the processing activities incident to their harvest.

(B)Activities that are not incidental. Farming business does not include the processing of commodities or products beyond those activities that are normally incident to the growing, raising, or harvesting of such products.

(iii)Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (a)(4):

Example 1.
Individual A operates a retail nursery. Individual A has three categories of plants. The first category is comprised of plants that Individual A grows from seeds or cuttings. The second category is comprised of plants that Individual A purchases in containers and grows for a period of from several months to several years. Individual A replants some of these plants in the ground. The others are replanted in a series of larger containers as they grow. The third category is comprised of plants that are purchased by Individual A in containers. Individual A does not grow these plants to a larger size before making them available for resale. Instead, Individual A makes these plants available for resale, in the container in which purchased, shortly after receiving them. Thus, no value is added to these plants by Individual A through horticultural processes. Individual A also sells soil, mulch, chemicals, and yard tools. Individual A is producing property in the farming business with respect to the first two categories of plants because these plants are held for further cultivation and development prior to sale. The plants in the third category are not held for further cultivation and development prior to sale and, therefore, are not regarded as property produced in a farming business for purposes of section 263A. Accordingly, Individual A must account for the third category of plants, along with the soil, mulch, chemicals, and yard tools, as property acquired for resale. If Individual A's average annual gross receipts are less than $10 million, Individual A will not be required to capitalize costs with respect to its resale activities under section 263A.
Example 2.
Individual B is in the business of growing and harvesting wheat and other grains. Individual B also processes grain that Individual B has harvested in order to produce breads, cereals, and other similar food products, which Individual B then sells to customers in the course of its business. Although Individual B is in the farming business with respect to the growing and harvesting of grain, Individual B is not in the farming business with respect to the processing of such grain to produce the food products.
Example 3.
Individual C is in the business of raising poultry and other livestock. Individual C also operates a meat processing operation in which the poultry and other livestock are slaughtered, processed, and packaged or canned. The packaged or canned meat is sold to Individual C's customers. Although Individual C is in the farming business with respect to the raising of poultry and other livestock, Individual C is not in the farming business with respect to the slaughtering, processing, packaging, and canning of such animals to produce the food products.

(b)Application of section 263A to property produced in a farming business -

(1)In general. Unless otherwise provided in this section, section 263A requires the capitalization of the direct costs and an allocable portion of the indirect costs that directly benefit or are incurred by reason of the production of any property in a farming business (including animals and plants without regard to the length of their preproductive period). Section 1.263A-1(e) describes the types of direct and indirect costs that generally must be capitalized by taxpayers under section 263A and paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section provide specific examples of the types of costs typically incurred in the trade or business of farming. For purposes of this section, soil and water conservation expenditures that a taxpayer has elected to deduct under section 175 and fertilizer that a taxpayer has elected to deduct under section 180 are not subject to capitalization under section 263A, except to the extent these costs are required to be capitalized as a preproductive period cost of a plant or animal.

(i)Plants. The costs of producing a plant typically required to be capitalized under section 263A include the costs incurred so that the plant's growing process may begin (preparatory costs), such as the acquisition costs of the seed, seedling, or plant, and the costs of planting, cultivating, maintaining, or developing the plant during the preproductive period (preproductive period costs). Preproductive period costs include, but are not limited to, management, irrigation, pruning, soil and water conservation (including costs that the taxpayer has elected to deduct under section 175), fertilizing (including costs that the taxpayer has elected to deduct under section 180), frost protection, spraying, harvesting, storage and handling, upkeep, electricity, tax depreciation and repairs on buildings and equipment used in raising the plants, farm overhead, taxes (except state and Federal income taxes), and interest required to be capitalized under section 263A(f).

(ii)Animals. The costs of producing an animal typically required to be capitalized under section 263A include the costs incurred so that the animal's raising process may begin (preparatory costs), such as the acquisition costs of the animal, and the costs of raising or caring for such animal during the preproductive period (preproductive period costs). Preproductive period costs include, but are not limited to, management, feed (such as grain, silage, concentrates, supplements, haylage, hay, pasture and other forages), maintaining pasture or pen areas (including costs that the taxpayer has elected to deduct under sections 175 or 180), breeding, artificial insemination, veterinary services and medicine, livestock hauling, bedding, fuel, electricity, hired labor, tax depreciation and repairs on buildings and equipment used in raising the animals (for example, barns, trucks, and trailers), farm overhead, taxes (except state and Federal income taxes), and interest required to be capitalized under section 263A(f).

(2)Preproductive period -

(i)Plant -

(A)In general. The preproductive period of property produced in a farming business means -

(1) In the case of a plant that will have more than one crop or yield (for example, an orange tree), the period before the first marketable crop or yield from such plant;

(2) In the case of the crop or yield of a plant that will have more than one crop or yield (for example, the orange), the period before such crop or yield is disposed of; or

(3) In the case of any other plant, the period before such plant is disposed of.

(B)Applicability of section 263A. For purposes of determining whether a plant has a preproductive period in excess of 2 years, the preproductive period of plants grown in commercial quantities in the United States is based on the nationwide weighted average preproductive period for such plant. The Commissioner will publish a noninclusive list of plants with a nationwide weighted average preproductive period in excess of 2 years. In the case of other plants grown in commercial quantities in the United States, the nationwide weighted average preproductive period must be determined based on available statistical data. For all other plants, the taxpayer is required, at or before the time the seed or plant is acquired or planted, to reasonably estimate the preproductive period of the plant. If the taxpayer estimates a preproductive period in excess of 2 years, the taxpayer must capitalize the costs of producing the plant. If the estimate is reasonable, based on the facts in existence at the time it is made, the determination of whether section 263A applies is not modified at a later time even if the actual length of the preproductive period differs from the estimate. The actual length of the preproductive period will, however, be considered in evaluating the reasonableness of the taxpayer's future estimates. The nationwide weighted average preproductive period or the estimated preproductive period is only used for purposes of determining whether the preproductive period of a plant is greater than 2 years.

(C)Actual preproductive period. The plant's actual preproductive period is used for purposes of determining the period during which a taxpayer must capitalize preproductive period costs with respect to a particular plant.

(1)Beginning of the preproductive period. The actual preproductive period of a plant begins when the taxpayer first incurs costs that directly benefit or are incurred by reason of the plant. Generally, this occurs when the taxpayer plants the seed or plant. In the case of a taxpayer that acquires plants that have already been permanently planted, or plants that are tended by the taxpayer or another prior to permanent planting, the actual preproductive period of the plant begins upon acquisition of the plant by the taxpayer. In the case of the crop or yield of a plant that will have more than one crop or yield, the actual preproductive period begins when the plant has become productive in marketable quantities and the crop or yield first appears, for example, in the form of a sprout, bloom, blossom, or bud.

(2)End of the preproductive period -

(i)In general. In the case of a plant that will have more than one crop or yield, the actual preproductive period ends when the plant first becomes productive in marketable quantities. In the case of any other plant (including the crop or yield of a plant that will have more than one crop or yield), the actual preproductive period ends when the plant, crop, or yield is sold or otherwise disposed of. Field costs, such as irrigating, fertilizing, spraying and pruning, that are incurred after the harvest of a crop or yield but before the crop or yield is sold or otherwise disposed of are not required to be included in the preproductive period costs of the harvested crop or yield because they do not benefit and are unrelated to the harvested crop or yield.

(ii)Marketable quantities. A plant that will have more than one crop or yield becomes productive in marketable quantities once a crop or yield is produced in sufficient quantities to be harvested and marketed in the ordinary course of the taxpayer's business. Factors that are relevant to determining whether a crop or yield is produced in sufficient quantities to be harvested and marketed in the ordinary course include: whether the crop or yield is harvested that is more than de minimis, although it may be less than expected at the maximum bearing stage, based on a comparison of the quantities per acre harvested in the year in question to the quantities per acre expected to be harvested when the plant reaches full maturity; and whether the sales proceeds exceed the costs of harvest and make a reasonable contribution to an allocable share of farm expenses.

(D)Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (b)(2):

Example 1.
(i) Farmer A, a taxpayer that qualifies for the exception in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, grows plants that will have more than one crop or yield. The plants are grown in commercial quantities in the United States. Farmer A acquires 1 year-old plants by purchasing them from an unrelated party, Corporation B, and plants them immediately. The nationwide weighted average preproductive period of the plant is 4 years. The particular plants grown by Farmer A do not begin to produce in marketable quantities until 3 years and 6 months after they are planted by Farmer A.

(ii) Since the plants are deemed to have a preproductive period in excess of 2 years, Farmer A is required to capitalize the costs of producing the plants. See paragraphs (a)(2) and (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(1) of this section, Farmer A must begin to capitalize the preproductive period costs when the plants are planted. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(2) of this section, Farmer A must continue to capitalize preproductive period costs to the plants until the plants begin to produce in marketable quantities. Thus, Farmer A must capitalize the preproductive period costs for a period of 3 years and 6 months (that is, until the plants are 4 years and 6 months old), notwithstanding the fact that the plants, in general, have a nationwide weighted average preproductive period of 4 years.

Example 2.
(i) Farmer B, a taxpayer that qualifies for the exception in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, grows plants that will have more than one crop or yield. The plants are grown in commercial quantities in the United States. The nationwide weighted average preproductive period of the plant is 2 years and 5 months. Farmer B acquires 1 month-old plants by purchasing them from an unrelated party, Corporation B. Farmer B enters into a contract with Corporation B under which Corporation B will retain and tend the plants for 7 months following the sale. At the end of 7 months, Farmer B takes possession of the plants and plants them in the permanent orchard. The plants become productive in marketable quantities 1 year and 11 months after they are planted by Farmer B.

(ii) Since the plants are deemed to have a preproductive period in excess of 2 years, Farmer B is required to capitalize the costs of producing the plants. See paragraphs (a)(2) and (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(1) of this section, Farmer B must begin to capitalize the preproductive period costs when the purchase occurs. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(2) of this section, Farmer B must continue to capitalize the preproductive period costs to the plants until the plants begin to produce in marketable quantities. Thus, Farmer B must capitalize the preproductive period costs of the plants for a period of 2 years and 6 months (the 7 months the plants are tended by Corporation B and the 1 year and 11 months after the plants are planted by Farmer B), that is, until the plants are 2 years and 7 months old, notwithstanding the fact that the plants, in general, have a nationwide weighted average preproductive period of 2 years and 5 months.

Example 3.
(i) Assume the same facts as in Example 2, except that Farmer B acquires the plants by purchasing them from Corporation B when the plants are 8 months old and that the plants are planted by Farmer B upon acquisition.

(ii) Since the plants are deemed to have a preproductive period in excess of 2 years, Farmer B is required to capitalize the costs of producing the plants. See paragraphs (a)(2) and (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(1) of this section, Farmer B must begin to capitalize the preproductive period costs when the plants are planted. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(2) of this section, Farmer B must continue to capitalize the preproductive period costs to the plants until the plants begin to produce in marketable quantities. Thus, Farmer B must capitalize the preproductive period costs of the plants for a period of 1 year and 11 months.

Example 4.
(i) Farmer C, a taxpayer that qualifies for the exception in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, grows plants that will have more than one crop or yield. The plants are grown in commercial quantities in the United States. Farmer C acquires 1 month-old plants from an unrelated party and plants them immediately. The nationwide weighted average preproductive period of the plant is 2 years and 3 months. The particular plants grown by Farmer C begin to produce in marketable quantities 1 year and 10 months after they are planted by Farmer C.

(ii) Since the plants are deemed to have a nationwide weighted average preproductive period in excess of 2 years, Farmer C is required to capitalize the costs of producing the plants, notwithstanding the fact that the particular plants grown by Farmer C become productive in less than 2 years. See paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(1) of this section, Farmer C must begin to capitalize the preproductive period costs when it plants the plants. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(2) of this section, Farmer C properly ceases capitalization of preproductive period costs when the plants become productive in marketable quantities (that is, 1 year and 10 months after they are planted, which is when they are 1 year and 11 months old).

Example 5.
(i) Farmer D, a taxpayer that qualifies for the exception in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, grows plants that will have more than one crop or yield. The plants are not grown in commercial quantities in the United States. Farmer D acquires and plants the plants when they are 1 year old and estimates that they will become productive in marketable quantities 3 years after planting. Thus, at the time the plants are acquired and planted Farmer D reasonably estimates that the plants will have a preproductive period of 4 years. The actual plants grown by Farmer D do not begin to produce in marketable quantities until 3 years and 6 months after they are planted by Farmer D.

(ii) Since the plants have an estimated preproductive period in excess of 2 years, Farmer D is required to capitalize the costs of producing the plants. See paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(1) of this section, Farmer D must begin to capitalize the preproductive period costs when it acquires and plants the plants. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(2) of this section, Farmer D must continue to capitalize the preproductive period costs until the plants begin to produce in marketable quantities. Thus, Farmer D must capitalize the preproductive period costs of the plants for a period of 3 years and 6 months (that is, until the plants are 4 years and 6 months old), notwithstanding the fact that Farmer D estimated that the plants would become productive after 4 years.

Example 6.
(i) Farmer E, a taxpayer that qualifies for the exception in paragraph (a)(2) of this section grows plants from seed. The plants are not grown in commercial quantities in the United States. The plants do not have more than 1 crop or yield. At the time the seeds are planted Farmer E reasonably estimates that the plants will have a preproductive period of 1 year and 10 months. The actual plants grown by Farmer E are not ready for harvesting and disposal until 2 years and 2 months after the seeds are planted by Farmer E.

(ii) Because Farmer E's estimate of the preproductive period (which was 2 years or less) was reasonable at the time made based on the facts, Farmer E will not be required to capitalize the costs of producing the plants under section 263A, notwithstanding the fact that the actual preproductive period of the plants exceeded 2 years. See paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section. However, Farmer E must take the actual preproductive period of the plants into consideration when making future estimates of the preproductive period of such plants.

Example 7.
(i) Farmer F, a calendar year taxpayer that does not qualify for the exception in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, grows trees that will have more than one crop. Farmer F acquires and plants the trees in April, Year 1. On October 1, Year 6, the trees become productive in marketable quantities.

(ii) The costs of producing the plant, including the preproductive period costs incurred by Farmer F on or before October 1, Year 6, are capitalized to the trees. Preproductive period costs incurred after October 1, Year 6, are capitalized to a crop when incurred during the preproductive period of the crop and deducted as a cost of maintaining the tree when incurred between the disposal of one crop and the appearance of the next crop. See paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A), (b)(2)(i)(C)(1) and (b)(2)(i)(C)(2) of this section.

Example 8.
(i) Farmer G, a taxpayer that qualifies for the exception in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, produces fig trees on 10 acres of land. The fig trees are grown in commercial quantities in the United States and have a nationwide weighted average preproductive period in excess of 2 years. Farmer G acquires and plants the fig trees in their permanent grove during Year 1. When the fig trees are mature, Farmer G expects to harvest 10x tons of figs per acre. At the end of Year 4, Farmer G harvests .5x tons of figs per acre that it sells for $100x. During Year 4, Farmer G incurs expenses related to the fig operation of: $50x to harvest the figs and transport them to market and other direct and indirect costs related to the fig operation in the amount of $1000x.

(ii) Since the fig trees have a preproductive period in excess of 2 years, Farmer G is required to capitalize the costs of producing the fig trees. See paragraphs (a)(2) and (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section. In accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(i)(C)(2) of this section, Farmer G must continue to capitalize preproductive period costs to the trees until they become productive in marketable quantities. The following factors weigh in favor of a determination that the fig trees did not become productive in Year 4: the quantity of harvested figs is de minimis based on the fact that the yield is only 5 percent of the expected yield at maturity and the proceeds from the sale of the figs are sufficient, after covering the costs of harvesting and transporting the figs, to cover only a negligible portion of the allocable farm expenses. Based on these facts and circumstances, the fig trees did not become productive in marketable quantities in Year 4.

(ii)Animal. An animal's actual preproductive period is used to determine the period that the taxpayer must capitalize preproductive period costs with respect to a particular animal.

(A)Beginning of the preproductive period. The preproductive period of an animal begins at the time of acquisition, breeding, or embryo implantation.

(B)End of the preproductive period. In the case of an animal that will be used in the trade or business of farming (for example, a dairy cow), the preproductive period generally ends when the animal is (or would be considered) placed in service for purposes of section 168 (without regard to the applicable convention). However, in the case of an animal that will have more than one yield (for example, a breeding cow), the preproductive period ends when the animal produces (for example, gives birth to) its first yield. In the case of any other animal, the preproductive period ends when the animal is sold or otherwise disposed of.

(C)Allocation of costs between animal and yields. In the case of an animal that will have more than one yield, the costs incurred after the beginning of the preproductive period of the first yield but before the end of the preproductive period of the animal must be allocated between the animal and the yield using any reasonable method. Any depreciation allowance on the animal may be allocated entirely to the yield. Costs incurred after the beginning of the preproductive period of the second yield, but before the first yield is weaned from the animal must be allocated between the first and second yield using any reasonable method. However, a taxpayer may elect to allocate these costs entirely to the second yield. An allocation method used by a taxpayer is a method of accounting that must be used consistently and is subject to the rules of section 446 and the regulations thereunder.

(c)Inventory methods -

(1)In general. Except as otherwise provided, the costs required to be allocated to any plant or animal under this section may be determined using reasonable inventory valuation methods such as the farm-price method or the unit-livestock-price method. See § 1.471-6. Under the unit-livestock-price method, unit prices must include all costs required to be capitalized under section 263A. A taxpayer using the unit-livestock-price method may elect to use the cost allocation methods in § 1.263A-1(f) or 1.263A-2(b) to allocate its direct and indirect costs to the property produced in the business of farming. In such a situation, section 471 costs are the costs taken into account by the taxpayer under the unit-livestock-price method using the taxpayer's standard unit price as modified by this paragraph (c)(1). Tax shelters, as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section, that use the unit-livestock-price method for inventories must include in inventory the annual standard unit price for all animals that are acquired during the taxable year, regardless of whether the purchases are made during the last 6 months of the taxable year. Taxpayers required by section 447 to use an accrual method or prohibited by section 448(a)(3) from using the cash method that use the unit-livestock-price method must modify the annual standard price in order to reasonably reflect the particular period in the taxable year in which purchases of livestock are made, if such modification is necessary in order to avoid significant distortions in income that would otherwise occur through operation of the unit-livestock-price method.

(2)Available for property used in a trade or business. The farm-price method or the unit-livestock-price method may be used by any taxpayer to allocate costs to any plant or animal under this section, regardless of whether the plant or animal is held or treated as inventory property by the taxpayer. Thus, for example, a taxpayer may use the unit-livestock-price method to account for the costs of raising livestock that will be used in the trade or business of farming (for example, a breeding animal or a dairy cow) even though the property in question is not inventory property.

(3)Exclusion of property to which section 263A does not apply. Notwithstanding a taxpayer's use of the farm-price method with respect to farm property to which the provisions of section 263A apply, that taxpayer is not required, solely by such use, to use the farm-price method with respect to farm property to which the provisions of section 263A do not apply. Thus, for example, assume Farmer A raises fruit trees that have a preproductive period in excess of 2 years and to which the provisions of section 263A, therefore, apply. Assume also that Farmer A raises cattle and is not required to use an accrual method by section 447 or prohibited from using the cash method by section 448(a)(3). Because Farmer A qualifies for the exception in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, Farmer A is not required to capitalize the costs of raising the cattle. Although Farmer A may use the farm-price method with respect to the fruit trees, Farmer A is not required to use the farm-price method with respect to the cattle. Instead, Farmer A's accounting for the cattle is determined under other provisions of the Code and regulations.

(d)Election not to have section 263A apply -

(1)Introduction. This paragraph (d) permits certain taxpayers to make an election not to have the rules of this section apply to any plant produced in a farming business conducted by the electing taxpayer. The election is a method of accounting under section 446, and once an election is made, it is revocable only with the consent of the Commissioner.

(2)Availability of the election. The election described in this paragraph (d) is available to any taxpayer that produces plants in a farming business, except that no election may be made by a corporation, partnership, or tax shelter required to use an accrual method under section 447 or prohibited from using the cash method by section 448(a)(3). Moreover, the election does not apply to the costs of planting, cultivation, maintenance, or development of a citrus or almond grove (or any part thereof) incurred prior to the close of the fourth taxable year beginning with the taxable year in which the trees were planted in the permanent grove (including costs incurred prior to the permanent planting). If a citrus or almond grove is planted in more than one taxable year, the portion of the grove planted in any one taxable year is treated as a separate grove for purposes of determining the year of planting.

(3)Time and manner of making the election -

(i)Automatic election. A taxpayer makes the election under this paragraph (d) by not applying the rules of section 263A to determine the capitalized costs of plants produced in a farming business and by applying the special rules in paragraph (d)(4) of this section on its original return for the first taxable year in which the taxpayer is otherwise required to capitalize section 263A costs. Thus, in order to be treated as having made the election under this paragraph (d), it is necessary to report both income and expenses in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (d) (for example, it is necessary to use the alternative depreciation system as provided in paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section). For example, a farmer who deducts costs that are otherwise required to be capitalized under section 263A but fails to use the alternative depreciation system under section 168(g)(2) for applicable property placed in service has not made an election under this paragraph (d) and is not in compliance with the provisions of section 263A. In the case of a partnership or S corporation, the election must be made by the partner, shareholder, or member.

(ii)Nonautomatic election. A taxpayer that does not make the election under this paragraph (d) as provided in paragraph (d)(3)(i) must obtain the consent of the Commissioner to make the election by filing a Form 3115, Application for Change in Method of Accounting, in accordance with § 1.446-1(e)(3).

(4)Special rules. If the election under this paragraph (d) is made, the taxpayer is subject to the special rules in this paragraph (d)(4).

(i)Section 1245 treatment. The plant produced by the taxpayer is treated as section 1245 property and any gain resulting from any disposition of the plant is recaptured (that is, treated as ordinary income) to the extent of the total amount of the deductions that, but for the election, would have been required to be capitalized with respect to the plant. In calculating the amount of gain that is recaptured under this paragraph (d)(4)(i), a taxpayer may use the farm-price method or another simplified method permitted under these regulations in determining the deductions that otherwise would have been capitalized with respect to the plant.

(ii)Required use of alternative depreciation system. If the taxpayer or a related person makes an election under this paragraph (d), the alternative depreciation system (as defined in section 168(g)(2)) must be applied to all property used predominantly in any farming business of the taxpayer or related person and placed in service in any taxable year during which the election is in effect. The requirement to use the alternative depreciation system by reason of an election under this paragraph (d) will not prevent a taxpayer from making an election under section 179 to deduct certain depreciable business assets.

(iii)Related person -

(A)In general. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(4), related person means -

(1) The taxpayer and members of the taxpayer's family;

(2) Any corporation (including an S corporation) if 50 percent or more of the stock (in value) is owned directly or indirectly (through the application of section 318) by the taxpayer or members of the taxpayer's family;

(3) A corporation and any other corporation that is a member of the same controlled group (within the meaning of section 1563(a)(1)); and

(4) Any partnership if 50 percent or more (in value) of the interests in such partnership is owned directly or indirectly by the taxpayer or members of the taxpayer's family.

(B)Members of family. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(4)(iii), the terms “members of the taxpayer's family”, and “members of family” (for purposes of applying section 318(a)(1)), means the spouse of the taxpayer (other than a spouse who is legally separated from the individual under a decree of divorce or separate maintenance) and any of the taxpayer's children (including legally adopted children) who have not reached the age of 18 as of the last day of the taxable year in question.

(5)Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (d):

Example 1.
(i) Farmer A, an individual, is engaged in the trade or business of farming. Farmer A grows apple trees that have a preproductive period greater than 2 years. In addition, Farmer A grows and harvests wheat and other grains. Farmer A elects under this paragraph (d) not to have the rules of section 263A apply to the costs of growing the apple trees.

(ii) In accordance with paragraph (d)(4) of this section, Farmer A is required to use the alternative depreciation system described in section 168(g)(2) with respect to all property used predominantly in any farming business in which Farmer A engages (including the growing and harvesting of wheat) if such property is placed in service during a year for which the election is in effect. Thus, for example, all assets and equipment (including trees and any equipment used to grow and harvest wheat) placed in service during a year for which the election is in effect must be depreciated as provided in section 168(g)(2).

Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that Farmer A and members of Farmer A's family (as defined in paragraph (d)(4)(iii)(B) of this section) also own 51 percent (in value) of the interests in Partnership P, which is engaged in the trade or business of growing and harvesting corn. Partnership P is a related person to Farmer A under the provisions of paragraph (d)(4)(iii) of this section. Thus, the requirements to use the alternative depreciation system under section 168(g)(2) also apply to any property used predominantly in a trade or business of farming which Partnership P places in service during a year for which an election made by Farmer A is in effect.

(e)Exception for certain costs resulting from casualty losses -

(1)In general. Section 263A does not require the capitalization of costs that are attributable to the replanting, cultivating, maintaining, and developing of any plants bearing an edible crop for human consumption (including, but not limited to, plants that constitute a grove, orchard, or vineyard) that were lost or damaged while owned by the taxpayer by reason of freezing temperatures, disease, drought, pests, or other casualty (replanting costs). Such replanting costs may be incurred with respect to property other than the property on which the damage or loss occurred to the extent the acreage of the property with respect to which the replanting costs are incurred is not in excess of the acreage of the property on which the damage or loss occurred. This paragraph (e) applies only to the replanting of plants of the same type as those lost or damaged. This paragraph (e) applies to plants replanted on the property on which the damage or loss occurred or property of the same or lesser acreage in the United States irrespective of differences in density between the lost or damaged and replanted plants. Plants bearing crops for human consumption are those crops normally eaten or drunk by humans. Thus, for example, costs incurred with respect to replanting plants bearing jojoba beans do not qualify for the exception provided in this paragraph (e) because that crop is not normally eaten or drunk by humans.

(2)Ownership. Replanting costs described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section generally must be incurred by the taxpayer that owned the property at the time the plants were lost or damaged. Paragraph (e)(1) of this section will apply, however, to costs incurred by a person other than the taxpayer that owned the plants at the time of damage or loss if -

(i) The taxpayer that owned the plants at the time the damage or loss occurred owns an equity interest of more than 50 percent in such plants at all times during the taxable year in which the replanting costs are paid or incurred; and

(ii) Such other person owns any portion of the remaining equity interest and materially participates in the replanting, cultivating, maintaining, or developing of such plants during the taxable year in which the replanting costs are paid or incurred. A person will be treated as materially participating for purposes of this provision if such person would otherwise meet the requirements with respect to material participation within the meaning of section 2032A(e)(6).

(3)Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (e):

Example 1.
(i) Farmer A grows cherry trees that have a preproductive period in excess of 2 years and produce an annual crop. These cherries are normally eaten by humans. Farmer A grows the trees on a 100 acre parcel of land (parcel 1) and the groves of trees cover the entire acreage of parcel 1. Farmer A also owns a 150 acre parcel of land (parcel 2) that Farmer A holds for future use. Both parcels are in the United States. In 2000, the trees and the irrigation and drainage systems that service the trees are destroyed in a casualty (within the meaning of paragraph (e)(1) of this section). Farmer A installs new irrigation and drainage systems on parcel 1, purchases young trees (seedlings), and plants the seedlings on parcel 1.

(ii) The costs of the irrigation and drainage systems and the seedlings must be capitalized. In accordance with paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the costs of planting, cultivating, developing, and maintaining the seedlings during their preproductive period are not required to be capitalized by section 263A.

Example 2.
(i) Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that Farmer A decides to replant the seedlings on parcel 2 rather than on parcel 1. Accordingly, Farmer A installs the new irrigation and drainage systems on 100 acres of parcel 2 and plants seedlings on those 100 acres.

(ii) The costs of the irrigation and drainage systems and the seedlings must be capitalized. Because the acreage of the related portion of parcel 2 does not exceed the acreage of the destroyed orchard on parcel 1, the costs of planting, cultivating, developing, and maintaining the seedlings during their preproductive period are not required to be capitalized by section 263A. See paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

Example 3.
(i) Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that Farmer A replants the seedlings on parcel 2 rather than on parcel 1, and Farmer A additionally decides to expand its operations by growing 125 rather than 100 acres of trees. Accordingly, Farmer A installs new irrigation and drainage systems on 125 acres of parcel 2 and plants seedlings on those 125 acres.

(ii) The costs of the irrigation and drainage systems and the seedlings must be capitalized. The costs of planting, cultivating, developing, and maintaining 100 acres of the trees during their preproductive period are not required to be capitalized by section 263A. The costs of planting, cultivating, maintaining, and developing the additional 25 acres are, however, subject to capitalization under section 263A. See paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(4)Special rule for citrus and almond groves -

(i)In general. The exception in this paragraph (e) is available with respect to replanting costs of a citrus or almond grove incurred prior to the close of the fourth taxable year after replanting, notwithstanding the taxpayer's election to have section 263A not apply (described in paragraph (d) of this section).

(ii)Example. The following example illustrates the provisions of this paragraph (e)(4):

Example.
(i) Farmer A, an individual, is engaged in the trade or business of farming. Farmer A grows citrus trees that have a preproductive period of 5 years. Farmer A elects, under paragraph (d) of this section, not to have section 263A apply. This election, however, is unavailable with respect to the costs of producing a citrus grove incurred within the first 4 years beginning with the year the trees were planted. See paragraph (d)(2) of this section. In year 10, after the citrus grove has become productive in marketable quantities, the citrus grove is destroyed by a casualty within the meaning of paragraph (e)(1) of this section. In year 10, Farmer A acquires and plants young citrus trees in the same grove to replace those destroyed by the casualty.

(ii) Farmer A must capitalize the costs of producing the citrus grove incurred before the close of the fourth taxable year beginning with the year in which the trees were permanently planted. As a result of the election not to have section 263A apply, Farmer A may deduct the preproductive period costs incurred in the fifth year. In year 10, Farmer A must capitalize the acquisition cost of the young trees. However, the costs of planting, cultivating, developing, and maintaining the young trees that replace those destroyed by the casualty are exempted from capitalization under this paragraph (e).

(f)Effective date and change in method of accounting -

(1)Effective date. In the case of property that is not inventory in the hands of the taxpayer, this section is applicable to costs incurred after August 21, 2000 in taxable years ending after August 21, 2000. In the case of inventory property, this section is applicable to taxable years beginning after August 21, 2000.

(2)Change in method of accounting. Any change in a taxpayer's method of accounting necessary to comply with this section is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the regulations thereunder apply. For property that is not inventory in the hands of the taxpayer, a taxpayer is granted the consent of the Commissioner to change its method of accounting to comply with the provisions of this section for costs incurred after August 21, 2000, provided the change is made for the first taxable year ending after August 21, 2000. For inventory property, a taxpayer is granted the consent of the Commissioner to change its method of accounting to comply with the provisions of this section for the first taxable year beginning after August 21, 2000. A taxpayer changing its method of accounting under this paragraph (f)(2) must file a Form 3115, “Application for Change in Accounting Method,” in accordance with the automatic consent procedures in Rev. Proc. 99-49 (1999-2 I.R.B. 725) (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter). However, the scope limitations in section 4.02 of Rev. Proc. 99-49 do not apply, provided the taxpayer's method of accounting for property produced in a farming business is not an issue under consideration within the meaning of section 3.09 of Rev. Proc. 99-49. If the taxpayer is under examination, before an appeals office, or before a federal court at the time that a copy of the Form 3115 is filed with the national office, the taxpayer must provide a duplicate copy of the Form 3115 to the examining agent, appeals officer, or counsel for the government, as appropriate, at the time the copy of the Form 3115 is filed. The Form 3115 must contain the name(s) and telephone number(s) of the examining agent, appeals officer, or counsel for the government, as appropriate. Further, in the case of property that is not inventory in the hands of the taxpayer, a change under this paragraph (f)(2) is made on a cutoff basis as described in section 2.06 of Rev. Proc. 99-49 and without the audit protection provided in section 7 of Rev. Proc. 99-49. However, a taxpayer may receive such audit protection for non-inventory property by taking into account any section 481(a) adjustment that results from the change in method of accounting to comply with this section. A taxpayer that opts to determine a section 481(a) adjustment (and, thus, obtain audit protection) for non-inventory property must take into account only additional section 263A costs incurred after December 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after December 31, 1986. Any change in method of accounting that is not made for the taxpayer's first taxable year ending or beginning after August 21, 2000, whichever is applicable, must be made in accord with the procedures in Rev. Proc. 97-27 (1997-1 C.B. 680) (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

[T.D. 8897, 65 FR 50644, Aug. 21, 2000; 65 FR 61092, Oct. 16, 2000]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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