26 CFR § 1.59A-2 - Applicable taxpayer.

§ 1.59A-2 Applicable taxpayer.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules for determining whether a taxpayer is an applicable taxpayer. Paragraph (b) of this section defines an applicable taxpayer. Paragraph (c) of this section provides rules for determining whether a taxpayer is an applicable taxpayer by reference to the aggregate group of which the taxpayer is a member. Paragraph (d) of this section provides rules regarding the gross receipts test. Paragraph (e) of this section provides rules regarding the base erosion percentage test. Paragraph (f) of this section provides examples illustrating the rules of this section.

(b) Applicable taxpayer. For purposes of section 59A, a taxpayer is an applicable taxpayer with respect to any taxable year if the taxpayer -

(1) Is a corporation, but not a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or an S corporation;

(2) Satisfies the gross receipts test of paragraph (d) of this section; and

(3) Satisfies the base erosion percentage test of paragraph (e) of this section.

(c) Aggregation rules -

(1) In general. Solely for purposes of this section and § 1.59A-4, a taxpayer that is a member of an aggregate group determines its gross receipts and its base erosion percentage on the basis of the aggregate group. For these purposes, transactions that occur between members of the taxpayer's aggregate group that were members of the aggregate group as of the time of the transaction are not taken into account. In the case of a foreign corporation that is a member of an aggregate group, only transactions that occur between members of the aggregate group and that relate to income effectively connected with, or treated as effectively connected with, the conduct of a trade or business in the United States are not taken into account for this purpose. In the case of a foreign corporation that is a member of an aggregate group and that is subject to tax on a net basis pursuant to an applicable income tax treaty of the United States, only transactions that occur between members of the aggregate group and that relate to income that is taken into account in determining its net taxable income are not taken into account for this purpose. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(1), each payment or accrual is treated as a separate transaction.

(2) Aggregate group determined with respect to each taxpayer -

(i) In general. Solely for purposes of this section, an aggregate group is determined with respect to each taxpayer. As a result, the aggregate group of one taxpayer may be different than the aggregate group of another member of the taxpayer's aggregate group.

(ii) Change in the composition of an aggregate group. A change in ownership of the taxpayer (for example, a sale of the taxpayer to a third party) does not cause the taxpayer to leave its own aggregate group. Instead, any members of the taxpayer's aggregate group before the change in ownership that are no longer members following the change in ownership are treated as having left the taxpayer's aggregate group, and any new members that become members of the taxpayer's aggregate group following the change in ownership are treated as having joined the taxpayer's aggregate group. A change in ownership of another member of the aggregate group of the taxpayer (for example, a sale of the member to a third party) may result in the member joining or leaving the aggregate group of the taxpayer. See paragraph (c)(4) of this section for the treatment of members joining or leaving the aggregate group of a taxpayer.

(3) Taxable year of members of an aggregate group. Solely for purposes of this section, a taxpayer that is a member of an aggregate group measures the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of the aggregate group for a taxable year by reference to the taxpayer's gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions for the taxable year and the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of each member of the aggregate group for the taxable year of the member that ends with or within the taxpayer's taxable year.

(4) Periods before and after a corporation is a member of an aggregate group -

(i) In general. Solely for purposes of this section, to determine the gross receipts and the base erosion percentage of the aggregate group of a taxpayer, the taxpayer takes into account only the portion of another corporation's taxable year during which the corporation is a member of the aggregate group of the taxpayer. The gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of a corporation that are properly included in the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of the aggregate group of a taxpayer are not reduced as a result of the member leaving the aggregate group of the taxpayer.

(ii) Deemed taxable year-end. Solely for purposes of this paragraph (c), if a corporation leaves or joins the aggregate group of a taxpayer, the corporation is treated as ceasing to be a member of the aggregate group at the time of its taxable year-end, or becoming a member of the aggregate group immediately after the time of its taxable year-end, resulting from the transaction. For purposes of this paragraph (c), if a corporation joins or leaves an aggregate group in a transaction that does not result in the corporation having a taxable year-end, the corporation is treated as having a taxable year-end (“deemed taxable year-end”) at the end of the day on which the transaction occurs.

(iii) Items allocable to deemed taxable years before and after deemed taxable year-end. Solely for purposes of this paragraph (c), a corporation that has a deemed taxable year-end determines gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions attributable to the deemed taxable year ending upon, or beginning immediately after, the deemed taxable year-end by either treating the corporation's books as closing (“deemed closing of the books”) at the deemed taxable year-end or, in the case of items other than extraordinary items, allocating those items on a pro-rata basis without a closing of the books. Extraordinary items are allocated to the deemed taxable year ending upon, or beginning immediately after, the deemed taxable year-end based on the day that they are taken into account. For purposes of applying this paragraph (c)(4)(iii), extraordinary items that are attributable to a transaction that occurs during the portion of the corporation's day after the event resulting in the corporation joining or leaving the aggregate group are treated as taken into account at the beginning of the following day. Additionally, for purposes of applying this paragraph (c)(4)(iii), “extraordinary items” include the items enumerated in § 1.1502-76(b)(2)(ii)(C) as well as any other payment not made in the ordinary course of business that would be treated as a base erosion payment.

(5) Short taxable year -

(i) Short period of the taxpayer -

(A) In general. Solely for purposes of this section, if a taxpayer has a taxable year of fewer than 12 months (a short period), the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of the taxpayer are annualized by multiplying the total amount for the short period by 365 and dividing the result by the number of days in the short period.

(B) Determining the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of the aggregate group of a taxpayer for a short period. When a taxpayer has a taxable year that is a short period and a member of the taxpayer's aggregate group does not have a taxable year that ends with or within the taxpayer's taxable year as a result of the taxpayer's short period, the taxpayer must use a reasonable approach to determine the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of its aggregate group for the short period. A reasonable approach should neither over-count nor under-count the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of the aggregate group of the taxpayer. A reasonable approach does not include an approach that does not take into account the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, or deductions of the member. The taxpayer must consistently apply the reasonable approach. Examples of a reasonable approach may include an approach that takes into account 12 months of gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of the member by reference to -

(1) The 12-month period ending on the last day of the short period;

(2) The member's taxable year that ends nearest to the last day of the short period or that begins nearest to the first day of the short period; or

(3) An average of the two taxable years of the member ending before and after the short period.

(ii) Short period of a member of the taxpayer's aggregate group -

(A) Multiple taxable years of a member of the taxpayer's aggregate group comprised of more than 12 months. If a member of a taxpayer's aggregate group has more than one taxable year ending with or within the taxpayer's taxable year, and the member's taxable years ending with or within the taxpayer's taxable year are comprised of more than 12 months in total, then the aggregate group member's gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions are annualized for purposes of determining the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of the taxpayer's aggregate group. The aggregate group member's gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions are annualized by multiplying the total amount for the member's taxable years by 365 and dividing the result by the total number of days in the multiple taxable years.

(B) Short period or periods of a member of the taxpayer's aggregate group comprised of fewer than 12 months from change in taxable year. If, as a result of a member of a taxpayer's aggregate group changing its taxable year-end (other than as a result of the application of § 1.1502-76(a)), the member's taxable year or years ending with or within the taxpayer's taxable year are comprised of fewer than 12 months in total, then the aggregate group member's gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions are annualized for purposes of determining the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of the taxpayer's aggregate group. The aggregate group member's gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions are annualized by multiplying the total amount for the member's taxable year or years by 365 and dividing the result by the total number of days in the taxable year or years.

(iii) Anti-abuse rule. If a taxpayer or a member of a taxpayer's aggregate group enters into a transaction (or series of transactions), plan, or arrangement with another corporation that is a member of the aggregate group or a foreign related party that has a principal purpose of changing the period taken into account under the gross receipts test or the base erosion percentage test to avoid applicable taxpayer status under paragraph (b) of this section, then the gross receipts test or base erosion percentage test, respectively, applies as if that transaction (or series of transactions), plan, or arrangement had not occurred.

(6) Treatment of predecessors -

(i) In general. Solely for purposes of this section, in determining gross receipts under paragraph (d) of this section, any reference to a taxpayer includes a reference to any predecessor of the taxpayer. For this purpose, a predecessor is the distributor or transferor corporation in a transaction described in section 381(a) in which the taxpayer is the acquiring corporation. For purposes of determining the gross receipts of a predecessor that are taken into account by a taxpayer, the operating rules set forth in this paragraph (c) and in paragraph (d) of this section are applied to the same extent they were applied to the predecessor.

(ii) No duplication. If the taxpayer or any member of its aggregate group is also a predecessor of the taxpayer or any member of its aggregate group, the gross receipts of each member are taken into account only once.

(7) Partnerships. For the treatment of partnerships for purposes of determining gross receipts and base erosion tax benefits, see § 1.59A-7(e)(2) and (d), respectively.

(8) Transition rule for aggregate group members with different taxable years. If the taxpayer has a different taxable year than another member of the taxpayer's aggregate group (other member), and the other member is eligible for the exception in § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(vi) (amounts paid or accrued in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) with respect to a taxable year ending with or within the taxpayer's taxable year (“excepted taxable year”), the excepted taxable year of the other member is not taken into account for purposes of paragraph (e) of this section. This rule applies solely for purposes of determining whether a taxpayer is an applicable taxpayer under this section.

(9) Consolidated groups. For the treatment of consolidated groups for purposes of determining gross receipts and base erosion tax benefits, see § 1.1502-59A(b).

(d) Gross receipts test -

(1) Amount of gross receipts. A taxpayer, or the aggregate group of which the taxpayer is a member, satisfies the gross receipts test of this section if it has average annual gross receipts of at least $500,000,000 for the three-taxable-year period ending with the preceding taxable year.

(2) Taxpayer not in existence for entire three-year period. If a taxpayer was not in existence for the entire three-year period referred to in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the taxpayer determines a gross receipts average for the period that it was in existence (which includes gross receipts in the current year).

(3) Gross receipts of foreign corporations. With respect to any foreign corporation, only gross receipts that are taken into account in determining income that is, or is treated as, effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States are taken into account for purposes of paragraph (d)(1) of this section. In the case of a foreign corporation that is a member of an aggregate group and that is subject to tax on a net basis pursuant to an applicable income tax treaty of the United States, the foreign corporation includes only gross receipts that are attributable to transactions taken into account in determining its net taxable income.

(4) Gross receipts of an insurance company. Solely for purposes of this section, for any corporation that is subject to tax under subchapter L or any corporation that would be subject to tax under subchapter L if that corporation were a domestic corporation, gross receipts are reduced by return premiums (within the meaning of section 803(a)(1)(B) and section 832(b)(4)(A)), but are not reduced by any reinsurance premiums paid or accrued.

(5) Reductions in gross receipts. For purposes of this section, gross receipts for any taxable year are reduced by returns and allowances made during that taxable year.

(6) Gross receipts of consolidated groups. For purposes of this section, the gross receipts of a consolidated group are determined by aggregating the gross receipts of all of the members of the consolidated group. See § 1.1502-59A(b).

(e) Base erosion percentage test -

(1) In general. A taxpayer, or the aggregate group of which the taxpayer is a member, satisfies the base erosion percentage test if its base erosion percentage is three percent or higher.

(2) Base erosion percentage test for banks and registered securities dealers -

(i) In general. A taxpayer that is a member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a)(1)) that includes a bank (as defined in § 1.59A-1(b)(4)) or a registered securities dealer (as defined in section § 1.59A-1(b)(15)) satisfies the base erosion percentage test if its base erosion percentage is two percent or higher.

(ii) Aggregate groups. An aggregate group of which a taxpayer is a member and that includes a bank or a registered securities dealer that is a member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a)(1)) is subject to the base erosion percentage threshold described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section.

(iii) De minimis exception for banking and registered securities dealer activities. An aggregate group that includes a bank or a registered securities dealer that is a member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a)(1)) is not treated as including a bank or registered securities dealer for purposes of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section for a taxable year, if, for that taxable year, the total gross receipts of the aggregate group attributable to the bank or the registered securities dealer (or attributable to all of the banks and registered securities dealers in the group, if more than one) represent less than two percent of the total gross receipts of the aggregate group, as determined under paragraph (d) of this section. When there is no aggregate group, a consolidated group that includes a bank or a registered securities dealer is not treated as including a bank or registered securities dealer for purposes of paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section for a taxable year, if, for that taxable year, the total gross receipts of the consolidated group attributable to the bank or the registered securities dealer (or attributable to all of the banks or registered securities dealers in the group, if more than one) represent less than two percent of the total gross receipts of the consolidated group, as determined under paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Computation of base erosion percentage -

(i) In general. The taxpayer's base erosion percentage for any taxable year is determined by dividing -

(A) The aggregate amount of the taxpayer's (or in the case of a taxpayer that is a member of an aggregate group, the aggregate group's) base erosion tax benefits (as defined in § 1.59A-3(c)(1)) for the taxable year, by

(B) The sum of -

(1) The aggregate amount of the deductions (including deductions for base erosion tax benefits described in § 1.59A-3(c)(1)(i) and base erosion tax benefits described in § 1.59A-3(c)(1)(ii)) allowable to the taxpayer (or in the case of a taxpayer that is a member of an aggregate group, any member of the aggregate group) under chapter 1 of Subtitle A for the taxable year;

(2) The base erosion tax benefits described in § 1.59A-3(c)(1)(iii) with respect to any premiums or other consideration paid or accrued by the taxpayer (or in the case of a taxpayer that is a member of an aggregate group, any member of the aggregate group) to a foreign related party for any reinsurance payment taken into account under sections 803(a)(1)(B) or 832(b)(4)(A) for the taxable year; and

(3) Any amount paid or accrued by the taxpayer (or in the case of a taxpayer that is a member of an aggregate group, any member of the aggregate group) resulting in a reduction of gross receipts described in § 1.59A-3(c)(1)(iv) for the taxable year.

(ii) Certain items not taken into account in denominator. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(viii) of this section, the amount under paragraph (e)(3)(i)(B) of this section is determined by not taking into account -

(A) Any deduction allowed under section 172, 245A, or 250 for the taxable year;

(B) Any deduction for amounts paid or accrued for services to which the exception described in § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(i) applies;

(C) Any deduction for qualified derivative payments that are not treated as base erosion payments by reason of § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(ii);

(D) Any exchange loss within the meaning of § 1.988-2 from a section 988 transaction as described in § 1.988-1(a)(1) that is not treated as a base erosion payment by reason of § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(iv);

(E) Any deduction for amounts paid or accrued to foreign related parties with respect to TLAC securities and foreign TLAC securities that are not treated as base erosion payments by reason of § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(v);

(F) Any reinsurance losses incurred and claims payments described in § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(ix); and

(G) Any deduction not allowed in determining taxable income for the taxable year.

(iii) Effect of treaties on base erosion percentage determination. See § 1.59A-3(c)(2) and (3).

(iv) Amounts paid or accrued between members of a consolidated group. See § 1.1502-59A(b).

(v) Deductions and base erosion tax benefits from partnerships. See § 1.59A-7(b), (d), and (e).

(vi) Mark-to-market positions. For any position with respect to which the taxpayer (or in the case of a taxpayer that is a member of an aggregate group, a member of the aggregate group) applies a mark-to-market method of accounting for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the taxpayer must determine its gain or loss with respect to that position for any taxable year by combining all items of income, gain, loss, or deduction arising with respect to the position during the taxable year, regardless of how each item arises (including from a payment, accrual, or mark) for purposes of paragraph (e)(3) of this section. See paragraph (f)(1) of this section (Example 1) for an illustration of this rule. For purposes of section 59A, a taxpayer computes its losses resulting from positions subject to a mark-to-market regime under the Internal Revenue Code based on a single mark for the taxable year on the earlier of the last business day of the taxpayer's taxable year and the disposition (whether by sale, offset, exercise, termination, expiration, maturity, or other means) of the position, regardless of how frequently a taxpayer marks to market for other purposes. See § 1.59A-3(b)(2)(iii) for the application of this rule for purposes of determining the amount of base erosion payments.

(vii) Reinsurance losses incurred and claims payments. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(ii)(F) of this section, amounts paid for losses incurred (as defined in section 832(b)(5)) and claims and benefits under section 805(a)(1) are taken into account for purposes of paragraph (e)(3)(i)(B)(1) of this section.

(viii) Certain payments that qualify for the effectively connected income exception and another base erosion payment exception. Subject to paragraph (c) of this section (transactions that occur between members of the taxpayer's aggregate group), a payment that qualifies for the effectively connected income exception described in § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(iii) and either the service cost method exception described in § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(i), the qualified derivative payment exception described in § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(ii), or the TLAC exception described in § 1.59A-3(b)(3)(v) is not subject to paragraph (e)(3)(ii)(B), (C), or (E) of this section and those amounts are included in the denominator of the base erosion percentage if the foreign related party who received the payment is not a member of the aggregate group.

(f) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this section.

(1) Example 1: Mark-to-market -

(i) Facts.

(A) Foreign Parent (FP) is a foreign corporation that owns all of the stock of domestic corporation (DC). FP is a foreign related party of DC under § 1.59A-1(b)(12). DC is a registered securities dealer that does not hold any securities for investment. On January 1 of year 1, DC enters into two interest rate swaps for a term of two years, one with unrelated Customer A as the counterparty (position A) and one with unrelated Customer B as the counterparty (position B). Each of the swaps provides for semiannual periodic payments to be made or received on June 30 and December 31. No party makes any payment to any other party upon initiation of either of the swaps (that is, they are entered into at-the-money). DC is required to mark-to-market positions A and B for U.S. federal income tax purposes. DC is a calendar year taxpayer.

(B) For position A in year 1, DC makes a payment of $150x on June 30, and receives a payment of $50x on December 31. There are no other payments in year 1. On December 31, position A has a value to DC of $110x (that is, position A is in-the-money by $110x).

(C) For position B in year 1, DC receives a payment of $120x on June 30, and makes a payment of $30x on December 31. There are no other payments in year 1. On December 31, position B has a value to DC of ($130x) (that is, position B is out-of-the-money by $130x).

(ii) Analysis.

(A) With respect to position A, based on the total amount of payments made and received in year 1, DC has a net deduction of $100x. In addition, DC has a mark-to-market gain of $110x. As described in paragraph (e)(3)(vi) of this section, the mark-to-market gain of $110x is combined with the net deduction of $100x resulting from the payments. Therefore, with respect to position A, DC has a gain of $10x, and thus has no deduction in year 1 for purposes of section 59A.

(B) With respect to position B, based on the total amount of payments made and received in year 1, DC has net income of $90x. In addition, DC has a mark-to-market loss of $130x. As described in paragraph (e)(3)(vi) of this section, the mark-to-market loss of $130x is combined with the net income of $90x resulting from the payments. Therefore, with respect to position B, DC has a loss of $40x, and thus has a $40x deduction in year 1 for purposes of section 59A.

(2) Example 2: Member leaving an aggregate group -

(i) Facts. Parent Corporation wholly owns Corporation 1 and Corporation 2. Each corporation is a domestic corporation and a calendar-year taxpayer that does not file a consolidated return. The aggregate group of Corporation 1 includes Parent Corporation and Corporation 2. At noon on June 30, Year 1, Parent Corporation sells the stock of Corporation 2 to Corporation 3, an unrelated domestic corporation, in exchange for cash consideration. Before the acquisition, Corporation 3 was not a member of an aggregate group. Corporation 2 and Corporation 3 do not file a consolidated return.

(ii) Analysis.

(A) For purposes of section 59A, to determine the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of the aggregate group of Corporation 1 for calendar Year 1, Corporation 2 is treated as having a taxable year-end at the end of the day on June 30, Year 1, as a result of the sale. Corporation 2 leaves the aggregate group of Corporation 1 and Parent Corporation at the end of the day on June 30, Year 1. The aggregate group of Corporation 1 takes into account only the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of Corporation 2 allocable to the period from January 1 to the end of the day on June 30, Year 1, in accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(ii) and (iii) of this section. The same results apply to the aggregate group of Parent Corporation for calendar Year 1. See paragraph (d)(1) and (2) of this section for the periods taken into account in determining whether the taxpayer or its aggregate group satisfies the gross receipts test.

(B) For purposes of section 59A, to determine the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of the aggregate group of Corporation 2 for calendar Year 1, each of Parent Corporation, Corporation 1, and Corporation 3 are treated as having a taxable year-end at the end of the day on June 30, Year 1. Because Corporation 2 does not have a short taxable year, paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section does not apply. The aggregate group of Corporation 2 takes into account the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of Parent Corporation and Corporation 1 allocable to the period from January 1 to the end of the day on June 30, Year 1, and the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of Corporation 3 allocable to the period from July 1 to December 31, Year 1 in accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(ii) and (iii) of this section. See paragraph (d)(1) and (2) of this section for the periods taken into account in determining whether the taxpayer or its aggregate group satisfies the gross receipts test.

(2) Example 2: Member leaving an aggregate group -

(i) Facts. Parent Corporation wholly owns Corporation 1 and Corporation 2. Each corporation is a domestic corporation and a calendar-year taxpayer that does not file a consolidated return. The aggregate group of Corporation 1 includes Parent Corporation and Corporation 2. At noon on June 30, Year 1, Parent Corporation sells the stock of Corporation 2 to Corporation 3, an unrelated domestic corporation, in exchange for cash consideration. Before the acquisition, Corporation 3 was not a member of an aggregate group. Corporation 2 and Corporation 3 do not file a consolidated return.

(ii) Analysis.

(A) For purposes of section 59A, to determine the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of the aggregate group of Corporation 1 for calendar Year 1, Corporation 2 is treated as having a taxable year-end at the end of the day on June 30, Year 1, as a result of the sale. Corporation 2 leaves the aggregate group of Corporation 1 and Parent Corporation at the end of the day on June 30, Year 1. The aggregate group of Corporation 1 takes into account only the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of Corporation 2 allocable to the period from January 1 to the end of the day on June 30, Year 1, in accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(ii) and (iii) of this section. The same results apply to the aggregate group of Parent Corporation for calendar Year 1. See paragraph (d)(1) and (2) of this section for the periods taken into account in determining whether the taxpayer or its aggregate group satisfies the gross receipts test.

(B) For purposes of section 59A, to determine the gross receipts and base erosion percentage of the aggregate group of Corporation 2 for calendar Year 1, each of Parent Corporation, Corporation 1, and Corporation 3 are treated as having a taxable year-end at the end of the day on June 30, Year 1. Because Corporation 2 does not have a short taxable year, paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section does not apply. The aggregate group of Corporation 2 takes into account the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of Parent Corporation and Corporation 1 allocable to the period from January 1 to the end of the day on June 30, Year 1, and the gross receipts, base erosion tax benefits, and deductions of Corporation 3 allocable to the period from July 1 to December 31, Year 1 in accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(ii) and (iii) of this section. See paragraph (d)(1) and (2) of this section for the periods taken into account in determining whether the taxpayer or its aggregate group satisfies the gross receipts test.

[T.D. 9885, 84 FR 67017, Dec. 6, 2019, as amended by T.D. 9910, 85 FR 64343, Oct. 9, 2020]

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