26 CFR 1.263A-9 - The avoided cost method.

§ 1.263A-9 The avoided cost method.

(a)In general -

(1)Description. The avoided cost method described in this section must be used to calculate the amount of interest required to be capitalized under section 263A(f). Generally, any interest that the taxpayer theoretically would have avoided if accumulated production expenditures (as defined in § 1.263A-11) had been used to repay or reduce the taxpayer's outstanding debt must be capitalized under the avoided cost method. The application of the avoided cost method does not depend on whether the taxpayer actually would have used the amounts expended for production to repay or reduce debt. Instead, the avoided cost method is based on the assumption that debt of the taxpayer would have been repaid or reduced without regard to the taxpayer's subjective intentions or to restrictions (including legal, regulatory, contractual, or other restrictions) against repayment or use of the debt proceeds.

(2)Overview -

(i)In general. For each unit of designated property (within the meaning of § 1.263A-8(b)), the avoided cost method requires the capitalization of -

(A) The traced debt amount under paragraph (b) of this section, and

(B) The excess expenditure amount under paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii)Rules that apply in determining amounts. The traced debt and excess expenditure amounts are determined for each taxable year or shorter computation period that includes the production period (as defined in § 1.263A-12) of a unit of designated property. Paragraph (d) of this section provides an election not to trace debt to specific units of designated property. Paragraph (f) of this section provides rules for selecting the computation period, for calculating averages, and for determining measurement dates within the computation period. Special rules are in paragraph (g) of this section.

(3)Definitions of interest and incurred. Except as provided in the case of certain expenses that are treated as a substitute for interest under paragraphs (c)(2)(iii) and (g)(2)(iv) of this section, interest refers to all amounts that are characterized as interest expense under any provision of the Code, including, for example, sections 482, 483, 1272, 1274, and 7872. Incurred refers to the amount of interest that is properly accruable during the period of time in question determined by taking into account the loan agreement and any applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue laws and regulations such as section 163, § 1.446-2, and sections 1271 through 1275.

(4)Definition of eligible debt. Except as provided in this paragraph (a)(4), eligible debt includes all outstanding debt (as evidenced by a contract, bond, debenture, note, certificate, or other evidence of indebtedness). Eligible debt does not include -

(i) Debt (or the portion thereof) bearing interest that is disallowed under a provision described in § 1.163-8T(m)(7)(ii);

(ii) Debt, such as accounts payable and other accrued items, that bears no interest, except to the extent that such debt is traced debt (as defined in paragraph (b)(2) of this section);

(iii) Debt that is borrowed directly or indirectly from a person related to the taxpayer and that bears a rate of interest that is less than the applicable Federal rate in effect under section 1274(d) on the date of issuance;

(iv) Debt (or the portion thereof) bearing personal interest within the meaning of section 163(h)(2);

(v) Debt (or the portion thereof) bearing qualified residence interest within the meaning of section 163(h)(3);

(vi) Debt incurred by an organization that is exempt from Federal income tax under section 501(a), except to the extent interest on such debt is directly attributable to an unrelated trade or business of the organization within the meaning of section 512;

(vii) Reserves, deferred tax liabilities, and similar items that are not treated as debt for Federal income tax purposes, regardless of the extent to which the taxpayer's applicable financial accounting or other regulatory reporting principles require or support treating these items as debt;

(viii) Federal, State, and local income tax liabilities, deferred tax liabilities under section 453A, and hypothetical tax liabilities under the look-back method of section 460(b) or similar provisions; and

(ix) A purchase money obligation given by the lessor to the lessee (or a party that is related to the lessee) in a sale and leaseback transaction involving an agreement qualifying as a lease under § 5c.168(f)(8)-1 through § 5c.168(f)(8)-11 of this chapter. See § 5c.168(f)(8)-1(e) Example (2) of this chapter.

(b)Traced debt amount -

(1)General rule. Interest must be capitalized with respect to a unit of designated property in an amount (the traced debt amount) equal to the total interest incurred on the traced debt during each measurement period (as defined in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section) that ends on a measurement date described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section. See the example in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. If any interest incurred on the traced debt is not taken into account for the taxable year that includes the measurement period because of a deferral provision, see paragraph (g)(2) of this section for the time and manner for capitalizing and recovering that amount. This paragraph (b)(1) does not apply if the taxpayer elects under paragraph (d) of this section not to trace debt.

(2)Identification and definition of traced debt. On each measurement date described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, the taxpayer must identify debt that is traced debt with respect to a unit of designated property. On each such date, traced debt with respect to a unit of designated property is the outstanding eligible debt (as defined in paragraph (a)(4) of this section) that is allocated, on that date, to accumulated production expenditures with respect to the unit of designated property under the rules of § 1.163-8T. Traced debt also includes unpaid interest that has been capitalized with respect to such unit under paragraph (b)(1) of this section and that is included in accumulated production expenditures on the measurement date.

(3)Example. The provisions of paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
Corporation X, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in the production of a single unit of designated property during 1995 (unit A). Corporation X adopts a taxable year computation period and quarterly measurement dates. Production of unit A starts on January 14, 1995, and ends on June 16, 1995. On March 31, 1995 and on June 30, 1995, Corporation X has outstanding a $1,000,000 loan that is allocated under the rules of § 1.163-8T to production expenditures with respect to unit A. During the period January 1, 1995, through June 30, 1995, Corporation X incurs $50,000 of interest related to the loan. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the $50,000 of interest Corporation X incurs on the loan during the period January 1, 1995, through June 30, 1995, must be capitalized with respect to unit A.

(c)Excess expenditure amount -

(1)General rule. If there are accumulated production expenditures in excess of traced debt with respect to a unit of designated property on any measurement date described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section, the taxpayer must, for the computation period that includes the measurement date, capitalize with respect to this unit the excess expenditure amount calculated under this paragraph (c)(1). However, if the sum of the excess expenditure amounts for all units of designated property of a taxpayer exceeds the total interest described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, only a prorata amount (as determined under paragraph (c)(7) of this section) of such interest must be capitalized with respect to each unit. For each unit of designated property, the excess expenditure amount for a computation period equals the product of -

(i) The average excess expenditures (as determined under paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section) for the unit of designated property for that period, and

(ii) The weighted average interest rate (as determined under paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section) for that period.

(2)Interest required to be capitalized. With respect to an excess expenditure amount, interest incurred during the computation period is capitalized from the following sources and in the following sequence but not in excess of the excess expenditure amount for all units of designated property:

(i) Interest incurred on nontraced debt (as defined in paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section);

(ii) Interest incurred on borrowings described in paragraph (a)(4)(iii) of this section (relating to certain borrowings from related persons); and

(iii) In the case of a partnership, guaranteed payments for the use of capital (within the meaning of section 707(c)) that would be deductible by the partnership if section 263A(f) did not apply.

(3)Example. The provisions of paragraph (c)(1) and (2) of this section are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
(i) P, a partnership owned equally by Corporation A and Individual B, is engaged in the construction of an office building during 1995. Average excess expenditures for the office building for 1995 are $2,000,000. When P was formed, A and B agreed that A would be entitled to an annual guaranteed payment of $70,000 in exchange for A's capital contribution. The only borrowing of P, A, and B for 1995 is a loan to P from an unrelated lender of $1,000,000 (loan #1). The loan is nontraced debt and bears interest at an annual rate of 10 percent. Thus, P's weighted average interest rate (determined under paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section) is 10 percent and interest incurred during 1995 is $100,000.

(ii) In accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the excess expenditure amount is $200,000 ($2,000,000 × 10%). The interest capitalized under paragraph (c)(2) of this section is $170,000 ($100,000 of interest plus $70,000 of guaranteed payments).

(4)Treatment of interest subject to a deferral provision. If any interest described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section is not taken into account for the taxable year that includes the computation period because of a deferral provision described in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, paragraph (c)(2) of this section is first applied without regard to the amount of the deferred interest. After applying paragraph (c)(2) without regard to the deferred interest, if the amount of interest capitalized with respect to all units of designated property for the computation period is less than the amount that would have been capitalized if a deferral provision did not apply, see paragraph (g)(2) of this section for the time and manner for capitalizing and recovering the difference (the shortfall amount).

(5)Definitions -

(i)Nontraced debt -

(A)Defined. Nontraced debt means all eligible debt on a measurement date other than any debt that is treated as traced debt with respect to any unit of designated property on that measurement date. For example, nontraced debt includes eligible debt that is allocated to expenditures that are not capitalized under section 263A(a) (e.g., expenditures deductible under section 174(a) or 263(c)). Similarly, even if eligible debt is allocated to a production expenditure for a unit of designated property, the debt is included in nontraced debt on measurement dates before the first or after the last measurement date for that unit of designated property. Thus, nontraced debt may include debt that was previously treated as traced debt or that will be treated as traced debt on a future measurement date.

(B)Example. The provisions of paragraph (c)(5)(i)(A) of this section are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
In 1995, Corporation X begins, but does not complete, the construction of two office buildings that are separate units of designated property as defined in § 1.263A-10 (Property D and Property E). At the beginning of 1995, X borrows $2,500,000 (the $2,500,000 loan), which will be used exclusively to finance production expenditures for Property D. Although interest is paid currently, the entire principal amount of the loan remains outstanding at the end of 1995. Corporation X also has outstanding during all of 1995 a long-term loan with a principal amount of $2,000,000 (the $2,000,000 loan). The proceeds of the $2,000,000 loan were used exclusively to finance the production of Property C, a unit of designated property that was completed in 1994. Under the rules of paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the portion of the $2,500,000 loan allocated to accumulated production expenditures for property D at each measurement date during 1995 is treated as traced debt for that measurement date. The excess, if any, of $2,500,000 over the amount treated as traced debt at each measurement date during 1995 is treated as nontraced debt for that measurement date, even though it is expected that the entire $2,500,000 will be treated as traced debt with respect to Property D on subsequent measurement dates as more of the proceeds of the loan are used to finance additional production expenditures. In addition, the entire principal amount of the $2,000,000 loan is treated as nontraced debt for 1995, even though it was treated as traced debt with respect to Property C in a previous period.

(ii)Average excess expenditures -

(A)General rule. The average excess expenditures for a unit of designated property for a computation period are computed by -

(1) Determining the amount (if any) by which accumulated production expenditures exceed traced debt at each measurement date during the computation period; and

(2) Dividing the sum of these amounts by the number of measurement dates during the computation period.

(B)Example. The provisions of paragraph (c)(5)(ii)(A) of this section are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
Corporation X, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in the production of a single unit of designated property during 1995 (unit A). Corporation X adopts the taxable year as the computation period and quarterly measurement dates. The production period for unit A begins on January 14, 1995, and ends on June 16, 1995. On March 31, 1995, and on June 30, 1995, Corporation X has outstanding $1,000,000 of traced debt with respect to unit A. Accumulated production expenditures for unit A on March 31, 1995, are $1,400,000 and on June 30, 1995, are $1,600,000. Accumulated production expenditures in excess of traced debt for unit A on March 31, 1995, are $400,000 and on June 30, 1995, are $600,000. Average excess expenditures for unit A during 1995 are therefore $250,000 ([$400,000 $600,000 $0 $0] ÷ 4).

(iii)Weighted average interest rate -

(A)Determination of rate. The weighted average interest rate for a computation period is determined by dividing interest incurred on nontraced debt during the period by average nontraced debt for the period.

(B)Interest incurred on nontraced debt. Interest incurred on nontraced debt during the computation period is equal to the total amount of interest incurred during the computation period on all eligible debt minus the amount of interest incurred during the computation period on traced debt. Thus, all interest incurred on nontraced debt during the computation period is included in the numerator of the weighted average interest rate, even if the underlying nontraced debt is repaid before the end of a measurement period and excluded from nontraced debt outstanding for measurement dates after repayment, in determining the denominator of the weighted average interest rate. However, see paragraph (g)(7) of this section for an election to treat eligible debt that is repaid within the 15-day period immediately preceding a quarterly measurement date as outstanding on that measurement date. See paragraph (a)(3) of this section for the definitions of interest and incurred.

(C)Average nontraced debt. The average nontraced debt for a computation period is computed by -

(1) Determining the amount of nontraced debt outstanding on each measurement date during the computation period; and

(2) Dividing the sum of these amounts by the number of measurement dates during the computation period.

(D)Special rules if taxpayer has no nontraced debt or rate is contingent. If the taxpayer does not have nontraced debt outstanding during the computation period, the weighted average interest rate for purposes of applying paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section is the highest applicable Federal rate in effect under section 1274(d) during the computation period. If interest is incurred at a rate that is contingent at the time the return for the year that includes the computation period is filed, the amount of interest is determined using the higher of the fixed rate of interest (if any) on the underlying debt or the applicable Federal rate in effect under section 1274(d) on the date of issuance.

(6)Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this paragraph (c):

Example 1.
(i) W, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in the production of a unit of designated property during 1995. For purposes of applying the avoided cost method of this section, W uses the taxable year as the computation period. During 1995, W's only debt is a $1,000,000 loan bearing interest at a rate of 7 percent from Y, a person that is related to W. Assuming the applicable Federal rate in effect under section 1274(d) on the date of issuance of the loan is 10 percent, the loan is not eligible debt under paragraph (a)(4) of this section. However, even though W has no eligible debt, W incurs $70,000 ($1,000,000 × 7%) of interest during the computation period. This interest is described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section and must be capitalized under paragraph (c)(1) of this section to the extent it does not exceed W's excess expenditure amount for the unit of property.

(ii) W determines, under paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, that average excess expenditures for the unit of property are $600,000. Assuming the highest applicable Federal rate in effect under section 1274(d) during the computation period is 10 percent, W uses 10 percent as the weighted average interest rate for purposes of determining the excess expenditure amount. See paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(D) of this section. In accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the excess expenditure amount is therefore $60,000. Because this amount does not exceed the total amount of interest described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section ($70,000), W is required to capitalize $60,000 of interest with respect to the unit of designated property for the 1995 computation period.

Example 2.
(i) Corporation X, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in the production of a single unit of designated property during 1955 (unit A). Corporation X adopts the taxable year as the computation period and quarterly measurement dates. Production of unit A begins in 1994 and ends on June 30, 1995. On March 31, 1995, and on June 30, 1995, Corporation X has outstanding $1,000,000 of eligible debt (loan #1) that is allocated under the rules of § 1.163-8T to production expenditures for unit A. During each of the first two quarters of 1995, $30,000 of interest is incurred on loan #1. The loan is repaid on July 1, 1995. Throughout 1995, Corporation X also has outstanding $2,000,000 of eligible debt (loan #2) which is not allocated under the rules of § 1.163-8T to the production of unit A. During 1995, $200,000 of interest is incurred on this nontraced debt. Accumulated production expenditures on March 31, 1995, are $1,400,000 and on June 30, 1995, are $1,600,000. Accumulated production expenditures in excess of traced debt on March 31, 1995, are $400,000 and on June 30, 1995, are $600,000.

(ii) Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the amount of interest capitalized with respect to traced debt is $60,000 ($30,000 for the measurement period ending March 31, 1995, and $30,000 for the measurement period ending June 30, 1995). Under paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, average excess expenditures for unit A are $250,000 ([($1,400,000−$1,000,000) ($1,600,000−$1,000,000) $0 $0] ÷ 4). Under paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(C) of this section, average nontraced debt is $2,000,000 ([$2,000,000 $2,000,000 $2,000,000 $2,000,000] ÷ 4). Under paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(B) of this section, interest incurred on nontraced debt is $200,000 ($260,000 of interest incurred on all eligible debt less $60,000 of interest incurred on traced debt). Under paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(A) of this section, the weighted average interest rate is 10 percent ($200,000 ÷ $2,000,000). Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, Corporation X capitalizes the excess expenditure amount of $25,000 ($250,000 × 10%), because it does not exceed the total amount of interest subject to capitalization under paragraph (c)(2) of this section ($200,000). Thus, the total interest capitalized with respect to unit A during 1995 is $85,000 ($60,000 $25,000).

(7)Special rules where the excess expenditure amount exceeds incurred interest -

(i)Allocation of total incurred interest to units. For a computation period in which the sum of the excess expenditure amounts under paragraph (c)(1) of this section for all units of designated property exceeds the total amount of interest (including deferred interest) available for capitalization, as determined under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the amount of interest that is allocated to a unit of designated property is equal to the product of -

(A) The total amount of interest (including deferred interest) available for capitalization, as determined under paragraph (c)(2) of this section; and

(B) A fraction, the numerator of which is the average excess expenditures for the unit of designated property and the denominator of which is the sum of the average excess expenditures for all units of designated property.

(ii)Application of related person rules to average excess expenditure. Certain excess expenditures must be taken into account by the persons (if any) required to capitalize interest with respect to production expenditures of the taxpayer under applicable related person rules. For each computation period, the amount of average excess expenditures that must be taken into account by such persons for each unit of the taxpayer's property is computed by -

(A) Determining, for the computation period, the amount (if any) by which the excess expenditure amount for the unit exceeds the amount of interest allocated to the unit under paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section; and

(B) Dividing the excess by the weighted average interest rate for the period.

(iii)Special rule for corporations. If a corporation is related to another person for the purposes of the applicable related party rules, the District Director upon examination may require that the corporation apply this paragraph (c)(7) and other provisions of the regulations by excluding deferred interest from the total interest available for capitalization.

(d)Election not to trace debt -

(1)General rule. Taxpayers may elect not to trace debt. If the election is made, the average excess expenditures and weighted average interest rate under paragraph (c)(5) of this section are determined by treating all eligible debt as nontraced debt. For this purpose, debt specified in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section (e.g., accounts payable) may be included in eligible debt, provided it would be treated as traced debt but for an election under this paragraph (d). The election not to trace debt is a method of accounting that applies to the determination of capitalized interest for all designated property of the taxpayer. The making or revocation of the election is a change in method of accounting requiring the consent of the Commissioner under section 446(e) and § 1.446-1(e).

(2)Example. The provisions of paragraph (d)(1) of this section are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
(i) Corporation X, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in the production of a single unit of designated property during 1995 (unit A). Corporation X adopts the taxable year as the computation period and quarterly measurement dates. At each measurement date (March 31, June 30, September 30, and December 31) Corporation X has the following outstanding indebtedness:
Noninterest-bearing accounts payable traced to unit A $100,000
Noninterest-bearing accounts payable that are not traced to unit A $300,000
Interest-bearing loans that are eligible debt within the meaning of paragraph (a)(4) of this section $900,000
(ii) Corporation X elects under this paragraph (d) not to trace debt. Eligible debt at each measurement date for purposes of calculating the weighted average interest rate under paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section is $1,000,000 ($100,000 $900,000).

(e)Election to use external rate -

(1)In general. An eligible taxpayer may elect to use the highest applicable Federal rate (AFR) under section 1274(d) in effect during the computation period plus 3 percentage points (AFR plus 3) as a substitute for the weighted average interest rate determined under paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section. A taxpayer that makes this election may not trace debt. The use of the AFR plus 3 as provided under this paragraph (e)(1) constitutes a method of accounting. A taxpayer makes the election to use the AFR plus 3 method by using the AFR plus 3 as the taxpayer's weighted average interest rate, and any change to the AFR plus 3 method by a taxpayer that has never previously used the method does not require the consent of the Commissioner. Any other change to or from the use of the AFR plus 3 method under this paragraph (e)(1) (other than by reason of a taxpayer ceasing to be an eligible taxpayer) is a change in method of accounting requiring the consent of the Commissioner under section 446(e) and § 1.446-1(e). All changes to or from the AFR plus 3 method are effected on a cut-off basis.

(2)Eligible taxpayer. A taxpayer is an eligible taxpayer for a taxable year for purposes of this paragraph (e) if the average annual gross receipts of the taxpayer for the three previous taxable years do not exceed $10,000,000 (the $10,000,000 gross receipts test) and the taxpayer has met the $10,000 gross receipts for all prior taxable years beginning after December 31, 1994. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(2), the principles of section 263A(b)(2)(B) and (C) and § 1.263A-3(b) apply in determining whether a taxpayer is an eligible taxpayer for a taxable year.

(f)Selection of computation period and measurement dates and application of averaging conventions -

(1)Computation period -

(i)In general. A taxpayer may (but is not required to) make the avoided cost calculation on the basis of a full taxable year. If the taxpayer uses the taxable year as the computation period, a single avoided cost calculation is made for each unit of designated property for the entire taxable year. If the taxpayer uses a computation period that is shorter than the full taxable year, an avoided cost calculation is made for each unit of designated property for each shorter computation period within the taxable year. If the taxpayer uses a shorter computation period, the computation period may not include portions of more than one taxable year and, except as provided in the case of short taxable years, each computation period within a taxable year must be the same length. In the case of a short taxable year, a taxpayer may treat a period shorter than the taxpayer's regular computation period as the first or last computation period, or as the only computation period for the year if the year is shorter than the taxpayer's regular computation period. A taxpayer must use the same computation periods for all designated property produced during a single taxable year.

(ii)Method of accounting. The choice of a computation period is a method of accounting. Any change in the computation period is a change in method of accounting requiring the consent of the Commissioner under section 446(e) and § 1.446-1(e).

(iii)Production period beginning or ending during the computation period. The avoided cost method applies to the production of a unit of designated property on the basis of a full computation period, regardless of whether the production period for the unit of designated property begins or ends during the computation period.

(2)Measurement dates -

(i)In general. If a taxpayer uses the taxable year as the computation period, measurement dates must occur at quarterly or more frequent regular intervals. If the taxpayer uses computation periods that are shorter than the taxable year, measurement dates must occur at least twice during each computation period and at least four times during the taxable year (or consecutive 12-month period in the case of a short taxable year). The taxpayer must use the same measurement dates for all designated property produced during a computation period. Except in the case of a computation period that differs from the taxpayer's regular computation period by reason of a short taxable year (see paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section), measurement dates must occur at equal intervals during each computation period that falls within a single taxable year. For any computation period that differs from the taxpayer's regular computation period by reason of a short taxable year, the measurement dates used by the taxpayer during that period must be consistent with the principles and purposes of section 263A(f). A taxpayer is permitted to modify the frequency of measurement dates from year to year.

(ii)Measurement period. For purposes of this section, measurement period means the period that begins on the first day following the preceding measurement date and that ends on the measurement date.

(iii)Measurement dates on which accumulated production expenditures must be taken into account. The first measurement date on which accumulated production expenditures must be taken into account with respect to a unit of designated property is the first measurement date following the beginning of the production period for the unit of designated property. The final measurement date on which accumulated production expenditures with respect to a unit of designated property must be taken into account is the first measurement date following the end of the production period for the unit of designated property. Accumulated production expenditures with respect to a unit of designated property must also be taken into account on all intervening measurement dates. See § 1.263A-12 to determine when the production period begins and ends.

(iv)More frequent measurement dates. When in the opinion of the District Director more frequent measurement dates are necessary to determine capitalized interest consistent with the principles and purposes of section 263A(f) for a particular computation period, the District Director may require the use of more frequent measurement dates. If a significant segment of the taxpayer's production activities (the first segment) requires more frequent measurement dates than another significant segment of the taxpayer's production activities, the taxpayer may request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service permitting, for a taxable year and all subsequent taxable years, a segregation of the two segments and, notwithstanding paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section, the use of the more frequent measurement dates for only the first segment. The request for a ruling must be made in accordance with any applicable rules relating to submissions of ruling requests. The request must be filed on or before the due date (including extensions) of the original Federal income tax return for the first taxable year to which it will apply.

(3)Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this paragraph (f):

Example 1.
Corporation X, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in the production of designated property during 1995. Corporation X adopts the taxable year as the computation period and quarterly measurement dates. Corporation X must identify traced debt, accumulated production expenditures, and nontraced debt at each quarterly measurement date (March 31, June 30, September 30, and December 31). Under paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, Corporation X must calculate average excess expenditures for each unit of designated property by determining the amount by which accumulated production expenditures exceed traced debt for each unit at the end of each quarter and dividing the sum of these amounts by four. Under paragraph (c)(5)(iii) (C) of this section, Corporation X must calculate average nontraced debt by determining the amount of nontraced debt outstanding at the end of each quarter and dividing the sum of these amounts by four.
Example 2.
Corporation X, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in the production of designated property during 1995. Corporation X adopts a 6-month computation period with two measurement dates within each computation period. Corporation X must identify traced debt, accumulated production expenditures, and nontraced debt at each measurement date (March 31 and June 30 for the first computation period and September 30 and December 31 for the second computation period). Under paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, Corporation X must, for each computation period, calculate average excess expenditures for each unit of designated property by determining the amount by which accumulated production expenditures exceed traced debt for each unit at each measurement date during the period and dividing the sum of these amounts by two. Under paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(C) of this section, Corporation X must calculate average nontraced debt for each computation period by determining the amount of nontraced debt outstanding at each measurement date during the period and dividing the sum of these amounts by two.
Example 3.
(i) Corporation X, a calendar year taxpayer, is engaged in the production of two units of designated property during 1995. Production of Unit A starts in 1994 and ends on June 20, 1995. Production of Unit B starts on April 15, 1995, but does not end until 1996. Corporation X adopts the taxable year as its computation period and does not elect under paragraph (d) of this section not to trace debt. Corporation X uses quarterly measurement dates and pays all interest on eligible debt in the quarter in which the interest is incurred. During 1995, Corporation X has two items of eligible debt. The debt and the manner in which it is used are as follows:
No. Principal Annual rate
(percent)
Period outstanding Use of proceeds
1 $1,000,000 9 1/01-9/01 Unit A.
2 2,000,000 11 6/01-12/31 Nontraced.
(ii) Based on the annual 9 percent rate of interest, Corporation X incurs $7,500 of interest during each month that Loan #1 is outstanding.

(iii) Accumulated production expenditures at the end of each quarter during 1995 are as follows:

Measurement date Unit A Unit B
March 31 $1,200,000 $0
June 30 1,800,000 500,000
Sept. 30 0 1,000,000
Dec. 31 0 1,600,000
(iv) Corporation X must first determine the amount of interest incurred on traced debt and capitalize the interest incurred on this debt (the traced debt amount). Loan #1 is allocated to Unit A on the March 31 and June 30 measurement dates. Accordingly, Loan #1 is treated as traced debt with respect to unit A for the measurement periods beginning January 1 and ending June 30. The interest incurred on Loan #1 during the period that Loan #1 is treated as traced debt must be capitalized with respect to Unit A. Thus, $45,000 ($7,500 per month for 6 months) is capitalized with respect to Unit A.

(v) Second, Corporation X must determine average excess expenditures for Unit A and Unit B. For Unit A, this amount is $250,000 ([$200,000 $800,000 $0 $0] ÷ 4). For Unit B, this amount is $775,000 ([$0 $500,000 $1,000,000 $1,600,000] ÷ 4).

(vi) Third, Corporation X must determine the weighted average interest rate and apply that rate to the average excess expenditures for Units A and B. The rate is equal to the total amount of interest incurred on nontraced debt (i.e., interest incurred on all eligible debt reduced by interest incurred on traced debt) divided by the average nontraced debt. The interest incurred on nontraced debt equals $143,333 ([$1,000,000 × 9% × 8/12] [$2,000,000 × 11% × 7/12] − $45,000). The average nontraced debt equals $1,500,000 ([$0 $2,000,000 $2,000,000 $2,000,000] ÷ 4). The weighted average interest rate of 9.56 percent ($143,333 ′ $1,500,000), is then applied to average excess expenditures for Units A and B. Accordingly, Corporation X capitalizes an additional $23,900 ($250,000 × 9.56%) with respect to Unit A and $74,090 ($775,000 × 9.56%) with respect to Unit B (the excess expenditure amounts).

(g)Special rules -

(1)Ordering rules -

(i)Provisions preempted by section 263A(f). Interest must be capitalized under section 263A(f) before the application of section 163(d) (regarding the investment interest limitation), section 163(j) (regarding the limitation on interest paid to a tax-exempt related person), section 266 (regarding the election to capitalize carrying charges), section 469 (regarding the limitation on passive losses), and section 861 (regarding the allocation of interest to United States sources). Any interest that is capitalized under section 263A(f) is not taken into account as interest under those sections. However, in applying section 263A(f) with respect to the excess expenditure amount, the taxpayer must capitalize all interest that is neither investment interest under section 163(d), exempt related person interest under section 163(j), nor passive interest under section 469 before capitalizing any interest that is either investment interest, exempt related person interest, or passive interest. Any interest that is not required to be capitalized after the application of section 263A(f) is then taken into account as interest subject to sections 163(d), 163(j), 266, 469, and 861. If, after the application of section 263A(f), interest is deferred under sections 163(d), 163(j), 266, or 469, that interest is not subject to capitalization under section 263A(f) in any subsequent taxable year.

(ii)Deferral provisions applied before this section. Interest (including contingent interest) that is subject to a deferral provision described in this paragraph (g)(1)(ii) is subject to capitalization under section 263A(f) only in the taxable year in which it would be deducted if section 263A(f) did not apply. Deferral provisions include sections 163(e)(3), 267, 446, and 461, and all other deferral or limitation provisions that are not described in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section. In contrast to the provisions of paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, deferral provisions are applied before the application of section 263A(f).

(2)Application of section 263A(f) to deferred interest -

(i)In general. This paragraph (g)(2) describes the time and manner of capitalizing and recovering the deferral amount. The deferral amount for any computation period equals the sum of -

(A) The amount of interest that is incurred on traced debt that is deferred during the computation period and is not deductible for the taxable year that includes the computation period because of a deferral provision described in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, and

(B) The shortfall amount described in paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

(ii)Capitalization of deferral amount. The rules described in paragraph (g)(2)(iii) of this section apply to the deferral amount unless the taxpayer elects under paragraph (g)(2)(iv) of this section to capitalize substitute costs.

(iii)Deferred capitalization. If the taxpayer does not elect under paragraph (g)(2)(iv) of this section to capitalize substitute costs, deferred interest to which the deferral amount is attributable (determined under any reasonable method) is capitalized in the year or years in which the deferred interest would have been deductible but for the application of section 263A(f) (the capitalization year). For this purpose, any interest that is deferred from a prior computation period is taken into account in subsequent capitalization years in the same order in which the interest was deferred. If a unit of designated property to which previously deferred interest relates is sold before the capitalization year, the deferred interest applicable to that unit of property is taken into account in the capitalization year and treated as if recovered from the sale of the property. If the taxpayer continues to hold, throughout the capitalization year, a unit of depreciable property to which previously deferred interest relates, the adjusted basis and applicable recovery percentages for the unit of property are redetermined for the capitalization year and subsequent years so that the increase in basis is accounted for over the remaining recovery periods beginning with the capitalization year. See Example 2 of paragraph (g)(2)(v) of this section.

(iv)Substitute capitalization -

(A)General rule. In lieu of deferred capitalization under paragraph (g)(2)(iii) of this section, the taxpayer may elect the substitute capitalization method described in this paragraph (g)(2)(iv). Under this method, the taxpayer capitalizes for the computation period in which interest is incurred and deferred (the deferral period) costs that would be deducted but for this paragraph (g)(2)(iv) (substitute costs). The taxpayer must capitalize an amount of substitute costs equal to the deferral amount for each unit of designated property, or if less, a prorata amount (determined in accordance with the principles of paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section) of the total substitute costs that would be deducted but for this paragraph (g)(2)(iv) during the deferral period. If the entire deferral amount is capitalized pursuant to this paragraph (g)(2)(iv) in the deferral period, any interest incurred and deferred in the deferral period is neither capitalized nor deducted during the deferral period and, unless subsequently capitalized as a substitute cost under this paragraph (g)(2)(iv), is deductible in the appropriate subsequent period without regard to section 263A(f).

(B)Capitalization of amount carried forward. If the taxpayer has an insufficient amount of substitute costs in the deferral period, the amount by which substitute costs are insufficient with respect to each unit of designated property is a deferral amount carryforward to succeeding computation periods beginning with the next computation period. In any carryforward year, the taxpayer must capitalize an amount of substitute costs equal to the deferral amount carryforward or, if less, a prorata amount (determined in accordance with the principles of paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section) of the total substitute costs that would be deducted during the carryforward year or years (the carryforward capitalization year) but for this paragraph (g)(2)(iv) (after applying the substitute cost method of this paragraph (g)(2)(iv) to the production of designated property in the carryforward period). If a unit of designated property to which the deferral amount carryforward relates is sold prior to the carryforward capitalization year, substitute costs applicable to that unit of property are taken into account in the carryforward capitalization year and treated as if recovered from the sale of the property. If the taxpayer continues to hold, throughout the capitalization year, a unit of depreciable property to which a deferral amount carryforward relates, the adjusted basis and applicable recovery percentages for the unit of property are redetermined for the carryforward capitalization year and subsequent years so that the increase in basis is accounted for over the remaining recovery periods beginning with the carryforward capitalization year. See Example 2 of paragraph (g)(2)(v) of this section.

(C)Method of accounting. The substitute capitalization method under this paragraph (g)(2)(iv) is a method of accounting that applies to all designated property of the taxpayer. A change to or from the substitute capitalization method is a change in method of accounting requiring the consent of the Commissioner under section 446(e) and § 1.446-1(e).

(v)Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of the avoided cost method when interest is subject to a deferral provision:

Example 1.
(i) Corporation X is a calendar year taxpayer and uses the taxable year as it computation period. During 1995, X is engaged in the construction of a warehouse which X will use in its storage business. The warehouse is completed and placed in service in December 1995. X's average excess expenditures for 1995 equal $1,000,000. Throughout 1995, X's only outstanding debt is nontraced debt of $900,000 and $1,200,000, bearing interest at 15 percent and 9 percent, respectively, per year. Of the $243,000 interest incurred during the year ([$900,000 × 15%] [$1,200,000 × 9%] = [$135,000 $108,000]), $75,000 is deferred under section 267(a)(2).

(ii) X must first determine the amount of interest required to be capitalized under paragraph (c)(1) of this section for 1995 (the deferral period) without applying section 267(a)(2). The weighted average interest rate is 11.6 percent ([$135,000 $108,000] ÷ $2,100,000), and the excess expenditure amount under paragraph (c)(1) of this section is $116,000 ($1,000,000 × 11.6%). Under paragraph (c)(4) of this section, X must then determine the amount of interest that would be capitalized by applying paragraph (c)(2) of this section without regard to the amount of deferred interest. Disregarding deferred interest, the amount of interest available for capitalization is $168,000 ([$900,000 × 15%] [$1,200,000 × 9%]− $75,000). Thus, the full excess expenditure amount ($116,000) is capitalized from interest that is not deferred under section 267(a)(2) and there is no shortfall amount.

Example 2.
(i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that $140,000 of interest is deferred under section 267 (a)(2) in 1995. The taxpayer does not elect to use the substitute capitalization method. This interest is also deferred in 1996 but would be deducted in 1997 if section 263A(f) did not apply. As in Example 1, the excess expenditure amount is $116,000. However, the amount of interest available for capitalization after excluding the amount of deferred interest is $103,000 ([$900,000 × 15%] [$1,200,000 × 9%]− $140,000). Thus, only $103,000 of interest is capitalized with respect to the warehouse in 1995. Since $116,000 of interest would be capitalized if section 267(a)(2) did not apply, the deferral amount determined under paragraphs (c)(2) and (g)(2)(i) of this section is $13,000 ($116,000 −$103,000), and $13,000 of deferred interest must be capitalized in the year in which it would be deducted if section 263A(f) did not apply.

(ii) The $140,000 of interest deferred under section 267(a)(2) in 1995 would be deducted in 1997 if section 263A(f) did not apply. X is therefore required to capitalize an additional $13,000 of interest with respect to the warehouse in 1997 and must redetermine its basis and recovery percentage.

(3)Simplified inventory method -

(i)In general. This paragraph (g)(3) provides a simplified method of capitalizing interest expense with respect to designated property that is inventory. Under this method, the taxpayer determines beginning and ending inventory and cost of goods sold applying all other capitalization provisions, including, for example, the simplified production method of § 1.263A-2(b), but without regard to the capitalization of interest with respect to inventory. The taxpayer must establish a separate capital asset, however, in an amount equal to the aggregate interest capitalization amount (as defined in paragraph (g)(3)(iii)(C) of this section). Under the simplified inventory method, increases in the aggregate interest capitalization amount from one year to the next generally are treated as reductions in interest expense, and decreases in the aggregate interest capitalization amount from one year to the next are treated as increases to cost of goods sold.

(ii)Segmentation of inventory -

(A)General rule. Under the simplified inventory method, the taxpayer first separates its total ending inventory value into segments that are equal to the total ending inventory value divided by the inverse inventory turnover rate. Each inventory segment is then assigned an age starting with one year and increasing by one year for each additional segment. The inverse inventory turnover rate is determined by finding the average of beginning and ending inventory, dividing the average by the cost of goods sold for the year, and rounding the result to the nearest whole number. Beginning and ending inventory amounts are determined using total current cost of inventory for the year (rather than carrying value). Cost of goods sold, however, may be determined using either total current cost or the taxpayer's inventory method. In addition, for purposes of this paragraph (g)(3)(ii), current costs for a year (and, if applicable, the cost of goods sold for the year under the taxpayer's inventory method) are determined without regard to the capitalization of interest with respect to inventory.

(B)Example. The provisions of paragraph (g)(3)(ii)(A) of this section are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
X, a taxpayer using the FIFO inventory method, determines that total cost of goods sold for 1995 equals $900, and the cost of both beginning and ending inventory equals $3,000. Thus, X's inverse inventory turnover rate equals 3 (3.33 rounded to the nearest whole number). Total ending inventory of $3,000 is divided into three segments of $1,000 each. One segment is treated as 3-year-old inventory, one segment is treated as 2-year-old inventory, and one segment is treated as 1-year-old inventory.

(iii)Aggregate interest capitalization amount -

(A)Computation period and weighted average interest rate. If a taxpayer elects the simplified inventory method, the taxpayer must use the taxable year as its computation period and use the weighted average interest rate determined under this paragraph (g)(3)(iii)(A) in determining the aggregate interest capitalization amount defined in paragraph (g)(3)(iii)(C) of this section and in determining the amount of interest capitalized with respect to any designated property that is not inventory. Under the simplified inventory method, the taxpayer determines the weighted average interest rate in accordance with paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section, treating all eligible debt (other than debt traced to noninventory property in the case of a taxpayer tracing debt) as nontraced debt (i.e., without tracing debt to inventory). A taxpayer that has elected under paragraph (e) of this section to use an external rate as a substitute for the weighted average interest rate determined under paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section uses the rate described in paragraph (e)(1) as the weighted average interest rate.

(B)Computation of the tentative aggregate interest capitalization amount. The weighted average interest rate is compounded annually by the number of years assigned to a particular inventory segment to produce an interest factor (applicable interest factor) for that segment. The amounts determined by multiplying the value of each inventory segment by its applicable interest factor are then combined to produce a tentative aggregate interest capitalization amount.

(C)Coordination with other interest capitalization computations -

(1)In general. If the tentative aggregate interest capitalization amount for a year exceeds the aggregate interest capitalization amount (defined in paragraph (g)(3)(iii)(D) of this section) as of the close of the preceding year, then, for purposes of applying the rules of paragraph (c)(7) of this section, the excess is treated as an excess expenditure amount and the inventory to which the simplified inventory method of this paragraph (g)(3) applies is treated as a single unit of designated property. If, after these modifications, no paragraph (c)(7) interest allocation is necessary (i.e., the excess expenditure amounts for all units of designated property do not exceed the total amount of interest (including deferred interest) available for capitalization), the aggregate interest capitalization amount generally equals the tentative aggregate interest capitalization amount. If, on the other hand, a paragraph (c)(7) allocation is necessary, the tentative aggregate interest capitalization amount is generally adjusted to reflect the results of that allocation (i.e., the increase in the aggregate interest capitalization amount is limited to the amount of interest allocated to inventory, reduced, however, by any substitute costs that are capitalized with respect to inventory under applicable related party rules).

(2)Deferred interest. In determining the aggregate interest capitalization amount, the tentative aggregate interest capitalization amount is adjusted (after the application of paragraph (c)(7) of this section) as appropriate to reflect the deferred interest rules of paragraph (g)(2) of this section. The tentative aggregate interest capitalization amount would be reduced, for example, by the amount of a taxpayer's deferred interest for a taxable year unless the taxpayer has elected the substitute capitalization method under paragraph (g)(2)(iv).

(3)Other coordinating provisions. The Commissioner may prescribe, by revenue ruling or revenue procedure, additional provisions to coordinate the election and use of the simplified inventory method with other interest capitalization requirements and methods. See § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter.

(D)Treatment of increases or decreases in the aggregate interest capitalization amount. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (g)(3)(iii)(D), increases in the aggregate interest capitalization amount from one year to the next are treated as reductions in interest expense, and decreases in the aggregate interest capitalization amount from one year to the next are treated as increases to cost of goods sold. To the extent a taxpayer capitalizes substitute costs under either applicable related party rules or the deferred interest rules in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, increases in the aggregate interest capitalization amount are treated as reductions in applicable substitute costs, rather than interest expense.

(E)Example. The provisions of this paragraph (g)(3)(iii) are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
The facts are the same as in the example in paragraph (g)(3)(ii)(B) of this section, and, in addition, X determines that its weighted average interest rate for 1995 is 10 percent. Additionally, assume that X has no deferred interest in 1995 or 1996 and no deferral amount carryforward to either 1995 or 1996. (See paragraph (g)(2) of this section.) Also assume that no allocation is necessary under paragraph (c)(7) of this section in either 1995 or 1996. Under the rules of paragraph (g)(3)(ii) of this section, X divides ending inventory into segments of $1,000 each. One segment is 1-year old inventory, one segment is 2-year old inventory, and one segment is 3-year old inventory. Under paragraph (g)(3)(iii)(B) of this section, X must compute the applicable interest factor for each segment. The applicable interest factor for the 1-year old inventory is not compounded. The applicable interest factor for the 2-year old inventory is compounded for 1 year. The applicable interest factor for the 3-year old inventory is compounded for 2 years. The interest factor applied to the 1-year old inventory segment is .1. The interest factor applied to the 2-year old inventory segment is .21 [(1.1 × 1.1)−1]. The interest factor applied to the 3-year old inventory is .331 [(1.1 × 1.1 × 1.1)−1]. Thus, the tentative aggregate interest capitalization amount for 1995 is $641 (1,000 × [.1 .21 .331]). Because X has no deferred interest in 1995, no deferral amount carryforward to 1995, and no required allocation under paragraph (c)(7) of this section in 1995, X's aggregate interest capitalization amount equals its $641 tentative aggregate interest capitalization amount. If, in 1996, X computes an aggregate interest capitalization amount of $750, the $109 increase in the amount from 1995 to 1996 would be treated as a reduction in interest expense for 1996.

(iv)Method of accounting. The simplified inventory method is a method of accounting that must be elected for and applied to all inventory within a single trade or business of the taxpayer (within the meaning of section 446(d) and § 1.446-1(d)). This method may be elected only if the inventory in that trade or business consists only of designated property and only if the taxpayer's inverse inventory turnover rate for that trade or business (as defined in paragraph (g)(3)(ii)(A) of this section) is greater than or equal to one. A change from or to the simplified inventory method is a change in method of accounting requiring the consent of the Commissioner under section 446(e) and § 1.446-(1)(e).

(4)Financial accounting method disregarded. The avoided cost method is applied under this section without regard to any financial or regulatory accounting principles for the capitalization of interest. For example, this section determines the amount of interest that must be capitalized without regard to Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statement Nos. 34, 71, and 90, issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, Norwalk, CT 06856-5116. Similarly, taxpayers are not permitted to net interest income and interest expense in determining the amount of interest that must be capitalized under this section with respect to certain restricted tax-exempt borrowings even though netting is permitted under FASB Statement No. 62.

(5)Treatment of intercompany transactions -

(i)General rule. If interest capitalized under section 263A(f) by a member of a consolidated group (within the meaning of § 1.1502-1(h)) with respect to a unit of designated property is attributable to a loan from another member of the group (the lending member), the intercompany transaction provisions of the consolidated return regulations do not apply to the lending member's interest income with respect to that loan, except as provided in paragraph (g)(5)(ii) of this section. For this purpose, the capitalized interest expense that is attributable to a loan from another member is determined under any method that reasonably reflects the principles of the avoided cost method, including the traced and nontraced concepts. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(5)(i) and paragraph (g)(5)(ii) of this section, in order for a method to be considered reasonable it must be consistently applied.

(ii)Special rule for consolidated group with limited outside borrowing. If, for any year, the aggregate amount of interest income described in paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section for all members of the group with respect to all units of designated property exceeds the total amount of interest that is deductible for that year by all members of the group with respect to debt of a member owed to nonmembers (group deductible interest) after applying section 263A(f), the intercompany transaction provisions of the consolidated return regulations are applied to the excess, and the amount of interest income that must be taken into account by the group under paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section is limited to the amount of the group deductible interest. The amount to which the intercompany transaction provisions of the consolidated return regulations apply by reason of this paragraph (g)(5)(ii) is allocated among the lending members under any method that reasonably reflects each member's share of interest income described in paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section. If a lending member has interest income that is attributable to more than one unit of designated property, the amount to which the intercompany transaction provisions of the consolidated return regulations apply by reason of this paragraph (g)(5)(ii) with respect to the member is allocated among the units in accordance with the principles of paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section.

(iii)Example. The provisions of paragraph (g)(5)(ii) of this section are illustrated by the following example.

Example.
(i) P and S1 are the members of a consolidated group. In 1995, S1 begins and completes the construction of a shopping center and is required to capitalize interest with respect to the construction. S1's average excess expenditures for 1995 are $5,000,000. Throughout 1995, S1's only borrowings include a $6,000,000 loan from P bearing interest at an annual rate of 10 percent ($600,000 per year). Under the avoided cost method, S1 is required to capitalize interest in the amount of $500,000 ([$600,000 ÷ $6,000,000 × 5,000,000).

(ii) P's only borrowing from unrelated lenders is a $2,000,000 loan bearing interest at an annual rate of 10 percent ($200,000 per year). Under the principles of paragraph (g)(5)(ii) of this section, because the aggregate amount of interest described in paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section ($500,000) exceeds the aggregate amount of currently deductible interest of the group ($200,000), the intercompany transaction provisions of the consolidated return regulations apply to the excess of $300,000 and the amount of P's interest income that is subject to current inclusion by reason of paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section is limited to $200,000.

(6)Notional principal contracts and other derivatives. [Reserved]

(7)15-day repayment rule. A taxpayer may elect to treat any eligible debt that is repaid within the 15-day period immediately preceding a quarterly measurement date as outstanding as of that measurement date for purposes of determining traced debt, average nontraced debt, and the weighted average interest rate. This election may be made or discontinued for any computation period and is not a method of accounting.

[T.D. 8584, 59 FR 67200, Dec. 29, 1994; 60 FR 16574, Mar. 31, 1995, as amended by T.D. 8584, 60 FR 47053, Sept. 11, 1995; T.D. 9129, 69 FR 29067, May 20, 2004; T.D. 9179, 70 FR 8730, Feb. 23, 2005]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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