26 CFR 1.503(b)-1 - Prohibited transactions.

§ 1.503(b)-1 Prohibited transactions.

(a)In general. The term prohibited transaction means any transaction set forth in section 503(b) engaged in by any organization described in paragraph (a) of § 1.503(a)-1. Whether a transaction is a prohibited transaction depends on the facts and circumstances of the particular case. This section is intended to deny tax-exempt status to such organizations which engage in certain transactions which inure to the private advantage of (1) the creator of such organization (if it is a trust); (2) any substantial contributor to such organization; (3) a member of the family (as defined in section 267(c)(4) of an individual who is such creator of or such substantial contributor to such organization; or (4) a corporation controlled, as set forth in section 503(b), by such creator or substantial contributor.

(b)Loans as prohibited transactions under section 503(b)(1) -

(1)Adequate security. For the purposes of section 503(b)(1), which treats as prohibited transactions certain loans by an organization without receipt of adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest, the term adequate security means something in addition to and supporting a promise to pay, which is so pledged to the organization that it may be sold, foreclosed upon, or otherwise disposed of in default of repayment of the loan, the value and liquidity of which security is such that it may reasonably be anticipated that loss of principal or interest will not result from the loan. Mortgages or liens on property, accommodation endorsements of those financially capable of meeting the indebtedness, and stock or securities issued by corporations other than the borrower may constitute security for a loan to the persons or organizations described in section 503(b). Stock of a borrowing corporation does not constitute adequate security. A borrower's evidence of indebtedness, irrespective of its name, is not security for a loan, whether or not it was issued directly to the exempt organization. However, if any such evidence of indebtedness provides for security that may be sold, foreclosed upon, or otherwise disposed of in default of repayment of the loan, there may be adequate security for such loan. If an organization subject to section 503(b) purchases debentures issued by a person specified in section 503(b), the purchase is considered, for purposes of section 503(b)(1), as a loan made by the purchaser to the issuer on the date of such purchase. For example, if an exempt organization subject to section 503(b) makes a purchase through a registered security exchange of debentures issued by a person described in section 503(b), and owned by an unknown third party, the purchase will be considered as a loan to the issuer by the purchaser. For rules relating to loan of funds to, or investment of funds in stock or securities of, persons described in section 503(b) by an organization described in section 401(a), see paragraph (b)(5) of § 1.401-1.

(2)Effective dates. The effective dates for the application of the definition of adequate security in paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph are:

(i) March 15, 1956, for loans (other than debentures) made after March 15, 1956;

(ii) January 31, 1957, for loans (other than debentures) made before March 16, 1956, and continued after January 31, 1957;

(iii) November 8, 1956, for debentures which were purchased after November 8, 1956;

(iv) December 1, 1958, for debentures which were purchased before November 9, 1956, and held after December 1, 1958;

(v) If an employees' pension, stock bonus, or profit-sharing trust described in section 401(a) made a loan before March 1, 1954, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1955, and which would constitute a prohibited transaction if made on or after March 1, 1954, the loan shall not constitute a prohibited transaction if held until maturity (determined without regard to any extension or renewal thereof);

(vi) January 1, 1960, for loans (including the purchase of debentures) made by supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, described in section 501 (c)(17);

(vii) January 1, 1970, for loans (including the purchase of debentures) made by employees' contribution pension plan trusts described in section 501(c)(18).

(3)Certain exceptions to section 503(b)(1). See section 503(e) and § 1.503(e)-1, 1.503(e)-2, and 1.503(e)-3 for special rules providing that certain obligations acquired by trusts described in section 401(a) or section 501(c) (17) or (18) shall not be treated as loans made without the receipt of adequate security for purposes of section 503(b)(1). See section 503(f) and § 1.503(f)-1 for an exception to the application of sections 503(b)(1) for certain loans made by employees' trusts described in section 401(a).

(c)Examples. The principles of this section are illustrated by the following examples: (Assume that section 503 (e) and (f) are not applicable.)

Example 1.
A, creator of an exempt trust subject to section 503, borrows $100,000 from such trust in 1960, giving his unsecured promissory note. The net worth of A is $1,000,000. The net worth of A is not security for such loan and the transaction is a prohibited transaction. If, however, the note is secured by a mortgage on property of sufficient value, or is accompanied by acceptable collateral of sufficient value, or carries with it the secondary promise of repayment by an accommodation endorser financially capable of meeting the indebtedness, it may be adequately secured. However, subordinated debentures bonds of a partnership which are guaranteed by the general partners are not adequately secured since the general partners are liable for the firm's debt and their guaranty adds no additional security.
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in example 1 except that A's promissory note in the amount of $100,000 to the trust is secured by property which has a fair market value of $75,000. A's promissory note secured to the extent of $75,000 is not adequately secured within the meaning of section 503(b)(1) since the security at the time of the transaction must be sufficient to repay the indebtedness, interest, and charges which may pertain thereto.
Example 3.
Corporation M, a substantial contributor to an exempt organization subject to section 503, borrows $150,000 from such organization in 1960, giving its promissory note accompanied by stock of the borrowing corporation with a fair market value of $200,000. Since promissory notes and debentures have priority over stock in the event of liquidation of the corporation, stock of a borrowing corporation is not adequate security. Likewise, debenture bonds which are convertible on default into voting stock of the issuing corporation do not constitute adequate security under section 503(b)(1).
Example 4.
B, creator of an exempt trust subject to section 503, borrows $100,000 from such trust in 1960, giving his secured promissory note at the rate of 3 percent interest. The prevailing rate of interest charged by financial institutions in the community where the transaction takes place is 5 percent for a loan of the same duration and similarly secured. The loan by the trust to the grantor is a prohibited transaction since section 503(b)(1) requires both adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest. Further, a promise to repay the loan plus a percentage of future profits which may be greater than the prevailing rate of interest does not meet the reasonable rate of interest requirement.
Example 5.
N Corporation, a substantial contributor to an exempt organization subject to section 503 borrows $50,000 on or after March 16, 1956, from the organization. If the loan is not adequately secured, the organization has committed a prohibited transaction at the time the loan was made. If the loan had been made on or before March 15, 1956, and is continued after January 31, 1957, it must be adequately secured on February 1, 1957, or it will be considered a prohibited transaction on that date. However, if the exempt organization were an employees' trust, described in section 401(a), and the loan were made before March 1, 1954, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1955, it would not have to be adequately secured on February 1, 1957. Moreover, if the exempt organization were a supplemental unemployment benefit trust, described in section 501(c)(17), and the loan were made before January 1, 1960, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1959, it would not have to be adequately secured on January 1, 1960.
Example 6.
An exempt organization subject to section 503 purchases a debenture issued by O Corporation, which is a substantial contributor to the organization. The organization purchases the debenture in an arm's length transaction from a third person on or after November 9, 1956. The purchase is considered as a loan by the organization to O Corporation. The loan must be adequately secured when it is made, or it is considered as a prohibited transaction at that time. If the organization purchased the debenture before November 9, 1956, and holds it after December 1, 1958, the debenture must be adequately secured on December 2, 1958, or it will then be considered as a prohibited transaction. However, if the organization were an employees' trust described in section 401(a), and if the debenture were purchased before March 1, 1954, and its maturity date is after December 31, 1955, the debenture does not have to be adequately secured. Moreover, if the organization were an employees' contribution pension plan trust described in section 501(c)(18), and if the debenture were purchased before January 1, 1970, and its maturity date is after December 31, 1969, the debenture does not have to be adequately secured.
[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34621, Aug. 16, 1976]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28 - Renumbered § 45C]

§ 30 - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, § 1301(j)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2657]

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, § 221(a)(34)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042]

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, § 823(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2373]

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under section 501(c)(3) because of substantial lobbying or because of political activities

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to sections 661 and 662

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where section 754 election or substantial basis reduction

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where section 754 election or substantial built-in loss

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed. Pub. L. 108–218, title II, § 205(a), Apr. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 610]

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed. Pub. L. 94–12, title VI, § 602(a)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 58]

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Basis information to persons acquiring property from decedent

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

§ 6050I-1

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 16-Jun-2017 03:58

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR Part 1 after this date.

  • 2017-06-30; vol. 82 # 125 - Friday, June 30, 2017
    1. 82 FR 29719 - Regulations Regarding Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
        Effective Date: These corrections are effective June 30, 2017. Applicability Date: The corrections to §§ 1.1441-0; 1.1441-1(b)(7)(ii)(B), (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C), (e)(4)(ii)(B)( 11 ), (e)(4)(ix)(D), (e)(5)(ii) through (e)(5)(ii)(B), (e)(5)(ii)(D) through (e)(5)(v)(B)( 3 ), (e)(5)(v)(B)( 5 ) through (e)(5)(v)(D), and (f) through (f)(4); 1.1441-1T; 1.1441-3(d)(1); 1.1441-4; 1.6045-1(m)(2)(ii) and (n)(12)(ii); and 1.6049-5(c)(1) through (c)(4) are applicable on January 6, 2017.
      26 CFR Part 1

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