26 CFR 1.274-10 - Special rules for aircraft used for entertainment.

§ 1.274-10 Special rules for aircraft used for entertainment.

(a)Use of an aircraft for entertainment -

(1)In general. Section 274(a) disallows a deduction for certain expenses for entertainment, amusement, or recreation activities, or for an entertainment facility. Under section 274(a) and this section, no deduction otherwise allowable under chapter 1 is allowed for expenses for the use of a taxpayer-provided aircraft for entertainment, except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2)Exceptions -

(i)In general. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to deductions for expenses for business entertainment air travel or to deductions for expenses that meet the exceptions of section 274(e), § 1.274-2(f), and this section. Section 274(e)(2) and (e)(9) provides certain exceptions to the disallowance of section 274(a) for expenses for goods, services, and facilities for entertainment, recreation, or amusement.

(ii)Expenses treated as compensation -

(A)Employees who are not specified individuals. Section 274(a), § 1.274-2(a) through (d), and paragraph (a)(1) of this section, in accordance with section 274(e)(2)(A), do not apply to expenses for entertainment air travel provided to an employee who is not a specified individual to the extent that a taxpayer -

(1) Properly treats the expenses relating to the recipient of entertainment as compensation to an employee under chapter 1 and as wages to the employee for purposes of chapter 24; and

(2) Treats the proper amount as compensation to the employee under § 1.61-21.

(B)Persons who are not employees and are not specified individuals. Section 274(a), § 1.274-2(a) through (d), and paragraph (a)(1) of this section, in accordance with section 274(e)(9), do not apply to expenses for entertainment air travel provided to a person who is not an employee and is not a specified individual to the extent that the expenses are includible in the income of that person. This exception does not apply to any amount paid or incurred by the taxpayer that is required to be included in any information return filed by the taxpayer under part III of subchapter A of chapter 61 and is not so included.

(C)Specified individuals. Section 274(a), § 1.274-2(a) through (d), and paragraph (a)(1) of this section, in accordance with section 274(e)(2)(B), do not apply to expenses for entertainment air travel of a specified individual to the extent that the amount of the expenses do not exceed the sum of -

(1) The amount treated as compensation to or included in the income of the specified individual in the manner specified under paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section (if the specified individual is an employee) or under paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(B) of this section (if the specified individual is not an employee); and

(2) Any amount the specified individual reimburses the taxpayer.

(iii)Travel on regularly scheduled commercial airlines. Section 274(a), § 1.274-2(a) through (d), and paragraph (a)(1) of this section do not apply to expenses for entertainment air travel that a taxpayer that is a commercial passenger airline provides to specified individuals of the taxpayer on the taxpayer's regularly scheduled flights on which at least 90 percent of the seats are available for sale to the public to the extent the expenses are includible in the income of the recipient of the entertainment in the manner specified under paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section (if the specified individual is an employee) or under paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(B) of this section (if the specified individual is not an employee).

(b)Definitions. The definitions in this paragraph (b) apply for purposes of this section.

(1)Entertainment. For the definition of entertainment for purposes of this section, see § 1.274-2(b)(1). Entertainment does not include personal travel that is not for entertainment purposes. For example, travel to attend a family member's funeral is not entertainment.

(2)Entertainment air travel. Entertainment air travel is any travel aboard a taxpayer-provided aircraft for entertainment purposes.

(3)Business entertainment air travel. Business entertainment air travel is any entertainment air travel aboard a taxpayer-provided aircraft that is directly related to the active conduct of the taxpayer's trade or business or related to an expenditure directly preceding or following a substantial and bona fide business discussion and associated with the active conduct of the taxpayer's trade or business. See § 1.274-2(a)(1)(i) and (ii). Air travel is not business entertainment air travel merely because a taxpayer-provided aircraft is used for the travel as a result of a bona fide security concern under § 1.132-5(m).

(4)Taxpayer-provided aircraft. A taxpayer-provided aircraft is any aircraft owned by, leased to, or chartered to, a taxpayer or any party related to the taxpayer (within the meaning of section 267(b) or section 707(b)).

(5)Specified individual. For rules relating to the definition of a specified individual, see § 1.274-9.

(c)Amount disallowed. Except as otherwise provided, the amount disallowed under this section for an entertainment flight by a specified individual is the amount of expenses allocable to the entertainment flight of the specified individual under paragraph (e)(2), (e)(3), or (f)(3) of this section, reduced (but not below zero) by the amount the taxpayer treats as compensation or reports as income under paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(C)(1) of this section to the specified individual, plus any amount the specified individual reimburses the taxpayer.

(d)Expenses subject to disallowance under this section -

(1)Definition of expenses. In determining the amount of expenses subject to disallowance under this section, a taxpayer must include all of the expenses of operating the aircraft, including all fixed and variable expenses the taxpayer deducts in the taxable year. These expenses include, but are not limited to, salaries for pilots, maintenance personnel, and other personnel assigned to the aircraft; meal and lodging expenses of flight personnel; take-off and landing fees; costs for maintenance flights; costs of on-board refreshments, amenities and gifts; hangar fees (at home or away); management fees; costs of fuel, tires, maintenance, insurance, registration, certificate of title, inspection, and depreciation; interest on debt secured by or properly allocated (within the meaning of § 1.163-8T) to an aircraft; and all costs paid or incurred for aircraft leased or chartered to the taxpayer.

(2)Leases or charters to third parties. Expenses allocable to a lease or charter of a taxpayer's aircraft to an unrelated (as determined under section 267(b) or 707(b)) third-party in a bona-fide business transaction for adequate and full consideration are excluded from the definition of expenses in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. Only expenses allocable to the lease or charter period are excluded under this paragraph (d)(2).

(3)Straight-line method permitted for determining depreciation disallowance under this section -

(i)In general. In lieu of the amount of depreciation deducted in the taxable year, solely for purposes of paragraph (d)(1) of this section, a taxpayer may elect to treat as its depreciation deduction the amount that would result from using the straight-line method of depreciation over the class life (as defined by section 168(i)(1) and using the applicable convention under section 168(d)) of an aircraft, even if the taxpayer uses a different methodology to calculate depreciation for the aircraft under other sections of the Internal Revenue Code (for example, section 168). If the property qualifies for the additional first-year depreciation deduction provided by, for example, section 168(k), 168(n), 1400L(b), or 1400N(d), depreciation for purposes of this straight-line election is determined on the unadjusted depreciable basis (as defined in § 1.168(b)-1(a)(3)) of the property. However, the amount of depreciation disallowed as a result of this paragraph (d)(3) for any taxable year cannot exceed a taxpayer's allowable depreciation for that taxable year. For purposes of this section, a taxpayer that elects to use the straight-line method and class life under this paragraph (d)(3) for any aircraft it operates must use that methodology for all depreciable aircraft it operates and must continue to use the methodology for the entire period the taxpayer uses any depreciable aircraft.

(ii)Aircraft placed in service in earlier taxable years. The amount of depreciation for purposes of this paragraph (d)(3) for aircraft placed in service in taxable years before the taxable year of the election is determined by applying the straight-line method of depreciation to the unadjusted depreciable basis (or, for property acquired in an exchange to which section 1031 applies, the basis of the aircraft as determined under section 1031(d)) and over the class life (using the applicable convention under section 168(d)) of the aircraft as though the taxpayer used that methodology from the year the aircraft was placed in service.

(iii)Manner of making and revoking election. A taxpayer makes the election under this paragraph (d)(3) by filing an income tax return for the taxable year that determines the taxpayer's expenses for purposes of paragraph (d)(1) of this section by computing depreciation under this paragraph (d)(3). A taxpayer may revoke an election only for compelling circumstances upon consent of the Commissioner by private letter ruling.

(4)Aggregation of aircraft -

(i)In general. A taxpayer may aggregate the expenses of aircraft of similar cost profiles for purposes of calculating disallowed expenses under paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii)Similar cost profiles. Aircraft are of similar cost profiles if their operating costs per mile or per hour of flight are comparable. Aircraft must have the same engine type (jet or propeller) and the same number of engines to have similar cost profiles. Other factors to be considered in determining whether aircraft have similar cost profiles include, but are not limited to, maximum take-off weight, payload, passenger capacity, fuel consumption rate, age, maintenance costs, and depreciable basis.

(5)Authority for establishing safe harbors for determining expenses. The Commissioner may establish in published guidance, see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter, one or more safe harbor methods under which a taxpayer may determine the amount of expenses paid or incurred for entertainment flights.

(e)Allocation of expenses -

(1)General rule. For purposes of determining the expenses allocated to entertainment air travel of a specified individual under paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, a taxpayer must use either the occupied seat hours or miles method of paragraph (e)(2) of this section or the flight-by-flight method of paragraph (e)(3) of this section. A taxpayer must use the chosen method for all flights of all aircraft for the taxable year.

(2)Occupied seat hours or miles method -

(i)In general. The occupied seat hours or miles method determines the amount of expenses allocated to a particular entertainment flight of a specified individual based on the occupied seat hours or miles for an aircraft for the taxable year. Under this method, a taxpayer may choose to use either occupied seat hours or miles for the taxable year to determine the amount of expenses allocated to entertainment flights of specified individuals, but must use occupied seat hours or miles consistently for all flights of all aircraft for the taxable year.

(ii)Computation under the occupied seat hours or miles method. The amount of expenses allocated to an entertainment flight taken by a specified individual is computed under the occupied seat hours or miles method by determining -

(A) The total expenses for the year under paragraph (d) of this section for the aircraft or group of aircraft (if aggregated under paragraph (d)(4) of this section), as applicable;

(B) The number of occupied seat hours or miles for the taxable year for the aircraft or group of aircraft by totaling the occupied seat hours or miles of all flights in the taxable year flown by the aircraft or group of aircraft, as applicable. The occupied seat hours or miles for a flight is the number of hours or miles flown for the flight multiplied by the number of seats occupied on that flight. For example, a flight of 6 hours with three passengers results in 18 occupied seat hours;

(C) The cost per occupied seat hour or mile for the aircraft or group of aircraft, as applicable, by dividing the total expenses under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section by the total number of occupied seat hours or miles under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section; and

(D) The amount of expenses allocated to an entertainment flight taken by a specified individual by multiplying the number of hours or miles of the flight by the cost per occupied hour or mile for that aircraft or group of aircraft, as applicable, as determined under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(C) of this section.

(iii)Allocation of expenses of multi-leg trips involving both business and entertainment legs. A taxpayer that uses the occupied seat hours or miles allocation method must allocate the expenses of a trip by a specified individual that involves at least one segment for business and one segment for entertainment between the business travel and the entertainment travel unless none of the expenses for the entertainment segment are disallowed. The entertainment cost of a multi-leg trip is the total cost of the flights (by occupied seat hours or miles) minus the cost of the flights that would have been taken without the entertainment segment or segments.

(iv)Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (e)(2):

Example 1.
(i) A taxpayer-provided aircraft is used for Flights 1, 2, and 3, of 5 hours, 5 hours, and 4 hours, respectively, during the Taxpayer's taxable year. Each flight carries four passengers. On Flight 1, none of the passengers is a specified individual. On Flight 2, passengers A and B are specified individuals traveling for entertainment purposes and passengers C and D are not specified individuals. For Flight 2, Taxpayer treats $1,200 as compensation to A, and B reimburses Taxpayer $500. On Flight 3, all four passengers (A, B, E, and F) are specified individuals traveling for entertainment purposes. For Flight 3, Taxpayer treats $1,300 each as compensation to A, B, E, and F. Taxpayer incurs $56,000 in expenses for the operation of the aircraft for the taxable year. The aircraft is operated for 56 occupied seat hours for the period (four passengers times 5 hours (20 occupied seat hours) for Flight 1, plus four passengers times 5 hours (20 occupied seat hours) for Flight 2, plus four passengers times 4 hours (16 occupied seat hours) for Flight 3. The cost per occupied seat hour is $1,000 ($56,000/56 hours).

(ii) For purposes of determining the amount disallowed (to the extent not treated as compensation or reimbursed) for entertainment provided to specified individuals, $5,000 ($1,000 × 5 hours) each is allocable to A and B for Flight 2, and $4,000 ($1,000 × 4 hours) each is allocable to A, B, E, and F for Flight 3.

(iii) For Flight 2, because Taxpayer treats $1,200 as compensation to A, and B reimburses Taxpayer $500, Taxpayer may deduct $1,700 of the cost of Flight 2 allocable to A and B. The deduction for the remaining $8,300 cost allocable to entertainment provided to A and B on Flight 2 is disallowed (for A, $5,000 less the $1,200 treated as compensation, and for B, $5,000 less the $500 reimbursed).

(iv) For Flight 3, because Taxpayer treats $1,300 each as compensation to A, B, E, and F, Taxpayer may deduct $5,200 of the cost of Flight 3. The deduction for the remaining $10,800 cost allocable to entertainment provided to A, B, E, and F on Flight 3 is disallowed ($4,000 less the $1,300 treated as compensation to each specified individual).

Example 2.
(i) G, a specified individual, is the sole passenger on an aircraft that makes three flights. First, G travels on a two-hour flight from City A to City B for business purposes. G then travels on a three-hour flight from City B to City C for entertainment purposes, and returns from City C to City A on a four-hour flight. G's flights have resulted in nine occupied seat hours (two for the first segment, plus three for the second segment, plus four for the third segment). If G had returned directly to City A from City B, the flights would have resulted in four occupied seat hours.

(ii) Under paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section, five occupied seat hours are allocable to G's entertainment (nine total occupied seat hours minus the four occupied seat hours that would have resulted if the travel had been a roundtrip business trip without the entertainment segment). If Taxpayer's cost per occupied seat hour for the year is $1,000, $5,000 is allocated to G's entertainment use of the aircraft ($1,000 × five occupied seat hours). The amount disallowed is $5,000 minus the total of any amount the Taxpayer treats as compensation to G plus any amount that G reimburses Taxpayer.

(3)Flight-by-flight method -

(i)In general. The flight-by-flight method determines the amount of expenses allocated to a particular entertainment flight of a specified individual on a flight-by-flight basis by allocating expenses to individual flights and then to a specified individual traveling for entertainment purposes on that flight.

(ii)Allocation of expenses. A taxpayer using the flight-by-flight method must combine all expenses (as defined in paragraph (d)(1) of this section) for the taxable year for the aircraft or group of aircraft (if aggregated under paragraph (d)(4) of this section), as applicable, and divide the total amount of expenses by the number of flight hours or miles for the taxable year for that aircraft or group of aircraft, as applicable, to determine the cost per hour or mile. Expenses are allocated to each flight by multiplying the number of miles for the flight by the cost per mile or the number of hours for the flight by the cost per hour. The expenses for the flight then are allocated to the passengers on the flight per capita. Thus, if five passengers are traveling on a flight, and the total expense allocated to the flight is $10,000, the expense allocable to each passenger is $2,000.

(f)Special rules -

(1)Determination of basis.

(i) If any deduction for depreciation is disallowed under this section, the rules of § 1.274-7 apply. In that case, the basis of an aircraft is not reduced for the amount of depreciation disallowed under this section.

(ii) The provisions of this paragraph (f)(1) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
(i) B Co. is a calendar-year taxpayer that owns an aircraft not used in commercial or contract carrying of passengers or freight. The aircraft is placed in service on July 1 of Year 1 and has an unadjusted depreciable basis of $1,000,000. The class life of the aircraft for depreciation purposes is 6 years. For determining depreciation under section 168, B Co. uses the optional depreciation table that corresponds with the general depreciation system, the 200 percent declining balance method of depreciation, a 5-year recovery period, and the half-year convention. For determining the depreciation disallowance for each year under paragraph (d)(3) of this section, B Co. elects to use the straight-line method of depreciation and the class life of 6 years and, therefore, uses the optional depreciation table for purposes of section 168 that corresponds with the straight-line method of depreciation, a recovery period of 6 years, and the half-year convention. In each year, the aircraft entertainment use subject to disallowance under this section is 10 percent of the total use.

(ii) B Co. calculates the depreciation and basis of the aircraft as follows:

200 Percent declining
balance
depreciation amount
Straight line depreciation amount Depreciation
disallowance under section 274
Depreciation
deduction
§ 1.274-7 Basis of
aircraft
Suspended basis.
Year 1 200,000 83,300 8,330. (.10 × 83,300) 191,670 (200,000 minus 8,330) 808,330 (1,000,000 minus 191,670) 8,330.
Year 2 320,000 166,700 16,670 (.10 × 166,700) 303,330 (320,000 minus 16,670) 505,000 (808,330 minus 303,330) 25,000 (8,300 plus 16,670).
Year 3 192,000 166,700 16,670 (.10 × 166,700) 175,330 (192,000 minus 16,670) 329,670 (505,000 minus 175,330) 41,670 (25,000 plus 16,670).
Year 4 115,200 166,700 16,670 (.10 × 166,700) 98,530 (115,200 minus 16,670) 231,140 (329,670 minus 98,530) 58,340 (41,670 plus 16,670).
Year 5 115,200 166,600 16,660 (.10 × 166,600) 98,540 (115,200 minus 16,660) 132,600 (231,140 minus 98,540) 75,000 (58,340 plus 16,660).
Year 6 57,600 166,700 16,670 (.10 × 166,700) 40,930 (57,600 minus 16,670) 91,670 (132,600 minus 40,930) 91,670 (75,000 plus 16,670).
Year 7 83,300 8,330 (.10 × 83,300) 91,670 91,670.
(iii) In Year 7, there is no further deduction for depreciation of the aircraft, therefore, under paragraph (d)(3) of this section, no depreciation expense is disallowed. Under § 1.274-7 and this paragraph (f)(1), basis is not reduced for disallowed depreciation. Therefore, at the end of Year 7, the basis of the aircraft for purposes of § 1.274-7 is $91,670, which is the total amount of disallowed depreciation in Years 1 through 6. B Co.'s deductions for depreciation total $908,330, which added to $91,670 equals $1,000,000.
Example 2.
(i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that B Co. does not elect to use the straight-line method of depreciation under paragraph (d)(3) of this section until Year 3.

(ii) B Co. calculates the depreciation and basis of the aircraft as follows:

200 Percent declining
balance
depreciation amount
Straight line depreciation amount Depreciation
disallowance under section 274
Depreciation
deduction
§ 1.274 Basis of
aircraft
Suspended basis.
Year 1 200,000 20,000 (.10 × 200,000) 180,000 820,000 (1,000,000 minus 180,000) 20,000.
Year 2 320,000 32,000 (.10 × 320,000) 288,000 (320,000 minus 32,000) 532,000 (820,000 minus 288,000) 52,000 (20,000 plus 32,000).
Year 3 192,000 166,700 16,670 (.10 × 166,700) 175,330 (192,000 minus 16,670) 356,670 (532,000 minus 175,330) 68,670 (52,000 plus 16,670).
Year 4 115,200 166,700 16,670 (.10 × 166,700) 98,530 (115,200 minus 16,670) 258,140 (356,670 minus 98,530) 85,340 (68,670 plus 16,670).
Year 5 115,200 166,600 16,660 (.10 × 166,600) 98,540 (115,200 minus 16,660) 159,600 (258,140 minus 98,540) 102,000 (85,340 plus 16,660).
Year 6 57,600 166,700 16,670 (.10 × 166,700) 40,930 (57,600 minus 16,670) 118,670 (159,600 minus 40,930) 118,670 (102,000 plus 16,670).
Year 7 83,300 8,330 (.10 × 83,300) 0 118,670 118,670.
(iii) In Year 7, there is no further deduction for depreciation of the aircraft, therefore, under paragraph (d)(3) of this section, no depreciation expense is disallowed. Under § 1.274-7 and this paragraph (f)(1), basis is not reduced for disallowed depreciation. Therefore, at the end of Year 7, the basis of the aircraft for purposes of § 1.274-7 is $118,670, which is the total amount of disallowed depreciation in Years 1 through 6. B Co.'s deductions for depreciation total $881,330, which added to $118,670 equals $1,000,000.

(2)Pro rata disallowance.

(i) The amount of disallowed expenses, and any amounts reimbursed or treated as compensation, under this section are applied on a pro rata basis to all of the categories of expenses subject to disallowance under this section.

(ii) The provisions of this paragraph (f)(2) are illustrated by the following example:

Example.
(i) C Co. owns an aircraft that it uses for business and other purposes. The expenses of operating the aircraft in the current year total $1,000,000. This amount includes $250,000 for depreciation (25 percent of total expenses).

(ii) In the same year, the aircraft entertainment use subject to disallowance under this section is 20 percent of the total use and C Co. treats $80,000 as compensation to specified individuals. Thus, the amount of the disallowance under this section is $120,000 ($1,000,000 × 20 percent ($200,000) less $80,000).

(iii) Under paragraph (f)(2) of this section, C Co. may calculate the amount by which a category of expense, such as depreciation, is disallowed by multiplying the total disallowance of $120,000 by the ratio of the amount of the expense to total expenses. Thus, $30,000 of the $120,000 total disallowed expenses is depreciation ($250,000/$1,000,000 (25 percent) × $120,000).

(iv) The result is the same if C Co. separately calculates the amount of depreciation in total disallowed expenses and in the amount treated as compensation and nets the result. Depreciation is 25 percent of total expenses, thus, the amount of depreciation in disallowed expenses is $50,000 (25 percent × $200,000 total disallowed expenses) and the amount of depreciation treated as compensation is $20,000 (25 percent × $80,000). Disallowed depreciation is $50,000 less $20,000, or $30,000.

(3)Deadhead flights.

(i) For purposes of this section, an aircraft returning without passengers after discharging passengers or flying without passengers to pick up passengers (deadheading) is treated as having the same number and character of passengers as the leg of the trip on which passengers are aboard for purposes of allocating expenses under paragraphs (e)(2) or (e)(3) of this section. For example, when an aircraft travels from point A to point B and then back to point A, and one of the legs is a deadhead flight, for determination of disallowed expenses, the aircraft is treated as having made both legs of the trip with the same passengers aboard for the same purposes.

(ii) When a deadhead flight does not occur within a roundtrip flight, but occurs between two unrelated flights involving more than two destinations (such as an occupied flight from point A to point B, followed by a deadhead flight from point B to point C, and then an occupied flight from point C to point A), the allocation of passengers and expenses to the deadhead flight occurring between the two occupied trips must be based solely on the number of passengers on board for the two occupied legs of the flight, the character of the travel of the passengers on board (entertainment or nonentertainment) and the length in hours or miles of the two occupied legs of the flight.

(iii) The provisions of this paragraph (f)(3) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
(i) Aircraft flies from City A to City B, a 6-hour trip, with 12 passengers aboard. Eight of the passengers are traveling for business and four of the passengers are specified individuals traveling for entertainment purposes. The aircraft flies empty (deadheads) from City B to City C, a 4-hour trip. At City C it picks up 12 passengers, six of whom are traveling for business and six of whom are specified individuals traveling for entertainment purposes, for a 2-hour trip to City A. The taxpayer uses the occupied seat hour method of allocating expenses.

(ii) The two legs of the trip on which the aircraft is occupied comprise 96 occupied seat hours (12 passengers × 6 hours (72) for the first leg plus 12 passengers × 2 hours (24) for the third leg). Sixty occupied seat hours are for business (8 passengers × 6 hours (48) for the first leg plus 6 passengers × 2 (12) hours for the third leg) and 36 occupied seat hours are for entertainment purposes (4 passengers × 6 hours (24) for the first leg plus 6 passengers × 2 (12) hours for the third leg). Dividing the 36 occupied seat entertainment hours by 96 total occupied seat hours, 37.5 percent of the total occupied seat hours of the two occupied flights are for entertainment.

(iii) The 4-hour deadhead leg comprises one-third of the total flight time of 12 hours. Therefore, the deadhead flight is deemed to have provided one-third of the total 96 occupied seat hours, or 32 occupied seat hours (96 × 1/3 = 32). Of the 32 deemed occupied seat hours, 37.5 percent, or 12 deemed occupied seat hours, are treated as entertainment under paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section. The 32 deemed occupied seat hours for the deadhead flight are included in the calculation under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(B) of this section and expenses are allocated under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(D) of this section to the 12 deemed occupied seat hours treated as entertainment.

Example 2.
(i) The facts are the same as for Example 1, but the taxpayer uses the flight-by-flight method of allocation.

(ii) Of the 24 passengers on the occupied flights, 10 passengers, or 41.7 percent, are traveling for entertainment purposes. If the annual cost per flight hour calculated under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section is $1,000, $4,000 is allocated to the 4-hour deadhead leg. Under paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section, 41.7 percent of the $4,000, or $1,667, is treated as an expense for entertainment. The calculation of the cost per mile or hour for the year under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section includes the expenses and number of miles or hours flown for the deadhead leg.

(g)Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after August 1, 2012.

[T.D. 9597, 77 FR 45483, Aug. 1, 2012]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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