26 CFR § 1.6012-3 - Returns by fiduciaries.
(a) For estates and trusts -
(1) In general. Every fiduciary, or at least one of joint fiduciaries, must make a return of income on form 1041 (or by use of a composite return pursuant to § 1.6012-5) and attach the required form if the estate or trust has items of tax preference (as defined in section 57 and the regulations thereunder) in any amount:
(ii) For each trust for which he acts, except a trust exempt under section 501(a), if such trust has for the taxable year any taxable income, or has for the taxable year gross income of $600 or more regardless of the amount of taxable income; and
(iii) For each estate and each trust for which he acts, except a trust exempt under section 501(a), regardless of the amount of income for the taxable year, if any beneficiary of such estate or trust is a nonresident alien.
(iv) For each trust electing to be taxed as, or as part of, an estate under section 645 for which a trustee acts, and for each related estate joining in a section 645 election for which an executor acts, if the aggregate gross income of the electing trust(s) and related estate, if any, joining in the election for the taxable year is $600 or more. (For the respective filing requirements of the trustee of each electing trust and executor of any related estate, see § 1.645-1).
(2) Wills and trust instruments. At the request of the Internal Revenue Service, a copy of the will or trust instrument (including any amendments), accompanied by a written declaration of the fiduciary under the penalties of perjury that it is a true and complete copy, shall be filed together with a statement by the fiduciary indicating the provisions of the will or trust instrument (including any amendments) which, in the fiduciary's opinion, determine the extent to which the income of the estate or trust is taxable to the estate or trust, the beneficiaries, or the grantor, respectively.
(3) Domiciliary and ancillary representatives. In the case of an estate required to file a return under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, having both domiciliary and ancillary representatives, the domiciliary and ancillary representatives must each file a return on Form 1041. The domiciliary representative is required to include in the return rendered by him as such domiciliary representative the entire income of the estate. The return of the ancillary representative shall be filed with the district director for his internal revenue district and shall show the name and address of the domiciliary representative, the amount of gross income received by the ancillary representative, and the deductions to be claimed against such income, including any amount of income properly paid or credited by the ancillary representative to any legatee, heir, or other beneficiary. If the ancillary representative for the estate of a nonresident alien is a citizen or resident of the United States, and the domiciliary representative is a nonresident alien, such ancillary representative is required to render the return otherwise required of the domiciliary representative.
(5) Trusts with unrelated business income. Every fiduciary for a trust described in section 511(b)(2) which is subject to the tax imposed on its unrelated business taxable income by section 511(b)(1) shall make a return on Form 990-T for each taxable year if the trust has gross income, included in computing unrelated business taxable income for such taxable year, of $1,000 or more. The filing of a return of unrelated business income does not relieve the fiduciary of such trust from the duty of filing other required returns.
(6) Charitable remainder trusts. Every fiduciary for a charitable remainder annuity trust (as defined in § 1.664-2) or a charitable remainder unitrust (as defined in § 1.664-3) shall make a return on Form 1041-B for each taxable year of the trust even though it is nonexempt because it has unrelated business taxable income. The return on Form 1041-B shall be made in accordance with the instructions for the form and shall be filed with the designated Internal Revenue office on or before the 15th day of the fourth month following the close of the taxable year of the trust. A copy of the instrument governing the trust, accompanied by a written declaration of the fiduciary under the penalties of perjury that it is a true and complete copy, shall be attached to the return for the first taxable year of the trust.
(7) Certain trusts described in section 4947(a)(1). For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1980, in the case of a trust described in section 4947(a)(1) which has no taxable income for a taxable year, the filing requirements of section 6012 and this section shall be satisfied by the filing, pursuant to § 53.6011-1 of this chapter (Foundation Excise Tax Regulations) and § 1.6033-2(a), by the fiduciary of such trust of -
(i) Form 990-PF if such trust is treated as a private foundation, or
(ii) Form 990 if such trust is not treated as a private foundation.
(8) Estate and trusts liable for qualified tax. In the case of an estate or trust which is liable for one or more qualified State individual income taxes, as defined in section 6362, for a taxable year, see paragraph (b) of § 301.6361-1 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration) for rules relating to returns required to be made.
(9) A trust any portion of which is treated as owned by the grantor or another person pursuant to sections 671 through 678. In the case of a trust any portion of which is treated as owned by the grantor or another person under the provisions of subpart E (section 671 and following) part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code see § 1.671-4.
(10) Hospital organizations organized as trusts with noncompliant hospital facilities. Every fiduciary for a hospital organization (as defined in § 1.501(r)-1(b)(18)) organized as a trust described in section 511(b)(2) that is subject to the tax imposed by § 1.501(r)-2(d) shall make a return on Form 990-T. The filing of a return to pay the tax described in § 1.501(r)-2(d) does not relieve the organization of the duty of filing other required returns.
(b) For other persons -
(1) Decedents. The executor or administrator of the estate of a decedent, or other person charged with the property of a decedent, shall make the return of income required in respect of such decedent. For the decedent's taxable year which ends with the date of his death, the return shall cover the period during which he was alive. For the filing of returns of income for citizens and alien residents of the United States, and alien residents of Puerto Rico, see paragraph (a) of § 1.6012-1. For the filing of a joint return after death of spouse, see paragraph (d) of § 1.6013-1.
(2) Nonresident alien individuals -
(i) In general. A resident or domestic fiduciary or other person charged with the care of the person or property of a nonresident alien individual shall make a return for that individual and pay the tax unless:
(c) The nonresident alien individual has appointed a person in the United States to act as his agent for the purpose of making a return of income and, if such fiduciary is required to file a Form 1041 for an estate or trust of which such alien individual is a beneficiary, such fiduciary attaches a copy of the agency appointment to his return on Form 1041.
(ii) Income to be returned. A return of income shall be required under this subparagraph only if the nonresident alien individual is otherwise required to make a return in accordance with paragraph (b) of § 1.6012-1. The provisions of that paragraph shall apply in determining the form of return to be used and the income to be returned.
(iii) Disallowance of deductions and credits. For provisions disallowing deductions and credits when a return of income has not been filed by or on behalf of a nonresident alien individual, see section 874 and the regulations thereunder.
(iv) Alien resident of Puerto Rico. This subparagraph shall not apply to the return of a nonresident alien individual who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable year. See § 1.876-1.
(3) Persons under a disability. A fiduciary acting as the guardian of a minor, or as the guardian or committee of an insane person, must make the return of income required in respect of such person unless, in the case of a minor, the minor himself makes the return or causes it to be made.
(4) Corporations. A receiver, trustee in dissolution, trustee in bankruptcy, or assignee, who, by order of a court of competent jurisdiction, by operation of law or otherwise, has possession of or holds title to all or substantially all the property or business of a corporation, shall make the return of income for such corporation in the same manner and form as corporations are required to make such returns. Such return shall be filed whether or not the receiver, trustee, or assignee is operating the property or business of the corporation. A receiver in charge of only a small part of the property of a corporation, such as a receiver in mortgage foreclosure proceedings involving merely a small portion of its property, need not make the return of income. See also § 1.6041-1, relating to returns regarding information at source; §§ 1.6042-1 to 1.6042-3, inclusive, relating to returns regarding payments of dividends; §§ 1.6044-1 to 1.6044-4, inclusive, relating to returns regarding payments of patronage dividends; and §§ 1.6049-1 and 1.6049-2, relating to returns regarding certain payments of interest.
(5) Individuals in receivership. A receiver who stands in the place of an individual must make the return of income required in respect of such individual. A receiver of only part of the property of an individual need not file a return, and the individual must make his own return.
(c) Joint fiduciaries. In the case of joint fiduciaries, a return is required to be made by only one of such fiduciaries. A return made by one of joint fiduciaries shall contain a statement that the fiduciary has sufficient knowledge of the affairs of the person for whom the return is made to enable him to make the return, and that the return is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, true and correct.
(d) Other provisions. For the definition of the term “fiduciary”, see section 7701(a)(6) and the regulations thereunder. For information returns required to be made by fiduciaries under section 6041, see § 1.6041-1. As to further duties and liabilities of fiduciaries, see section 6903 and § 301.6903-1 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).