26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

§ 1.267(f)-1 Controlled groups.

(a)In general -

(1)Purpose. This section provides rules under section 267(f) to defer losses and deductions from certain transactions between members of a controlled group (intercompany sales). The purpose of this section is to prevent members of a controlled group from taking into account a loss or deduction solely as the result of a transfer of property between a selling member (S) and a buying member (B).

(2)Application of consolidated return principles. Under this section, S's loss or deduction from an intercompany sale is taken into account under the timing principles of § 1.1502-13 (intercompany transactions between members of a consolidated group), treating the intercompany sale as an intercompany transaction. For this purpose:

(i) The matching and acceleration rules of § 1.1502-13 (c) and (d), the definitions and operating rules of § 1.1502-13 (b) and (j), and the simplifying rules of § 1.1502-13(e)(1) apply with the adjustments in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section to reflect that this section -

(A) Applies on a controlled group basis rather than consolidated group basis; and

(B) Generally affects only the timing of a loss or deduction, and not it's attributes (e.g., its source and character) or the holding period of property.

(ii) The special rules under § 1.1502-13(f) (stock of members) and (g) (obligations of members) apply under this section only to the extent the transaction is also an intercompany transaction to which § 1.1502-13 applies.

(iii) Any election under § 1.1502-13 to take items into account on a separate entity basis does not apply under this section. See § 1.1502-13(e)(3).

(3)Other law. The rules of this section apply in addition to other applicable law (including nonstatutory authorities). For example, to the extent a loss or deduction deferred under this section is from a transaction that is also an intercompany transaction under § 1.1502-13(b)(1), attributes of the loss or deduction are also subject to recharacterization under § 1.1502-13. See also, sections 269 (acquisitions to evade or avoid income tax) and 482 (allocations among commonly controlled taxpayers). Any loss or deduction taken into account under this section can be deferred, disallowed, or eliminated under other applicable law. See, for example, section 1091 (loss eliminated on wash sale).

(b)Definitions and operating rules. The definitions in § 1.1502-13(b) and the operating rules of § 1.1502-13(j) apply under this section with appropriate adjustments, including the following:

(1)Intercompany sale. An intercompany sale is a sale, exchange, or other transfer of property between members of a controlled group, if it would be an intercompany transaction under the principles of § 1.1502-13, determined by treating the references to a consolidated group as references to a controlled group and by disregarding whether any of the members join in filing consolidated returns.

(2)S's losses or deductions. Except to the extent the intercompany sale is also an intercompany transaction to which § 1.1502-13 applies, S's losses or deductions subject to this section are determined on a separate entity basis. For example, the principles of § 1.1502-13(b)(2)(iii) (treating certain amounts not yet recognized as items to be taken into account) do not apply. A loss or deduction is from an intercompany sale whether it is directly or indirectly from the intercompany sale.

(3)Controlled group; member. For purposes of this section, a controlled group is defined in section 267(f). Thus, a controlled group includes a FSC (as defined in section 922) and excluded members under section 1563(b)(2), but does not include a DISC (as defined in section 992). Corporations remain members of a controlled group as long as they remain in a controlled group relationship with each other. For example, corporations become nonmembers with respect to each other when they cease to be in a controlled group relationship with each other, rather than by having a separate return year (described in § 1.1502-13(j)(7)). Further, the principles of § 1.1502-13(j)(6) (former common parent treated as continuation of group) apply to any corporation if, immediately before it becomes a nonmember, it is both the selling member and the owner of property with respect to which a loss or deduction is deferred (whether or not it becomes a member of a different controlled group filing consolidated or separate returns). Thus, for example, if S and B merge together in a transaction described in section 368(a)(1)(A), the surviving corporation is treated as the successor to the other corporation, and the controlled group relationship is treated as continuing.

(4)Consolidated taxable income. References to consolidated taxable income (and consolidated tax liability) include references to the combined taxable income of the members (and their combined tax liability). For corporations filing separate returns, it ordinarily will not be necessary to actually combine their taxable incomes (and tax liabilities) because the taxable income (and tax liability) of one corporation does not affect the taxable income (or tax liability) of another corporation.

(c)Matching and acceleration principles of § 1.1502-13 -

(1)Adjustments to the timing rules. Under this section, S's losses and deductions are deferred until they are taken into account under the timing principles of the matching and acceleration rules of § 1.1502-13(c) and (d) with appropriate adjustments. For example, if S sells depreciable property to B at a loss, S's loss is deferred and taken into account under the principles of the matching rule of § 1.1502-13(c) to reflect the difference between B's depreciation taken into account with respect to the property and the depreciation that B would take into account if S and B were divisions of a single corporation; if S and B subsequently cease to be in a controlled group relationship with each other, S's remaining loss is taken into account under the principles of the acceleration rule of § 1.1502-13(d). For purposes of this section, the adjustments to § 1.1502-13 (c) and (d) include the following:

(i)Application on controlled group basis. The matching and acceleration rules apply on a controlled group basis, rather than a consolidated group basis. Thus if S and B are wholly-owned members of a consolidated group and 21% of the stock of S is sold to an unrelated person, S's loss continues to be deferred under this section because S and B continue to be members of a controlled group even though S is no longer a member of the consolidated group. Similarly, S's loss would continue to be deferred if S and B remain in a controlled group relationship after both corporations become nonmembers of their former consolidated group.

(ii)Different taxable years. If S and B have different taxable years, the taxable years that include a December 31 are treated as the same taxable years. If S or B has a short taxable year that does not include a December 31, the short year is treated as part of the succeeding taxable year that does include a December 31.

(iii)Transfer to a section 267(b) or 707(b) related person. To the extent S's loss or deduction from an intercompany sale of property is taken into account under this section as a result of B's transfer of the property to a nonmember that is a person related to any member, immediately after the transfer, under sections 267(b) or 707(b), or as a result of S or B becoming a nonmember that is related to any member under section 267(b), the loss or deduction is taken into account but allowed only to the extent of any income or gain taken into account as a result of the transfer. The balance not allowed is treated as a loss referred to in section 267(d) if it is from a sale or exchange by B (rather than from a distribution).

(iv)B's item is excluded from gross income or noncapital and nondeductible. To the extent S's loss would be redetermined to be a noncapital, nondeductible amount under the principles of § 1.1502-13, but is not redetermined under paragraph (c)(2) of this section (which generally renders the attribute redetermination rule inapplicable to sales between members of a controlled group), S's loss continues to be deferred. For purposes of this paragraph, stock held by S, stock held by B, stock held by all members of S's consolidated group, stock held by any member of a controlled group of which S is a member that was acquired from a member of S's consolidated group, and stock issued by T to a member of the controlled group must be taken into account in determining whether a loss would be redetermined to be a noncapital, nondeductible amount under the principles of § 1.1502-13. If the loss remains deferred, it is taken into account when S and B (including their successors) are no longer in a controlled group relationship. (If, however, the property is transferred to certain related persons, paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section will cause the loss to be permanently disallowed.) For example, if S sells all of the T stock to B at a loss (in a transaction that is treated as a sale or exchange for Federal income tax purposes), and T subsequently liquidates in an unrelated transaction that qualifies under section 332, S's loss is deferred until S and B are no longer in a controlled group relationship. Similarly, if S owns all of the T stock and sells 30 percent of T's stock to B at a loss (in a transaction that is treated as a sale or exchange for Federal income tax purposes), and T subsequently liquidates, S's loss on the sale is deferred until S and B (including their successors) are no longer in a controlled group relationship.

(v)Circularity of references. References to deferral or elimination under the Internal Revenue Code or regulations do not include references to section 267(f) or this section. See, e.g., § 1.1502-13(a)(4) (applicability of other law).

(2)Attributes generally not affected. The matching and acceleration rules are not applied under this section to affect the attributes of S's intercompany item, or cause it to be taken into account before it is taken into account under S's separate entity method of accounting. However, the attributes of S's intercompany item may be redetermined, or an item may be taken into account earlier than under S's separate entity method of accounting, to the extent the transaction is also an intercompany transaction to which § 1.1502-13 applies. Similarly, except to the extent the transaction is also an intercompany transaction to which § 1.1502-13 applies, the matching and acceleration rules do not apply to affect the timing or attributes of B's corresponding items.

(d)Intercompany sales of inventory involving foreign persons -

(1)General rule. Section 267(a)(1) and this section do not apply to an intercompany sale of property that is inventory (within the meaning of section 1221(1)) in the hands of both S and B, if -

(i) The intercompany sale is in the ordinary course of S's trade or business;

(ii) S or B is a foreign corporation; and

(iii) Any income or loss realized on the intercompany sale by S or B is not income or loss that is recognized as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States within the meaning of section 864 (unless the income is exempt from taxation pursuant to a treaty obligation of the United States).

(2)Intercompany sales involving related partnerships. For purposes of paragraph (d)(1) of this section, a partnership and a foreign corporation described in section 267(b)(10) are treated as members, provided that the income or loss of the foreign corporation is described in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section.

(3)Intercompany sales in ordinary course. For purposes of this paragraph (d), whether an intercompany sale is in the ordinary course of business is determined under all the facts and circumstances.

(e)Treatment of a creditor with respect to a loan in nonfunctional currency. Sections 267(a)(1) and this section do not apply to an exchange loss realized with respect to a loan of nonfunctional currency if -

(1) The loss is realized by a member with respect to nonfunctional currency loaned to another member;

(2) The loan is described in § 1.988-1(a)(2)(i);

(3) The loan is not in a hyperinflationary currency as defined in § 1.988-1(f); and

(4) The transaction does not have as a significant purpose the avoidance of Federal income tax.

(f)Receivables. If S acquires a receivable from the sale of goods or services to a nonmember at a gain, and S sells the receivable at fair market value to B, any loss or deduction of S from its sale to B is not deferred under this section to the extent it does not exceed S's income or gain from the sale to the nonmember that has been taken into account at the time the receivable is sold to B.

(g)Earnings and profits. A loss or deduction deferred under this section is not reflected in S's earnings and profits before it is taken into account under this section. See, e.g., §§ 1.312-6(a), 1.312-7, and 1.1502-33(c)(2).

(h)Anti-avoidance rule. If a transaction is engaged in or structured with a principal purpose to avoid the purposes of this section (including, for example, by avoiding treatment as an intercompany sale or by distorting the timing of losses or deductions), adjustments must be made to carry out the purposes of this section.

(i) [Reserved]

(j)Examples. For purposes of the examples in this paragraph (j), unless otherwise stated, corporation P owns 75% of the only class of stock of subsidiaries S and B, X is a person unrelated to any member of the P controlled group, the taxable year of all persons is the calendar year, all persons use the accrual method of accounting, tax liabilities are disregarded, the facts set forth the only activity, and no member has a special status. If a member acts as both a selling member and a buying member (e.g., with respect to different aspects of a single transaction, or with respect to related transactions), the member is referred as to M (rather than as S or B). This section is illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Matching and acceleration rules.
(a)Facts. S holds land for investment with a basis of $130. On January 1 of Year 1, S sells the land to B for $100. On a separate entity basis, S's loss is long-term capital loss. B holds the land for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. On July 1 of Year 3, B sells the land to X for $110.

(b)Matching rule. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, S's sale of land to B is an intercompany sale. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, S's $30 loss is taken into account under the timing principles of the matching rule of § 1.1502-13(c) to reflect the difference for the year between B's corresponding items taken into account and the recomputed corresponding items. If S and B were divisions of a single corporation and the intercompany sale were a transfer between the divisions, B would succeed to S's $130 basis in the land and would have a $20 loss from the sale to X in Year 3. Consequently, S takes no loss into account in Years 1 and 2, and takes the entire $30 loss into account in Year 3 to reflect the $30 difference in that year between the $10 gain B takes into account and its $20 recomputed loss. The attributes of S's intercompany items and B's corresponding items are determined on a separate entity basis. Thus, S's $30 loss is long-term capital loss and B's $10 gain is ordinary income.

(c)Acceleration resulting from sale of B stock. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a) of this Example 1, except that on July 1 of Year 3 P sells all of its B stock to X (rather than B's selling the land to X). Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, S's $30 loss is taken into account under the timing principles of the acceleration rule of § 1.1502-13(d) immediately before the effect of treating S and B as divisions of a single corporation cannot be produced. Because the effect cannot be produced once B becomes a nonmember, S takes its $30 loss into account in Year 3 immediately before B becomes a nonmember. S's loss is long-term capital loss.

(d)Subgroup principles applicable to sale of S and B stock. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a) of this Example 1, except that on July 1 of Year 3 P sells all of its S and B stock to X (rather than B's selling the land to X). Under paragraph (b)(3) of this section, S and B are considered to remain members of a controlled group as long as they remain in a controlled group relationship with each other (whether or not in the original controlled group). P's sale of their stock does not affect the controlled group relationship of S and B with each other. Thus, S's loss is not taken into account as a result of P's sale of the stock. Instead, S's loss is taken into account based on subsequent events (e.g., B's sale of the land to a nonmember).

Example 2. Distribution of loss property.
(a)Facts. S holds land with a basis of $130 and value of $100. On January 1 of Year 1, S distributes the land to P in a transaction to which section 311 applies. On July 1 of Year 3, P sells the land to X for $110.

(b)No loss taken into account. Under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, because P and S are not members of a consolidated group, § 1.1502-13(f)(2)(iii) does not apply to cause S to recognize a $30 loss under the principles of section 311(b). Thus, S has no loss to be taken into account under this section. (If P and S were members of a consolidated group, § 1.1502-13(f)(2)(iii) would apply to S's loss in addition to the rules of this section, and the loss would be taken into account in Year 3 as a result of P's sale to X.)

Example 3. Loss not yet taken into account under separate entity accounting method.
(a)Facts. S holds land with a basis of $130. On January 1 of Year 1, S sells the land to B at a $30 loss but does not take into account the loss under its separate entity method of accounting until Year 4. On July 1 of Year 3, B sells the land to X for $110.

(b)Timing. Under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, S's loss is determined on a separate entity basis. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, S's loss is not taken into account before it is taken into account under S's separate entity method of accounting. Thus, although B takes its corresponding gain into account in Year 3, S has no loss to take into account until Year 4. Once S's loss is taken into account in Year 4, it is not deferred under this section because B's corresponding gain has already been taken into account. (If S and B were members of a consolidated group, S would be treated under § 1.1502-13(b)(2)(iii) as taking the loss into account in Year 3.)

Example 4. Consolidated groups.
(a)Facts. P owns all of the stock of S and B, and the P group is a consolidated group. S holds land for investment with a basis of $130. On January 1 of Year 1, S sells the land to B for $100. B holds the land for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. On July 1 of Year 3, P sells 25% of B's stock to X. As a result of P's sale, B becomes a nonmember of the P consolidated group but S and B remain in a controlled group relationship with each other for purposes of section 267(f). Assume that if S and B were divisions of a single corporation, the items of S and B from the land would be ordinary by reason of B's activities.

(b)Timing and attributes. Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, S's sale to B is subject to both § 1.1502-13 and this section. Under § 1.1502-13, S's loss is redetermined to be an ordinary loss by reason of B's activities. Under paragraph (b)(3) of this section, because S and B remain in a controlled group relationship with each other, the loss is not taken into account under the acceleration rule of § 1.1502-13(d) as modified by paragraph (c) of this section. See § 1.1502-13(a)(4). Nevertheless, S's loss is redetermined by § 1.1502-13 to be an ordinary loss, and the character of the loss is not further redetermined under this section. Thus, the loss continues to be deferred under this section, and will be taken into account as ordinary loss based on subsequent events (e.g., B's sale of the land to a nonmember).

(c)Resale to controlled group member. The facts are the same as in paragraph (a) of this Example 4, except that P owns 75% of X's stock, and B resells the land to X (rather than P's selling any B stock). The results for S's loss are the same as in paragraph (b) of this Example 4. Under paragraph (b) of this section, X is also in a controlled group relationship, and B's sale to X is a second intercompany sale. Thus, S's loss continues to be deferred and is taken into account under this section as ordinary loss based on subsequent events (e.g., X's sale of the land to a nonmember).

Example 5. Intercompany sale followed by installment sale.
(a)Facts. S holds land for investment with a basis of $130x. On January 1 of Year 1, S sells the land to B for $100x. B holds the land for investment. On July 1 of Year 3, B sells the land to X in exchange for X's $110x note. The note bears a market rate of interest in excess of the applicable Federal rate, and provides for principal payments of $55x in Year 4 and $55x in Year 5. Section 453A applies to X's note.

(b)Timing and attributes. Under paragraph (c) of this section, S's $30x loss is taken into account under the timing principles of the matching rule of § 1.1502-13(c) to reflect the difference in each year between B's gain taken into account and its recomputed loss. Under section 453, B takes into account $5x of gain in Year 4 and in Year 5. Therefore, S takes $20x of its loss into account in Year 3 to reflect the $20x difference in that year between B's $0 loss taken into account and its $20x recomputed loss. In addition, S takes $5x of its loss into account in Year 4 and in Year 5 to reflect the $5x difference in each year between B's $5x gain taken into account and its $0 recomputed gain. Although S takes into account a loss and B takes into account a gain, the attributes of B's $10x gain are determined on a separate entity basis, and therefore the interest charge under section 453A(c) applies to B's $10x gain on the installment sale beginning in Year 3.

Example 6. Section 721 transfer to a related nonmember.
(a)Facts. S owns land with a basis of $130. On January 1 of Year 1, S sells the land to B for $100. On July 1 of Year 3, B transfers the land to a partnership in exchange for a 40% interest in capital and profits in a transaction to which section 721 applies. P also owns a 25% interest in the capital and profits of the partnership.

(b)Timing. Under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, because the partnership is a nonmember that is a related person under sections 267(b) and 707(b), S's $30 loss is taken into account in Year 3, but only to the extent of any income or gain taken into account as a result of the transfer. Under section 721, no gain or loss is taken into account as a result of the transfer to the partnership, and thus none of S's loss is taken into account. Any subsequent gain recognized by the partnership with respect to the property is limited under section 267(d). (The results would be the same if the P group were a consolidated group, and S's sale to B were also subject to § 1.1502-13.)

Example 7. Receivables.
(a)Controlled group. S owns goods with a $60 basis. In Year 1, S sells the goods to X for X's $100 note. The note bears a market rate of interest in excess of the applicable Federal rate, and provides for payment of principal in Year 5. S takes into account $40 of income in Year 1 under its method of accounting. In Year 2, the fair market value of X's note falls to $90 due to an increase in prevailing market interest rates, and S sells the note to B for its $90 fair market value.

(b)Loss not deferred. Under paragraph (f) of this section, S takes its $10 loss into account in Year 2. (If the sale were not at fair market value, paragraph (f) of this section would not apply and none of S's $10 loss would be taken into account in Year 2.)

(c)Consolidated group. Assume instead that P owns all of the stock of S and B, and the P group is a consolidated group. In Year 1, S sells to X goods having a basis of $90 for X's $100 note (bearing a market rate of interest in excess of the applicable Federal rate, and providing for payment of principal in Year 5), and S takes into account $10 of income in Year 1. In Year 2, S sells the receivable to B for its $85 fair market value. In Year 3, P sells 25% of B's stock to X. Although paragraph (f) of this section provides that $10 of S's loss (i.e., the extent to which S's $15 loss does not exceed its $10 of income) is not deferred under this section, S's entire $15 loss is subject to § 1.1502-13 and none of the loss is taken into account in Year 2 under the matching rule of § 1.1502-13(c). See paragraph (a)(3) of this section (continued deferral under § 1.1502-13). P's sale of B stock results in B becoming a nonmember of the P consolidated group in Year 3. Thus, S's $15 loss is taken into account in Year 3 under the acceleration rule of § 1.1502-13(d). Nevertheless, B remains in a controlled group relationship with S and paragraph (f) of this section permits only $10 of S's loss to be taken into account in Year 3. See § 1.1502-13(a)(4) (continued deferral under section 267). The remaining $5 of S's loss continues to be deferred under this section and taken into account under this section based on subsequent events (e.g., B's collection of the note or P's sale of the remaining B stock to a nonmember).

Example 8. Selling member ceases to be a member.
(a)Facts. P owns all of the stock of S and B, and the P group is a consolidated group. S has several historic assets, including land with a basis of $130 and value of $100. The land is not essential to the operation of S's business. On January 1 of Year 1, S sells the land to B for $100. On July 1 of Year 3, P transfers all of S's stock to newly formed X in exchange for a 20% interest in X stock as part of a transaction to which section 351 applies. Although X holds many other assets, a principal purpose for P's transfer is to accelerate taking S's $30 loss into account. P has no plan or intention to dispose of the X stock.

(b)Timing. Under paragraph (c) of this section, S's $30 loss ordinarily is taken into account immediately before P's transfer of the S stock, under the timing principles of the acceleration rule of § 1.1502-13(d). Although taking S's loss into account results in a $30 negative stock basis adjustment under § 1.1502-32, because P has no plan or intention to dispose of its X stock, the negative adjustment will not immediately affect taxable income. P's transfer accelerates a loss that otherwise would be deferred, and an adjustment under paragraph (h) of this section is required. Thus, S's loss is never taken into account, and S's stock basis and earnings and profits are reduced by $30 under §§ 1.1502-32 and 1.1502-33 immediately before P's transfer of the S stock.

(c) Nonhistoric assets. Assume instead that, with a principal purpose to accelerate taking into account any further loss that may accrue in the value of the land without disposing of the land outside of the controlled group, P forms M with a $100 contribution on January 1 of Year 1 and S sells the land to M for $100. On December 1 of Year 1, when the value of the land has decreased to $90, M sells the land to B for $90. On July 1 of Year 3, while B still owns the land, P sells all of M's stock to X and M becomes a nonmember. Under paragraph (c) of this section, M's $10 loss ordinarily is taken into account under the timing principles of the acceleration rule of § 1.1502-13(d) immediately before M becomes a nonmember. (S's $30 loss is not taken into account under the timing principles of § 1.1502-13(c) or § 1.1502-13(d) as a result of M becoming a nonmember, but is taken into account based on subsequent events such as B's sale of the land to a nonmember or P's sale of the stock of S or B to a nonmember.) The land is not an historic asset of M and, although taking M's loss into account reduces P's basis in the M stock under § 1.1502-32, the negative adjustment only eliminates the $10 duplicate stock loss. Under paragraph (h) of this section, M's loss is never taken into account. M's stock basis, and the earnings and profits of M and P, are reduced by $10 under §§ 1.1502-32 and 1.1502-33 immediately before P's sale of the M stock.

Example 9. Sale of stock by consolidated group member to controlled group member.
(a)Facts. P1, a domestic corporation, owns 75% of the outstanding stock of P, the common parent of a consolidated group. P owns all of the outstanding stock of subsidiaries M and S, which are members of P's consolidated group. M and S each own 50% of the only class of stock of L, a nonmember life insurance company. On January 1 of Year 1, S sells 25% of L's stock to P1 for $50 cash. At the time of the sale, S's aggregate basis in the L shares transferred to P1 was $80, and S recognizes a $30 loss. On February 18 of Year 3, at a time when the L shares held by P1 are worth $60, L liquidates. As a result of the liquidation, P1 recognizes a $10 gain.

(b)Timing. Under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, S's loss on the sale of the L stock to P1 is deferred. Under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section, upon the liquidation of L, to the extent S's loss would be redetermined to be a noncapital, nondeductible amount under the principles of § 1.1502-13, S's loss continues to be deferred. Under the principles of § 1.1502-13, S's loss is not redetermined to be a noncapital, nondeductible amount to the extent of P1's $10 of gain recognized. Accordingly, S takes into account $10 of loss as a result of the liquidation. In determining whether the remainder of S's $20 loss would be redetermined to be a noncapital, nondeductible amount, under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section, stock held by P1, stock held by M, and stock held by S is taken into account. Accordingly, under the principles of § 1.1502-13, the liquidation of L would be treated as a liquidation qualifying under section 332, and the remainder of S's loss would be redetermined to be a noncapital, nondeductible amount. Thus, under paragraph (c)(1)(iv), S's remaining $20 loss continues to be deferred until S and P1 are no longer in a controlled group relationship.

Example 10. Issuance of stock to controlled group member.
(a)Facts. FP is a foreign corporation that owns all the stock of FS, a foreign corporation, and all the stock of P, a domestic corporation. P owns all of the single class of outstanding common stock of T. In Year 1, FS contributes cash to T in exchange for newly issued stock of T that constitutes 40 percent of T's outstanding stock. In Year 2, when the value of the T stock owned by P is less than its basis in P's hands, P sells all of its T stock to FP. In Year 3, in a transaction unrelated to the issuance of the T stock in Year 1, T converts under state law to a limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for Federal income tax purposes.

(b)Timing. Under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, P's loss on the sale of its T stock is deferred. Under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section, upon the conversion of T, to the extent P's loss would be redetermined to be a noncapital, nondeductible amount under the principles of § 1.1502-13, P's loss continues to be deferred. In determining whether the loss would be redetermined to be a noncapital, nondeductible amount, stock held by FS (which was acquired from T) and stock held by FP (the buyer of the T stock from P and a member of P's controlled group) is taken into account. Accordingly, under the principles of § 1.1502-13 the deemed liquidation of T resulting from the conversion of T would be treated as a liquidation qualifying under section 332, and P's loss would be redetermined to be a noncapital, nondeductible amount. Thus, under paragraph (c)(1)(iv), P's loss continues to be deferred until P and FP are no longer in a controlled group relationship.

(k)Cross-reference. For additional rules applicable to the disposition, deconsolidation, or transfer of the stock of members of consolidated groups, see §§ 1.337(d)-2, 1.1502-13(f)(6), 1.1502-35, and 1.1502-36.

(l)Effective dates -

(1)In general. This section applies with respect to transactions occurring in S's years beginning on or after July 12, 1995. If both this section and prior law apply to a transaction, or neither applies, with the result that items are duplicated, omitted, or eliminated in determining taxable income (or tax liability), or items are treated inconsistently, prior law (and not this section) applies to the transaction.

(2)Avoidance transactions. This paragraph (l)(2) applies if a transaction is engaged in or structured on or after April 8, 1994, with a principal purpose to avoid the rules of this section (and instead to apply prior law). If this paragraph (l)(2) applies, appropriate adjustments must be made in years beginning on or after July 12, 1995, to prevent the avoidance, duplication, omission, or elimination of any item (or tax liability), or any other inconsistency with the rules of this section.

(3)Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section applies to a loss that continues to be deferred pursuant to that paragraph if the event that would cause the loss to be redetermined as a noncapital nondeductible amount under the principles of § 1.1502-13 occurs on or after April 16, 2012.

(4)Prior law. For transactions occurring in S's years beginning before July 12, 1995 see the applicable regulations issued under sections 267 and 1502. See, e.g., §§ 1.267(f)-1, 1.267(f)-1T, 1.267(f)-2T, 1.267(f)-3, 1.1502-13, 1.1502-13T, 1.1502-14, 1.1502-14T, and 1.1502-31 (as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 1995).

[T.D. 8597, 60 FR 36680, July 18, 1995, as amended by T.D. 8660, 61 FR 10499, Mar. 14, 1996; 62 FR 12097, Mar. 14, 1997; T.D. 9048, 68 FR 12290, Mar. 14, 2003; T.D. 9187, 70 FR 10327, Mar. 3, 2005; T.D. 9254, 71 FR 13018, Mar. 14, 2006; T.D. 9424, 73 FR 53986, Sept. 17, 2008; T.D. 9583, 77 FR 22482, Apr. 16, 2012]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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