26 CFR § 1.302-1 - General.
(a) Under section 302(d), unless otherwise provided in subchapter C, chapter 1 of the Code, a distribution in redemption of stock shall be treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies if the distribution is not within any of the provisions of section 302(b). A distribution in redemption of stock shall be considered a distribution in part or full payment in exchange for the stock under section 302(a) provided paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of section 302(b) applies. Section 318(a) (relating to constructive ownership of stock) applies to all redemptions under section 302 except that in the termination of a shareholder's interest certain limitations are placed on the application of section 318(a)(1) by section 302(c)(2). The term redemption of stock is defined in section 317(b). Section 302 does not apply to that portion of any distribution which qualifies as a distribution in partial liquidation under section 346. For special rules relating to redemption of stock to pay death taxes see section 303. For special rules relating to redemption of section 306 stock see section 306. For special rules relating to redemption of stock in partial or complete liquidation see section 331.
(b) If, in connection with a partial liquidation under the terms of section 346, stock is redeemed in an amount in excess of the amount specified by section 331(a)(2), section 302(b) shall first apply as to each shareholder to which it is applicable without limitation because of section 331(a)(2). That portion of the total distribution which is used in all redemptions from specific shareholders which are within the terms of section 302(a) shall be excluded in determining the application of sections 346 and 331(a)(2). For example, Corporation X has $50,000 which is attributable to the sale of one of two active businesses and which, if distributed in redemption of stock, would qualify as a partial liquidation under the terms of section 346(b). Corporation X distributes $60,000 to its shareholders in redemption of stock, $20,000 of which is in redemption of all of the stock of shareholder A within the meaning of section 302(b)(3). The $20,000 distributed in redemption of the stock of shareholder A will be excluded in determining the application of sections 346 and 331(a)(2). The entire $60,000 will be treated as in part or full payment for stock ($20,000 qualifying under section 302(a) and $40,000 qualifying under sections 346 and 331(a)(2)).
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