26 CFR 1.401(e)-5 - Limitation of contribution and benefit bases to first $100,000 of annual compensation in case of plans covering self-employed individuals.
(a)General rules - General rule.
(1) Under section 401(a)(17), a plan maintained by an employer which provided contributions or benefits for employees some or all of whom are employees within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) is a qualified plan only if the annual compensation of each employee taken into account under the plan does not exceed the first $100,000 of such compensation. For purposes of applying section 401(a)(17) and the preceding sentence, all plans maintained by such an employer with respect to the same trade or business shall be treated as a single plan. See also sections 401(d)(9) and (10) (relating to controlled trades or businesses where a plan covers an owner-employee who controls more than one trade or business); section 404(e) (relating to special limitations for self-employed individuals); section 413(b)(7) (relating to determination of limitations provided by section 404(a) in the case of certain plans maintained pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement); and section 413(c)(6) (relating to determination of limitations provided by section 404(a) in the case of certain plans maintained by more than one employer).
(2)Special section 414(b), (c) rule. This subparagraph (2) applies to plans maintained by employers that are trades or businesses (whether or not incorporated) that are under common control within the meaning of section 414(c). All such plans that are described in paragraph (a)(1) and § 1.401(e)-6(a) (so called “Subchapter S plans”) shall be treated as a single plan in applying the limitation of paragraph (a)(1).
(1) In the case of a qualified plan, other than a plan described in section 414(j), which is integrated with the Social Security Act (chapter 21 of the Code), or with contributions or benefits under chapter 2 of the Code (relating to tax on self-employment income) or under any other Federal of State law, the $100,000 limitation described in subparagraph (a) shall be determined without regard to any adjustments to contributions or benefits under the plan on account of such integration. See also subsections (a)(5), (a)(15), and (d)(6) of section 401 and the regulations thereunder for other rules with respect to plans which are integrated.
(2) In the case of a qualified defined benefit plan described in section 414(j), see section 401(j)(4) for a special prohibition against integration.
(c)Application of nondiscrimination requirement.
(1) This paragraph shall apply -
(ii) For a year in which the compensation of any employee covered by the plan exceeds $100,000. In the case of an employee who is an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1), compensation includes earned income within the meaning of section 401(c)(2).
(2) In applying section 401(a)(4) under the circumstances described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, the determination whether the rate of contributions or benefits under the plan discriminates in favor of highly compensated employees shall be made as if the compensation for the year of each employee described in the first sentence of subparagraph (1)(ii) of this paragraph were $100,000, rather than the compensation actually received by him for such year.
(d)Examples. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:
|Maximum annual compensation which may be taken into account||$100,000|
|Less: Social Security Act integration level||13,200|
|Plan contribution base||$86,800|
|Multiplied by: Contribution rate (percent)||5|
(e)Years to which section applies. This section applies to taxable years of an employer beginning after December 31, 1975. However, if employer contributions made under a plan for any employee for taxable years of an employer beginning after December 31, 1973, exceed the amounts permitted to be deducted for that employee under section 404(e), as in effect on September 1, 1974, this section applies to such taxable years of an employer.
Thus, for example, a plan of a calendar year employer which was adopted on January 1, 1974, would be subject to this section in 1974, if the employer made a contribution on behalf of any employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) for such year in excess of the $2,500 or 10 percent earned income limit, whichever is applicable to that employee, specified in section 404(e)(1) as in effect prior to the amendment to such Code section made by section 2001(a)(1)(A) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ( 88 Stat. 952). The plan described in the proceeding sentence would also be subject to this section in 1974, if the employer made a contribution on behalf of any employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) which is allowable as a deduction only because of the addition of paragraph (4) to Code section 404(e) made by section 2001(a)(3) of such Act ( 88 Stat. 952).