26 CFR 1.401-12 - Requirements for qualification of trusts and plans benefiting owner-employees.

§ 1.401-12 Requirements for qualification of trusts and plans benefiting owner-employees.

(a)Introduction. This section prescribes the additional requirements which must be met for qualification of a trust forming part of a pension or profit-sharing plan, or of an annuity plan, which covers any self-employed individual who is an owner-employee as defined in section 401(c)(3). However, to the extent that the provisions of § 1.401-11 are not modified by the provisions of this section, such provisions are also applicable to a plan which covers an owner-employee. The provisions of this section apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962. Except as otherwise provided, paragraphs (b) through (m) of this section apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962. Paragraph (n) of this section applies to plan years determined in accordance with paragraph (n)(1) of the section.

(b)General rules.

(1) The qualified plan and trust of an unincorporated trade or business does not have to satisfy the additional requirements for qualification merely because an owner-employee derives earned income (as defined in section 401(c)(2)) from the trade or business with respect to which the plan is established. Such additional requirements need be satisfied only if an owner-employee is actually covered under the plan of the employer. An owner-employee may only be covered under a plan of an employer if such owner-employee has so consented. However, the consent of the owner-employee may be either expressed or implied. Thus, for example, if contributions are, in fact, made on behalf of an owner-employee, such owner-employee is considered to have impliedly consented to being covered under the plan.

(2) A qualified plan covering an owner-employee must be a definite written program and arrangement setting forth all provisions essential for qualification at the time such plan is established. Therefore, for example, even though the owner-employee is the only employee covered under the plan at the time the plan is established, the plan must incorporate all the provisions relating to the eligibility and benefits of future employees.

(c)Bank trustee. (1)(i) If a trust created after October 9, 1962, is to form a part of a qualified pension or profit-sharing plan covering an owner-employee, or if a trust created before October 10, 1962, but not exempt from tax on October 9, 1962, is to form part of such a plan, the trustee of such trust must be a bank as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, unless an exception contained in paragraph (c)(4) of this section applies, or paragraph (n) of this section applies.

(ii) The provisions of this paragraph do not apply to an employees' trust created prior to October 10, 1962, if such trust was exempt from tax on October 9, 1962, even though the plan of which such trust forms a part is amended after December 31, 1962, to cover any owner-employee. Although the trustee of a trust described in the preceding sentence need not be a bank, all other requirements for the qualification of such a trust must be satisfied at the time an owner-employee is first covered under such plan.

(2) The term bank as used in this paragraph means -

(i) A bank as defined in section 581;

(ii) A corporation which, under the laws of the State of its incorporation or under the laws of the District of Columbia, is subject to both the supervision of, and examination by, the authority in such jurisdiction in charge of the administration of the banking laws;

(iii) In the case of a trust created or organized outside of the United States, that is, outside the States and the District of Columbia, a bank or trust company, wherever incorporated, exercising fiduciary powers and subject to both supervision and examination by governmental authority;

(iv) Beginning on January 1, 1974, an insured credit union (within the meaning of section 101 (6) of the Federal Credit Union Act, 12 U.S.C. 1752 (6)).

(3) Although a bank is required to be the trustee of a qualified trust, another person, including the employer, may be granted the power in the trust instrument to control the investment of the trust funds either by directing investments, including reinvestments, disposals, and exchanges, or by disapproving proposed investments, including reinvestments, disposals, or exchanges.

(4)

(i) This paragraph does not apply to a trust created or organized outside the States and the District of Columbia before October 10, 1962, if, on October 9, 1962, such trust is described in section 402(c) as an organization treated as if it was a trust exempt from tax under section 501(a).

(ii) In addition, the requirement that the trustee must be a bank does not apply to a qualified trust forming a part of a pension or profit-sharing plan if -

(A) The investments of all the funds in such trust are in annuity, endowment, or life insurance contracts, issued by a company which is a life insurance company as defined in section 801(a) during the taxable year immediately preceding the year that such contracts are originally purchased;

(B) All the proceeds which are, or may become, payable under the contract are payable directly to the employee or his beneficiary;

(C) The plan contains a provision to the effect that the employer is to substitute a bank as a trustee or custodian of the contracts if the employer is notified by the district director that such substitution is required because the trustee is not keeping such records, or making such returns, or rendering such statements, as are required by forms or regulations.

However, a qualified trust may only purchase insurance protection to the extent permitted under a qualified plan (see paragraph (b)(1) (i) and (ii) of § 1.401-1).

(5) An employer may designate several trusts (or custodial accounts) or a trust or trusts and an annuity plan or plans as constituting parts of a single plan which is intended to satisfy the requirements for qualification. However, each trust (or custodial account) so designated which is part of a plan covering an owner-employee must satisfy the requirements of this paragraph. Thus, for example, if all other requirements for qualification are satisfied by the plan, a qualified profit-sharing plan may provide that a portion of the contributions under the plan will be paid to a custodial account, the custodian of which is a bank, for investment in stock of a regulated investment company, and the remainder of such contributions will be paid to a trust, the trustee of which is not a bank, for investment in annuity contracts.

(d)Profit-sharing plan.

(1) A profit-sharing plan, as defined in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of § 1.401-1, which covers any owner-employee must contain a definite formula for determining the contributions to be made by the employer on behalf of employees, other than owner-employees. A formula to be definite must specify the portion of profits to be contributed to the trust and must also define profits for plan purposes. A definite formula may contain a variable factor, if the value of such factor may not vary at the discretion of the employer. For example, the percentage of profits to be contributed each year may differ depending on the amount of profits. On the other hand, a formula which, for example, specifies that profits for plan purposes are not to exceed the cash on hand at the time the employer contribution is made is not a definite formula. The requirement that the plan formula be definite is satisfied if such formula limits the amount to be contributed on behalf of all employees covered under the plan to the amount which permits self-employed individuals to obtain the maximum deduction under section 404(a). However, even though the plan formula is definite, the plan must satisfy all the other requirements for qualification, including the requirement that the contributions under the plan not discriminate in favor of any self-employed individual, and the requirement that the plan be for the exclusive benefit of the employees in general.

(2) A definite contribution formula constitutes an integral part of a qualified profit-sharing plan and may not be amended except for a valid business reason.

(3) The requirement that a profit-sharing plan contain a definite formula for determining the amount of contributions to be made on behalf of employees does not apply to contributions which are made on behalf of owner- employees. However, such contributions are subject to the requirement that they be nondiscriminatory with respect to other employees and must not exceed the limitations on allowable and deductible contributions which may be made by owner- employees.

(e)Requirements as to coverage -

(1)Coverage of all employees. The coverage requirements contained in section 401(a)(3) do not apply to a plan which covers any owner-employee. However, such a plan must satisfy the coverage requirements of section 401(d), including section 401(d)(3). Accordingly, a plan which covers an owner-employee must benefit each employee of the trade or business (other than any owner-employee who does not consent to be covered under the plan) whose customary period of employment has been for more than 20 hours a week for more than five months during each of three consecutive periods of twelve calendar months. Therefore, a plan may not provide, for example, that an employee, other than an owner-employee, is ineligible to participate because he does not consent to be a participant or because he does not consent to make reasonable contributions under the plan.

(2)Period of service.

(i) In determining whether an employee renders service to the same employer, and, therefore, must be covered under the plan of such employer, a partnership is considered to be one employer during the entire period prior to the time it is terminated within the meaning of section 708 (see paragraph (e)(2) of § 1.401-10).

(ii) In the case of a common-law employee who becomes an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) with respect to the same trade or business, his period of employment is the aggregate of his service as a common-law employee and an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1).

(iii) In determining whether any employee, including any owner-employee, has three years of service, past service of any such employee may be taken into account as provided in paragraph (b) of § 1.401-10. Thus, if an employer takes into account past service for any owner-employee, he must take into account the past service of all his other employees to the same extent. However, a plan may provide for coverage after a period of service which is shorter than three years, but in no case may the plan require a waiting period for employees which is longer than that required for the owner- employees.

(f)Discrimination in contributions or benefits.

(1) Variations in contributions or benefits may be provided under the plan so long as the plan does not discriminate, either as to contributions or benefits, in favor of officers, employees whose principal duties consist in supervising the work of other employees, or highly compensated employees, as against other employees (see § 1.401-4). For the purpose of determining whether the provisions of a plan which provide contributions or benefits for an owner-employee result in the prohibited discrimination, an owner-employee, like other self-employed individuals, is considered a highly compensated employee (see paragraph (d) of § 1.401-11). Whether or not a plan is discriminatory is determined by the actual operation of the plan as well as by its formal provisions.

(2) The provisions of section 401(a)(5), relating to certain plan provisions which will not in and of themselves be considered discriminatory, are not applicable to any plan which covers any owner-employee. Such a plan must, instead, satisfy the requirements of section 401(a)(10) and section 401(d)(6). Accordingly, a plan is not discriminatory within the meaning of section 401(a)(4) merely because the contributions or benefits provided for the employees covered under the plan bear a uniform relationship to the total compensation, or to the basic or regular rate of compensation, of such employees. The total compensation or the basic or regular rate of compensation of an owner-employee is computed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d)(2) of § 1.401-11.

(3) Even though the contributions under the plan do not bear a uniform relationship to the total compensation, or the basic or regular rate of compensation, of the employees covered thereunder and the plan would otherwise be considered discriminatory within the meaning of section 401(a)(4), the plan shall not be considered discriminatory if such variation is due to employer contributions on behalf of any owner-employee which are required, under the plan, to be applied to pay premiums or other consideration on one or more level premium contracts described in section 401(e)(3)(A). In a taxable year to which the foregoing exception applies and, therefore, one in which the contributions under the plan would otherwise be discriminatory, the employer contributions to pay such premiums or other consideration must be the only employer contributions made for the owner-employee, and the contributions for such taxable year under such plan must not be in excess of the amount permitted to be paid toward the purchase of such a contract under the provisions of section 401(e)(3). Furthermore, the exception described in this subparagraph only applies to contributions made under a plan which otherwise satisfies the requirements of section 401(a)(4) and the regulations thereunder. Thus, if a plan provides for the purchase, in accordance with section 401(e)(3), of a level premium contract for an owner-employee, then such plan must provide either that the benefits for all employees are nondiscriminatory or, in the case of a money-purchase type of plan, that the contributions for all employees are based on compensation determined in a non-discriminatory manner. For example, since the contributions on behalf of the owner-employee are based on his earned income during the period preceding the purchase of the contract, the contributions for other employees must be based on their compensation during the same period if this will result in larger contributions on their behalf.

(4) In the case of a plan which covers any owner-employee, the contributions or benefits provided under the plan cannot vary with respect to years of service except as provided in subparagraph (5) of this paragraph.

(5) The provisions of section 401(d)(3) do not preclude the coverage of employees with less than three years of service if such coverage is provided on a nondiscriminatory basis. However, a plan will not be disqualified merely because the contributions or benefits for employees who have less than three years of service are not as favorable as the contributions or benefits for employees having more than three years of service.

(g)Nonforfeitable rights. (1)(i) Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, if an owner-employee is covered under the plan of his employer, each employee's rights to the contributions, or to the benefits derived from the contributions, of such employer must be nonforfeitable at the time such contributions are paid to, or under, the plan. The employees who must obtain such nonforfeitable rights include the self-employed individuals who are covered under the plan. As to what constitutes nonforfeitable rights of an employee, see paragraph (a)(2) of § 1.402(b)-1.

(ii) Under section 401(d)(2), it is necessary that each employee obtain nonforfeitable rights to the employer contributions under the plan on his behalf from the time such contributions are paid. Thus, each employee must have a nonforfeitable interest to the portion of the funds under the plan which is allocable to the employer contributions made under the plan on his behalf.

(2) The provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph do not apply to the extent that employer contributions on behalf of any employee must remain forfeitable in order to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (c) of § 1.401-4. However, employer contributions on behalf of employees whose rights are required to remain forfeitable to satisfy such requirements must be nonforfeitable except for such contingency.

(h)Integration with social security.

(1) If a qualified plan covers any owner-employee, then the rules relating to the integration of such plan with the contributions or benefits under the Social Security Act are provided in this paragraph. Accordingly, the provisions of paragraph (e) of § 1.401-3 and paragraph (c) of § 1.401-11 do not apply to such a plan. In the case of a plan which provides contributions or benefits for any owner-employee, integration of the plan with the Social Security Act for any taxable year of the employer can take place only if not more than one-third of the employer contributions under the plan which are deductible under section 404 for that year are made on behalf of the owner-employees. If such requirement is satisfied, then the plan may be integrated with the contributions or benefits under the Social Security Act in accordance with the rules of subparagraph (3) of this paragraph.

(2)

(i) For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, in determining the total amount of employer contributions which are deductible under section 404, the provisions of section 404(a), including the provisions of section 404(a)(9) (relating to plans benefiting self-employed individuals), and section 404(e) (relating to the special limitations for self-employed individuals) are taken into account, but the provisions of section 404(a)(10) (relating to the special limitation on the amount allowed as a deduction for self-employed individuals) are not taken into account.

(ii) The amount of deductible employer contributions which are made on behalf of all owner-employees for the year is compared with the amount of deductible employer contributions for the year made on behalf of all employees covered under the plan (including self-employed individuals who are not owner-employees and owner-employees) for the purpose of determining whether the deductible contributions by the employer on behalf of owner-employees are not more than one-third of the total deductible contributions.

(3) If a plan covering an owner-employee satisfies the requirement of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, and if the employer wishes to integrate such plan with the contributions or benefits under the Social Security Act, then -

(i) The employer contributions under the plan on behalf of any owner-employee shall be reduced by an amount determined by multiplying the earned income of such owner-employee which is derived from the trade or business with respect to which the plan is established and which does not exceed the maximum amount which may be treated as self-employment income under section 1402(b)(1), by the rate of tax imposed under section 1401(a); and

(ii) The employer contributions under the plan on behalf of any employee other than an owner-employee may be reduced by an amount not in excess of the amount determined by multiplying the employee's wages under section 3121(a)(1) by the rate of tax imposed under section 3111(a). For purposes of this subdivision, the earned income of a self-employed individual which is derived from the trade or business with respect to which the plan is established and which is treated as self-employment income under section 1402(b)(1), shall be treated as “wages” under section 3121(a)(1).

(4) A money purchase pension plan or a profit-sharing plan may provide that such plan will be integrated with the Social Security Act only for such taxable years of the employer in which the requirements for integration are satisfied. However, a qualified plan cannot provide that employer contributions are only to be made for taxable years in which the integration requirements are satisfied.

(i)Limit on contributions on behalf of an owner-employee.

(1) Section 401(d)(5) requires that a plan which covers any owner-employee must contain provisions which restrict the employer contributions that may be made on behalf of any owner-employee for each taxable year to an amount no greater than that which is deductible under section 404. In computing the amount deductible under section 404 for purposes of section 401(d)(5) and this paragraph, the limitations contained in section 404(a)(9) and (e), relating to special limitations for self-employed individuals, are taken into account, but such amount is determined without regard to section 404(a)(10), relating to the special limitation on the amount allowed as a deduction for self-employed individuals. Accordingly, a qualified plan which covers any owner-employee cannot permit employer contributions to be made on behalf of such owner-employee in excess of 10 percent of the earned income which is derived by such owner-employee from the trade or business with respect to which the plan is established, or permit the employer to contribute more than $2,500 on behalf of any such owner-employee for any taxable year.

(2)

(i) In determining whether the plan permits contributions to be made in excess of the limitations of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, employer contributions under the plan which are allocable to the purchase of life, accident, health, or other insurance are not to be taken into account. To determine the amount of employer contributions under the plan which are allocable to the purchase of life, accident, health, or other insurance, see paragraph (f) of § 1.404(e)-1 and paragraph (b) of § 1.72-16. However, contributions for such insurance can be made only to the extent otherwise permitted under sections 401 through 404 and the regulations thereunder.

(ii) A further exception to the limit on the amount of contributions which an employer may make under the plan on behalf of an owner-employee is made in the case of contributions which are required, under the plan, to be applied to pay premiums or other consideration for one or more annuity, endowment, or life insurance contracts described in section 401(e)(3) (see section 401(e)(3) and the regulations thereunder).

(j)Excess contributions. The provisions of section 401(e) define the term “excess contribution” and indicate the consequences of making such a contribution (see § 1.401-13). However, section 401(d)(8) provides that a qualified plan which provides contributions or benefits for any owner-employee must contain certain provisions which complement the rules contained in section 401(e). Under section 401(d)(8), a qualified plan must provide that -

(1) The net amount of any excess contribution (determined in accordance with the provisions of § 1.401-13) must be returned to the owner-employee on whose behalf it is made, together with the net income earned on such excess contribution;

(2) For each taxable year for which the trust is considered to be a nonqualified trust with respect to an owner-employee under section 401(e)(2) because the net amount of an excess contribution and the earnings thereon have not been returned to such owner-employee, the income of the trust for that taxable year attributable to the interest of such owner-employee is to be paid to him.

(3) If an excess contribution is determined to be willfully made (within the meaning of section 401(e)(2)(E)), the entire interest of the owner-employee on whose behalf such contribution was made is required to be distributed to such owner-employee. Furthermore, the plan must require the distribution of an owner-employee's entire interest under the plan if a willful excess contribution is determined to have been made under any other plan in which the owner-employee is covered as an owner-employee.

(k)Contributions of property under a qualified plan.

(1) The contribution of property, other than money, prior to January 1, 1975, by the person who is the employer (within the meaning of section 401(c)(4)) to a qualified trust forming a part of a plan which covers employees some or all of whom are owner- employees who control (within the meaning of section 401(d)(9)(B) and the regulations thereunder) the trade or business with respect to which the plan is established is a prohibited transaction between such trust and the employer-grantor of such trust (see section 503(g) prior to its repeal by sec. 2003(b)(5) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ( 88 Stat. 978)).

(2) A contribution of property, other than money, prior to January 1, 1975, to a qualified trust by an owner-employee who controls, or a member of a group of owner-employees who together control, the trade or business with respect to which the plan is established, or a contribution of property, other than money, to a qualified trust by a member of such an owner-employee's family (as defined in section 267(c)(4)), is a prohibited transaction. (See section 503(g) prior to its repeal by section 2003(b)(5) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ( 88 Stat. 978)).

(3) See section 4975 and the regulations thereunder with respect to rules relating to the contribution of property, other than money, made after December 31, 1974.

(l)Controlled trades or businesses -

(1)Plans covering an owner-employee who controls another trade or business.

(i) A plan must not cover any owner-employee, or group of two or more owner-employees, if such owner-employee, or group of owner-employees, control (within the meaning of subparagraph (3) of this paragraph) any other trade or business, unless the employees of such other trade or business controlled by such owner-employee, or such group of owner-employees, are included in a plan which satisfies the requirements of section 401(a), including the qualification requirements of section 401(d). The employees who must be covered under the plan of the trade or business which is controlled include the self-employed individuals who are not owner-employees and the owner-employees who consent to be covered by such plan. Accordingly, the employer must determine whether any owner-employee, or group of owner-employees, who may participate in the plan which is established by such employer controls any other trade or business, and whether the requirements of this subparagraph are satisfied with respect to the plan established in such other trade or business. The plan of an employer may exclude an owner-employee who controls another trade or business from coverage under the plan even though such owner-employee consents to be covered, if a plan which satisfies the requirements of subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph has not been established in the trade or business which such owner-employee controls.

(ii) The qualified plan which the owner-employee, or owner-employees, are required to provide for the employees of the trade or business which they control must provide contributions and benefits which are not less favorable than the contributions and benefits provided for the owner-employee, or owner-employees, under the plan of any trade or business which they do not control. Thus, for example, if the contributions or benefits for the owner-employee under the plan of the trade or business which he does not control are computed on the basis of his total (as compared to basic or regular rate) of compensation, then the contributions or benefits for employees covered under the plan of the trade or business which the owner controls must be computed on the basis of their total compensation. However, the requirements of this subdivision cannot be satisfied if the benefits and contributions provided under the plan for the employees of the trade or business which is controlled are not comparable to those provided under the plan covering the owner-employee, or group of owner-employees, in the trade or business which they do not control. Thus, for example, if the owner-employee is covered by a pension plan in the trade or business which he does not control, he may not satisfy the requirements of this subdivision by establishing a profit-sharing plan in the trade or business which he does control.

(iii) If an individual is covered as an owner-employee under the plans of two or more trades or businesses which he does not control and such individual controls a trade or business, then the contributions or benefits of the employees under the plan of the trade or business which he does control must be as favorable as those provided for him under the most favorable plan of the trade or business which he does not control.

(2)Owner-employees who control more than one trade or business. If the plan provides contributions or benefits for an owner-employee who controls, or group of owner-employees who together control, the trade or business with respect to which the plan is established, and such owner-employee, or group of owner-employees, also control as owner-employees one or more other trades or businesses, plans must be established with respect to such controlled trades or businesses so that when taken together they form a single plan which satisfies the requirements of section 401 (a) and (d) with respect to the employees of all the controlled trades or businesses.

(3)Control defined.

(i) For purposes of this paragraph, an owner-employee, or a group of two or more owner-employees, shall be considered to control a trade or business if such owner-employee, or such group of two or more owner-employees together -

(A) Own the entire interest in an unincorporated trade or business, or

(B) In the case of a partnership, own more than 50 percent of either the capital interest or the profits interest in such partnership.

In determining whether an owner-employee, or group of owner-employees, control a trade or business within the meaning of the preceding sentence, it is immaterial whether or not such individuals could be covered under a plan established with respect to the trade or business. For example, if an individual who is an owner-employee has a 60-percent capital interest in another trade or business, such individual controls such trade or business and the provisions of this paragraph apply even though the individual derives no earned income, as defined in section 401(c)(2), from the controlled trade or business. For purposes of determining the ownership interest of an owner-employee, or group of owner-employees, an owner-employee, or group of owner-employees, is treated as owning any interest in a partnership which is owned, directly or indirectly, by a partnership controlled by such owner-employee, or group of owner-employees.

(ii) The provisions of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph apply only if the owner-employee who controls, or the group of owner-employees who control, a trade or business, or trades or businesses, within the meaning of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is the same owner-employee, or group of owner-employees, covered under the plan intended to satisfy the requirements for qualification. Thus, for example, if A is a 50-percent partner in both the AB and AC partnership, and if the AB partnership wishes to establish a plan covering A and B, the provisions of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph do not apply, since A does not control either partnership, and since B has no interest in the AC partnership.

(m)Distribution of benefits. (1)(i) Section 401(d)(4)(B) requires that a qualified plan which provides contributions or benefits for any owner-employee must not provide for the payment of benefits to such owner-employee at any time before he has attained age 59 1/2. An exception to the foregoing rule permits a qualified plan to provide for the distribution of benefits to an owner-employee prior to the time he attains age 59 1/2 if he is disabled. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966, see section 72(m)(7) and paragraph (f) of § 1.72-17 for the meaning of disabled. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1967, see section 213(g)(3) for the meaning of disabled. In general, both sections 72(m)(7) and 213(g)(3) provide that an individual is considered disabled if he is unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity because of a medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or to be of long-continued and indefinite duration. In addition, section 401(d)(4)(B) does not preclude the distribution of benefits to the estate or other beneficiary of a deceased owner-employee prior to the time the owner-employee would have attained age 59 1/2 if he had lived.

(ii) A qualified plan must provide that if, despite the restrictions in the plan to the contrary, an amount is prematurely distributed, or made available, to a participant in such plan who is, or has been, an owner-employee, then no contribution shall be made under the plan by, or for, such individual during any of the 5 taxable years of the plan beginning after the distribution is made.

(2)

(i) The provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph preclude an owner-employee who is a participant in a qualified pension or profit-sharing plan of his employer from withdrawing any part of the funds accumulated on his behalf except as provided in such subparagraph (1). However, the distribution of an owner-employee's interest, or any portion of such interest, after he attains age 59 1/2 is determined by the provisions of the plan. Thus, for example, if a qualified pension plan provides that the normal retirement age under the plan is age 65, an owner-employee would not be entitled to a distribution of an amount under the plan merely because he attained age 59 1/2.

(ii) The provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph do not preclude the establishment of a profit-sharing plan which provides for the distribution of all, or part, of participants' accounts after a fixed number of years. However, such a plan must not permit a distribution of any amount to any owner-employee prior to the time the owner-employee has attained age 59 1/2 or becomes disabled within the meaning of section 72(m)(7) or section 213(g)(3), whichever is applicable. On the other hand, if a distribution would have been made under the plan to an owner-employee but for the fact that he had not attained age 59 1/2, then the amount of such distribution (including any increment earned on such amount) must be distributed to such owner-employee at such time as he attains age 59 1/2.

(3) A qualified pension, annuity, or profit-sharing plan which covers an owner-employee must provide that the distribution of an owner-employee's entire interest under the plan must begin prior to the end of the taxable year in which he attains the age of 70 1/2, and such distribution must satisfy the requirements of section 401(a)(9) and paragraph (e) of § 1.401-11. Furthermore, section 401(d)(7) provides that, if an owner-employee dies prior to the time his entire interest has been distributed to him, such owner-employee's entire remaining interest under the plan must, in general, either be distributed to his beneficiary, or beneficiaries, within 5 years, or be used within that period to purchase an immediate annuity for his beneficiary, or beneficiaries. However, a distribution within 5 years of the death of the owner-employee is not required if the distribution of his interest has commenced and such distribution is for a term certain over a period not extending beyond the joint life and survivor expectancy of the owner-employee and his spouse. Thus, for example, an annuity for the joint life and survivor expectancy of an owner-employee and his spouse which guarantees payments for 10 years is a distribution which is payable over a period which does not exceed the joint life and survivor expectancy of the owner-employee and his spouse if such expectancy is at least 10 years at the time the distribution first commences.

[T.D. 6675, 28 FR 10126, Sept. 17, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6982, 33 FR 16500, Nov. 13, 1968; T.D. 6985, 33 FR 19815, Dec. 27, 1968; T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34619, Aug. 16, 1976; T.D. 7611, 44 FR 23520, Apr. 20, 1979; T.D. 8635, 60 FR 65549, Dec. 20, 1995]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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